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ft  8.1 






being  a  revised  and  enlarged  edition  of 
Bulletin  No.  7, 




ALPH^US  ft.  PACKARD,  M.  D.,  Ph.  D. 



GOVERNMENT   printing   office, 




Joint  resolution  authorizing  the  printing  of  two  thousand 
copies  of  the  fifth  report  of  the  united  states  entomo- 
LOGICAL Commission. 

The  following  resolution,  originating  in  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives, was  concurred  in  by  the  Senate,  July  6,  1882  : 

Resolved  by  the  Rouse  of  Representatives  (the  Senate  concurring),  That  there  be 
printed,  for  the  use  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  with  necessary  illustrations, 
2,000  copies  of  the  fifth  report  of  the  United  States  Entomological  Commission,  being 
a  special  report  on  the  insects  affecting  forest  trees. — (-See  Congressional  Record, 
July  7,  1882.) 



Letter  of  Submittal .~ vn 

Preface 1 

Introduction  5 

Literature  of  forest  entomology,  5 — Insects  in  general,  6 — The  beetles  and 
borers,  7— Moths  and  butterflies,  7 — Gall-flies,  10 — Saw-flies,  12 — Plant- 
lice,  13— Bark-lice,  14— Dipterous  or  two-winged  gall-flies,  14 — Insec- 
tivorous or  parasitic  insects,  14 — Artificial  breeding  of  parasitic  and 
predaceous  insects,  16 — Coleopterous  enemies  of  borers,  18 — Influence 
of  temperature  on  insect  life,  19 — Generations  or  broods,  19 — Hiberna- 
tion stage,  23 — Diseases  of  trees  produced  by  the  attacks  of  insects,  24 — 
The  appearance  of  unusual  new  growths,  24 — The  origin  of  repaired 
parts  from  representative  indefinite  growths  is  very  general,  25— Pre- 
vention and  remedies  against  forest  insects,  27 — Borers  in  shade  and 
ornamental  trees,  27 — Prevention  and  remedies  against  timber-beetles 
and  bark-borers,  28 — Insecticides  and  means  of  applying  them  to  shade 
and  forest  trees,  31 — Paris  green  and  London  purple,  31— Insecticides 
which  act  by  contact,  34— Wood  ashes  and  lime,  34 — Coal  ashes  and 
coal  dust,  35 — Pyrethrum,  hellebore,  sulphur,  35— Alkaline  washes, 
potash  lye  and  soda  lye,  35 — Alkaline  washes,  soaps,  35 — Petroleum  pro- 
ducts, kerosene,  naphtha,  36 — Kerosene  emulsions,  36 — Resin  washes, 
37 — Fumigants,  gases,  37 — Hydrocyanic  acid  gas,  38— Insecticide  ap- 
paratus, 38— Devices  for  applying  powders,  powder  blowers,  38— The 
Woodason  bellows,  39 — The  Leggett  Brothers  orchard  gun,  39— De- 
vices for  applying  liquids,  39— The  pump,  39 — Hose  and  bamboo  ex- 
tension rod,  42— Nozzles ;  the  Riley  or  Cyclone  nozzle,  44 — The  Nixon 
or  Climax  nozzle,  46. 

Chapter  I. 

Imect8  injurious  to  the  oak 48 

Affecting  the  roots,  49 — Affecting  the  trunk,  53 — Affecting  the  limbs  and 
twigs,  83— Feeding  on  the  buds,  116— Injuring  the  leaves,  117 — Injuring 
the  seeds  (acorns),  215 — Insects  either  habitually  or  occasionally  oc- 
curring on  the  oak,  217. 

Chapter  II. 
Instcts  injurious  to  the  elm 224 

Affecting  the  trunk,  224 — Affecting  the  leaves,  230 — Insects  occasionally 
preying  upon  the  elm,  282.  - 

Chapter  III. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  hickory 285 

Injuring  the  trunk  and  branches,  285— Affecting  the  bark,  298 — Affecting 
the  leaves,  299— Affecting  the  fruit,  326  —Other  species  occurring  on  the 
hickory,  328. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  black  walnut 329 

Affecting  the  trunk,  329— Othet  species  occurring  on  the  black  walnut,  336. 




Insects  injurious  to  tht  butternut 337 

Affecting  the  trunk  and  limbs,  337 — Affecting  the  leaves,  336 — Other  species 
living  on  tin*  butternut,  :i42. 

fflfeefj  injur  ion*  to  the  chtttnut 343 

Affecting  the  trunk  and  limbs,  343 — Affecting  the  leaves,  344 — Affecting  the 
fruit,  350 — Other  species  preying  on  the  chestnut,  353. 

Chapter  IV. 

Instils  injurious  to  tht  lo<u*t  tree 355 

Affecting  the  trunk,  355— Affecting  the  leaves,  361 — Other  insects  feeding 
on  the  locust,  372. 

Chatter  V. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  different  species  of  maple  . 374 

Affecting  the  trunk,  374 — Boring  in  the  twigs,  391 — Affecting  the  leaf-buds, 
39*2— Affecting  the  leaves,  39*2 — Other  insects  occurring  on  the  maple, 

Chapter  VI. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  cottonicood 426 

Affecting  the  roots,  426— Affecting  the  trunk  and  branches,  426 — Affecting 
the  leaves,  428. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  poplar  435 

Affecting  the  trunk,  435 — Affecting  the  leaves,  445 — Other  insects  feeding 
on  the  poplar,  472. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  bass-wood  or  linden  tree 474 

Affecting  the  trunk,  474— Affecting  the  leaves,  475— Other  insects  living  on 
the  linden,  480. 

Chapter  VII. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  birch 483 

Injuring  the  trunk,  483— Affecting  the  leaves,  486 — Other  species  occurring 
on  the  birch,  514. 

Chapter  VIII. 
Insects  injurious  to  the  beech 515 

Affecting  the  trunk,  515 — Affecting  the  leaves,  515 — Other  insects  occurring 
on  the  beech,  519. 

Chapter  IX. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  wild  cherry,  wild  plum,  the  thorn,  crab-apple  and  mountain  ash.      521 

Insects  affecting  the  wild  cherry :  Affecting  the  trunk,  521 — Affecting  the 
leaves,  522— Other  insects,  529. 

Insects  affecting  the  wild  plum :  Feeding  on  the  leaves,  530 — Feeding  on  the 
fruit,  530— Other  insects,  531. 

Insects  affecting  the  service-berry  or  June  berry,  531. 

Insects  affecting  the  wild  thorn  :  Affecting  the  leaves,  532— Other  insects, 

Insects  injurious  to  the  crab-apple  :  Affecting  the  leaves,  537. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  mountain  ash:  Affecting  the  leaves,  537 — Other  in- 
sects, 539. 

Chapter  X. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  ash 540 

Affecting  the  trunk  and  branches,  540— Affecting  the  leaves,  544— Other  in- 
sects occurring  on  the  ash,  555. 


Chapter  XI. 


Insects  injurious  to  the  willow 557 

Affecting  the  trunk,  557— Injuring  the  leaves,  559— Other  insects  occurring 
on  the  willow,  59(5. 

Chapter  XII. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  hackberry 601 

Injuring  the  leaves,  602 — Boring  in  the  trunk,  610 — Cecidoinyidous  hack- 
berry  galls,  612 — Hackberry  Psyllidae,  614. 

Chapter  XIII. 

Insects  preying  upon  the  alder 623 

Boring  in  the  trunk,  623 — Injuring  the  leaves,  625 — Other  insects  o£  the 

alder,  636. 
Insects  injurious  to  the  hazel:  Feeding  on  the  leaves,  637 — Affecting  the 
nuts,  641 — Other  insects,  641. 

Chapter  XIV. 
Insects  injurious  to  the  sycamore,  etc 643 

Boring  in  the  trunk,  643— Eating  the  leaves,  644 — Other  insects  also  occur- 
ring on  the  sycamore,  646. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  hop-hornbeain,  or  iron-wood,  647. 

Insects  infesting  the  water- beech,  hornbeam,  650. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  sassafras,  650. 

Insects  injuring  the  honey-locust :  Affecting  the  leaves,  652 — Other  insects 
of  the  honey-locust,  653. 

Insects  injuring  the  horse  chestnut,  or  buckeye :  Boring  in  the  terminal 
twigs,  654 — Affecting  the  leaves,  656. 

Insects  of  the  sweet-gum;  657. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  sour-gum  tree,  657. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  prickly  ash :  Affecting  the  trunk  and  limbs,  659 — 
Eating  the  leaves,  661. 

Insects  of  the  tulip  tree,  663. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  sumach,  664. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  poison  ivy,  665. 

Insects  affecting  the  catalpa :  Affecting  the  leaves,  666 — Affecting  the  pods, 

Insects  injurious  to  the  witch  hazel,  668. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  magnolia,  669. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  papaw,  669. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  tree  of  heaven,  669. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  box  elder,  669. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  mesquite,  670. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  persimmon,  671. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  California  bay  or  laurel,  671. 

Insects  affecting  the  China  tree,  671. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  dogwood,  672 

Insects  injurious  to  the  box,  672. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  black  alder,  673. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  Kentucky  coffee  tree,  673. 

Chapter  XV. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  pine 674- 

Affecting  the  roots,  675— Affecting  the  trunk,  676— Affecting  the  twigs,  735— 
Affecting  the  leaves,  756 — Other  insects  occurring  on  the  pine,  609. 


Chapter  XVI. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  spruce 811 

Affecting  the  trunk  and  branches,  Hll — Affecting  the  leaves,  830 — Affecting 
the  cones,  3.">4 — Other  insects  of  the  spruce,  856 — Insects  injurious  to  the 
Rocky  Mountaiu  spruce  and  Douglass  spruce.  857. 

Chapter  XVII. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  fir  tree 861 

Affecting  the  trunk,  361 — Affecting  the  leaves,  862— Other  insects  of  the 
fir,  869. 

Chapter  XVIII. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  hemlock  and  larch -71 

Injuring  the  trunk,  871 — Affecting  the  leaves,  873. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  larch  or  tamarack  :  Affecting  the  leaves,  879— Other 
insects,  903. 

Chapter  XIX. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  juniper 904 

Affecting  the  trunk.  904— Affecting  the  leaves,  907. 
Insects  injurious  to  the  common  juniper,  910. 

Chapter  XX. 

Insects  injurious  to  the  cedar  and  cypress 917 

Insects  injurious  to  the  cedar,  917. 
Insects  injurious  to  the  cypress,  921. 
Insects  injurious  to  the  Sequoia  gigantea,9£l. 

Explanations  to  plates 923 

Indices  of  insects,  plants,  and  authors  quoted 929,947,953 


Department  of  Agriculture, 
Division  of  Entomology, 
.  Washington,  D.  (7.,  December  26, 1887. 

Sir  :  In  accordance  with  the  act  of  Congress  approved  March  3, 
1881,  which  provided  that  the  reports  of  the  United  States  Entomolog- 
ical Commission  be  made  to  the  Commissioner  of  Agriculture,  I  have 
the  honor  to  submit  for  publication  this  the  fifth  and  final  report  of 
said  Commission.  This  report  is  on  the  insects  affecting  forest  trees, 
by  Dr.  A.  S.  Packard,  and  has  been  in  part  written  and  completed 
since  the  termination  of  the  work  of  the  Commission,  and  while  he  has 
been  connected  with  the  Division  as  a  special  agent. 

C.  V.  Riley, 

Chief  U.  8.  &  C. 
Hon.  Norman  J.  Colman, 

Commissioner  of  Agriculture. 




C.  V.  RILEY,   Chief. 

A.  S.  PACKARD,  Secretary. 

CYRUS  THOMAS,  Disbursing  Agent. 




The  following  report  is  an  enlarged  and  revised  edition  of  Bulletin  7 
of  the  U.  S.  Entomological  Commission  on  insects  injurious  to  forest 
and  shade  trees,  which  was  published  in  1881. 

The  design  of  this  report  is  to  give  to  the  public,  especially  those 
persons  interested  in  forestry  and  the  planting  and  cultivation  of  shade 
trees,  a  brief  summary  of  wbat  is  up  to  this  time  known  of  the  habits 
and  appearance  of  such  insects  as  are  injurious  to  the  more  useful  kinds 
of  trees.  It  is  hoped  that  such  a  compendium  will  be  found  useful,  and 
lead  the  reader  not  ouly  to  refer  to  the  works  of  Harris,  Fitch,  Walsh, 
Riley,  Le  Conte,  Horn,  LeBaron,  Saunders,  Lintner,  Forbes,  and  others 
of  our  entomologists  who  have  contributed  to  this  neglected  branch, 
but  induce  him  to  make  careful  observations  on  the  habits  of  destruc- 
tive forest  insects  and  to  carry  on  experiments  as  to  the  best  remedies 
against  their  insidious  attacks.  The  writer  has  added  notes  of  obser- 
vations made  during  the  past  twenty-five  years  in  the  forests  of  Maine, 
New  Hampshire,  New  York,  and  the  woods  of  Massachusetts,  as  well 
as  in  Colorado,  Utah,  Montana,  Florida,  and  on  the  Pacific  coast;  also 
a  number  of  original  engravings.  The  aim  has  been  both  to  present 
original  matter  and  to  bring  together  from  numerous  entomological 
works,  reports,  and  journals  all  that  is  of  most  importance  to  the  prac- 
tical man.  It  is  hoped  that  the  work  in  its  present  form  may  serve  as 
a  convenient  synopsis,  a  starting-point  for  future  more  detailed  work, 
as  well  as  a  handy  book  of  reference  for  the  use  of  future  observers, 
and  that  it  will  call  the  attention  of  the  public  to  a  neglected  subject, 
stimulating  entomologists,  practical  foresters,  and  gardeners  to  do  what 
they  can  to  add  to  our  knowledge  of  this  department  of  applied  or 
economic  entomology. 

A  volume  could  be  written  on  the  insects  living  on  any  single  kind 
of  tree,  and  hereafter  it  may  be  expected  that  the  insect  population  of 
'the  oak,  elm,  poplar,  pine,  and  other  trees  will  be  treated  of  mono- 
graphically.  Certainly  there  could  be  no  more  interesting  and  profit- 
able work  for  the  young  entomologist. 

5  ENT 1  1 


The  preservation  of  our  forests  and  of  old  and  valued  shade  trees  in 
our  cities  and  towns  is  a  subject  of  pressing  importance,  and  it  is  to  be 
hoped  that  the  Government  will  foster  private  work  and  research  in  this 
direction.  Next  to  the  wanton  destruction  of  forests  by  unthinking 
settlers  and  shiftless  land  owners,  as  well  as  by  tires  caused  by  the  sparks 
of  locomotives,  the  attacks  of  injurious  insects  are  most  widespread  and 
tar  reaching.  Our  forest  and  shade  trees  are  yearly  growing  more 
valuable  and  indispensable,  and  at  the  same  time  the  ravages  of  in- 
sects are  becoming  more  widespread  and  noticeable.  The  diffusion  of 
a  moderate  amount  of  information  upon  the  subject  at  the  present  time 
will  attract  the  notice  ot  the  public  and  lead  owners  of  land  to  pay  a 
little  attention  to  the  subject  and  do  something  towards  checking  the 
ravages  of  noxious  insects. 

In  France  and  Germany  private  persons,  entomologists  such  as  Per- 
ris  in  France,  and  especially  Katzeburg  in  Germany,  have  published 
beautifully  illustrated  general  works  of  very  great  interest  and  value 
upon  forest  inserts,  and  their  books  have  done  immense  service  in  those 
countries,  where  an  enlightened  government  and  an  intelligent  people 
have  felt  the  importance  of  building  up  schools  cf  forestry  and  of 
making  laws  compelling  due  efforts  towards  repressing  the  more  injuri- 
ous forest  insects. 

Kalteubach,  in  his  work  entitled  "  Die  Pflanzenfeinde  aus  der  Klasse 
der  Iusekten,"  or  the  Insect-enemies  of  Plants,  has  enumerated,  in  a 
closely-printed  volume  of  848  pages,  the  species  of  insects  preying  upon 
the  different  trees  and  plants,  of  all  sorts,  of  central  Europe.  The  num- 
ber of  insects  found  upon  some  kinds  of  forest  trees  is  astonishing, 
though  it  is  to  be  remembered  that  all  kinds  are  not  equally  destructive, 
the  most  injurious  and  deadly  forms  being  comparatively  few. 

Kalteubach  enumerates  537  species  of  insects  iujurious  to  the  oak, 
and  107  obnoxious  to  the  elm.  The  poplars  afford  a  livelihood  to  264 
kinds  of  insects;  the  willows  yield  food  to  396  species;  the  birches  har- 
bor 270  species;  the  alder,  119;  the  beech,  154;  the  hazelnut,  97,  and 
the  hornbeam,  88.  Coming  to  the  coniferous  trees,  as  the  pine,  spruce, 
larch,  firs,  etc.,  the  junipers  supply  33  species,  while  upon  the  pines, 
larch,  spruce,  and  firs,  collectively,  prey  299  species  of  insects.  In 
France  Perris  has  observed  over  one  hundred  species  either  injurious 
to,  or  living  upon  without  being  especially  injurious  to,  the  maritime 
pine.  These  are  described  in  an  octavo  volume  of  532  pages,  with 
numerous  plates. 

The  number  as  yet  known  to  attack  the  different  kinds  of  trees  in  the 
United  States  may  be  seen  by  reference  to  the  following  pages.  It  is 
sufficiently  large  to  excite  great  fears  for  the  future  prosperity  of  our 
diminished  forests,  uuless  the  Government  interposes, and  through  the 
proper  channels  fosters  entomological  research  in  this  direction.  Our 
forests,  moreover,  are  much  richer  in  species  of  trees  than  those  of  Eu- 
rope.   We  have,  without  doubt,  ou  the  trees  corresponding  to  those  of 


Europe  as  many  destructive  species  as  in  Europe.  But  we  have  many 
more  shade  and  forest  trees  of  importance  in  the  eastern  United  States 
alone,  and  when  we  add  to  these  the  forest  trees  of  the  western  Rocky 
Mountain  plateau  and  of  the  Pacific  coast,  and  when  we  look  forward 
to  the  attention  which  must  be  given  in  the  immediate  future  to  the 
planting  of  shade  and  forest  trees  on  the  great  plains  and  in  California, 
the  subject  of  forest  entomology  assumes  still  more  importance. 

The  author  has  here  arranged  the  forest  trees  in  the  order  of  their 
importance,  beginning  with  the  hard-wood  or  deciduous  trees,  the  oak 
heading  the  list,  and  ending  with  the  coniferous  trees  ;  and  under  each 
tree  he  has  first  described  the  habits  of  the  insect  on  the  whole  most 
injurious,  sometimes  merely  giving  a  list  of  those  insects  found  to  be 
regular  parasites  of  the  tree  but  not  specially  injurious,  though  it 
should  be  borne  in  mind  that  any  species  of  insect  may  at  certain  sea- 
sons so  abound  as  to  prove  destructive. 

In  preparing  the  original  bulletin,  the  author  was,  for  valuable  infor- 
mation regarding  the  food-trees  of  a  number  of  beetles  hitherto  unpub- 
lished, indebted  to  Mr.  George  Hunt,  of  Providence,  R.  I.,  and  for  aid 
in  collecting  specimens  he  acknowledged  the  assistance  received  from 
Mr.  Edwin  C.  Calder,  formerly  assistant  instructor  in  chemistry,  Brown 
University,  and  from  Prof.  H.  C.  Bumpus,  then  a  member  of  the  sopho- 
more class  of  Brown  University. 

While  preparing  the  work  in  its  present  form  the  author  has  been  for 
the  last  four  years  connected  with  the  Division  of  Entomology  as  a 
special  agent,  and  matter  contained  in  his  reports  have  been  incorpo- 
rated in  this  general  work.  And  he  takes  pleasure  in  acknowledging 
the  constant  aid  and  sympathy  in  the  work  shown  by  Professor  Riley  r 
the  United  States  Entomologist,  not  only  in  allowing  free  and  unre- 
stricted use  of  specimens,  both  in  his  private  collection  and  that  which 
he  has  generously  presented  to  the  Agricultural  Department  at  Wash- 
ington and  to  the  National  Museum,  but  for  the  privilege  of  describing 
the  transformations  of  a  number  of  species,  represented  by  blown  or, 
alcoholic  larvae.  Professor  Riley  has  also  freely  made  over  to  the  author 
many  hitherto  unpublished  notes  of  habits  and  transformations,  which 
have  been  accumulating  for  the  past  twenty  years — notes  and  observa- 
tions which  most  persons  would  naturally  prefer  to  keep  or  publish  in- 
dependently under  their  own  names.  These  especially  relate  to  oak  and 
elm  insects,  besides  others,  and  are  acknowledged  in  the  places  where 
they  appear.     Be  also  contributes  an  account  of  the  insects  of  the  Celtis. 

Professor  Riley  has  also  allowed  the  use  of  some  uupublished  draw- 
ings and  a  few  cuts  prepared  as  Entomologist  of  the  Department  of 
Agriculture  for  future  use. 

Thanks  are  also  due  to  the  late  S.  Lowell  Elliott,  esq.,  of  Brooklyn, 

,  Henry  Edwards,  esq.,  of  New.  York,  and  Professor  Riley,  as  well  as  to 

Dr.  G.  H.  Born,  of  Philadelphia;  Dr.  P.  R.  Uhler,  of  Baltimore;  *Dr. 

J.  A.  Lintner,  State  entomologist  of  New  York,  Mr.  L.  O.  Howard  and 


Mr.  E.  A.  Schwaiz,  assistant  entomologists  in  the  National  Department 
of  Agriculture,  and  Mr.  1>.  W,  CoquUlett,  of  California,  one  of  Professor 
Riley's  field  agents,  for  numerous  favors  in  identifying  insects,  and  other 
aid,  and  information. 

For  some  of  the  colored  drawings  the  author  is  indebted  to  Mr.  Joseph 
Bridgham,  Mr.  II.  H.  Wilder,  Prof.  II.  C.  Bumpus,  Miss  Julia  E.  Sand- 
ers, Miss  Emily  A.  Morton,  and  to  the  late  Dr.  J.  L.  Le  Coute  for  a 
few  colored  drawings  bequeathed  by  his  father.  These  are  specifically 
acknowledged  in  the  explanations  of  the  plates.  Professor  Riley  has 
also  had  a  number  of  original  drawings  made  by  Dr.  George  Marx,  Mr. 
J.  B.  Smith,  Miss  Lillie  Sullivan,  all  of  AYashingtou,  and  others  have 
been  made  by  Mr.  Joseph  Bridgham,  of  Providence,  R.  1.  The  artists1 
names  are  mentioned  under  the  cuts  in  the  text. 

For  aid  in  collecting  specimens  in  Maine  he  is  indebted  to  Mr.  H.  H. 
Wilder  and  Master  Allen  Howe,  of  Lcwistou. 

The  author  is  well  aware  of  the  short-comings  and  imperfections  in 
this  report.  A  good  deal  of  time  has  been  expended  in  unsuccessful  at- 
tempts at  raising  insects,  which  has  not  produced  visible  results.  Up- 
wards of  two  hundred  descriptions  of  unidentified  larvae  have  been 
made;  those  of  the  oak  appear  in  the  appendix,  and  others  are  scat- 
tered through  the  report.  It  is  hoped  that  future  observations  will  en- 
able us  to  complete  these  life-histories.  It  would  have  been  desirable 
to  have  had  more  and,  in  some  cases,  better  illustrations. 

This  report  will  be  sent  to  all  known  to  be  specially  interested  in  en- 
tomology, and  they  are  respectfully  asked  to  send  the  author  corrections 
and  additions,  as  undoubtedly  a  number  of  species  have  been  omitted 
from  the  list  of  those  peculiar  to  different  trees.  Such  changes  could 
be  made  in  a  second,  revised  edition,  should  it  be  called  for  by  the 

Brown  University, 

Providence,  R.  J.,  January  2,  1888. 


The  subject  of  Forest  Insects  is  almost  a  distinct  branch  of  economic 
entomology,  and  little  special  attention  has  been  given  to  it  as  yet  in 
this  country,  owing  to  the  fact  that  our  entomological  students  have 
been  obliged  to  concentrate  their  efforts  upon  the  more  destructive 
garden  and  field  insects. 

The  special  works  on  this  topic  are,  though  few,  notable  for  the 
extensive  research  and  care  with  which  they  have  been  prepared;  hence 
their  permanent  value.  By  far  the  most  important  are  the  voluminous 
works  of  Dr.  J.  T.  C.  Eatzeburg  and  those  of  Perris,  Eichhoff,  and 
Kaltenbach,  while  an  excellent  general  work  on  forest  insects  is  that 
of  Judeich  and  Nitsche.  The  following  list  of  works  bearing  directly 
on  this  topic,  and  indispensable,  should  be  supplemented  by  the  reports 
and  articles  of  0.  V.  Kiley,  J.  A.  Lintner,  J.  H.  Comstock,  S.  A.  Forbes, 
and  others : 

T.  W.  Harris      Treatise  on  some  of  the  Insects  injurious  to  Vegetation.     Third  edition; 
illustrated.     Boston,  1862. 

Asa  Fitch.     Reports  (1  to  14)  on  the  noxious,  beneficial,  and  other  Insects  of  the  State  of 
Keiv  York.     Albany,  1856-'70. 

V.  Kollar.    A  Treatise  on  Insects  injurious  to  Gardeners,  Foresters,  and  Farmers.  Trans- 
lated from  the  German  by  J.  and  M.  Loudon.     London,  1840. 

J.  T.  C.  Ratzeburg.     Die  Forstinsekten,  etc.  (Forest  Insects).     Berlin,  1839,  1840,  and 
1844.     4  vols.  4to,  with  many  plates. 

Die  Ichneumonen  der  Forstinsekten,  etc.  (Ichneumons  of  Forest  Insects).    3  parts. 

Berlin,  1844,  1848,  and  1852.     4to.     Plates. 

Die  Waldverderber  undihre  Feinde (Forest  Destroyers  and  their  Enemies).     Ber- 
lin, 1841.     8vo.     Sixth  edition ;  1869. 

Die  Waldverderbniss  oder  dauernder  Schade,  welcher  durch  Insektenfrass,  Schalen, 

Schlagen,  und  Verheissen  an  lebenden  Waldbaumen  entsteht  (Forest  injury  or 
losses  inflicted  by  insect  attacks,  etc.).  4to.  2  parts.  Berlin,  1866-'68, 
with  many  colored  plates.     (A  magnificent  and  most  useful  work.) 

A.S.Packard.     Guide  to  the  Study  of  Insects.,  Ninth  edition  ;  1888.    8vo.    New  York, 
H.  Holt  &  Co. 

Judeich  und  Nitsche.     Lehrbuch  der  Mittel-Europaischen  Forstinsektenkunde.     Wien, 
Part  I,  1885.     Part  II,  1889.     8vo. 
(Compare  also  the  works  of  Perris,  Taschenberg,  Eichhoff,  Kaltenbach,  Altum, 

Nordlinger,  Henschel,  and  others.) 

While  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  ordinary  text  books  for  the  ele- 
ments of  entomology,  the  following  facts  may  prove  serviceable  in 
connection  with  the  subject  of  forest  entomology : 



Insects  in  general. — The  term  insect  is  applied  to  that  class  of  jointed 
animals  (Arthropoda)  whose  bodies  are  divided  into  three  regions  or 
sections,  called  the  head,  thorax,  and  hind-body  or  abdomen.  They 
usually  have  three  pairs  of  legs  attached  to  the  mid-body  or  thorax, 
and  two  pairs  of  wings.  Most  insects  pass  through  a  series  of  changes. 
In  the  butterfly,  for  example,  after  hatching  from  the  egg  as  a  cater- 
pillar (larva),  it  transforms  to  a  chrysalis  (pupa),'fLnMy  changing  to  the 
imago  or  winged  insect.  The  insects  form  a  class  comprising  about 
200,000  known  species. 

They  are  divided  into  sixteen  orders  (not  including  those  which  are. 
extinct),  as  may  be  seen  by  the  following  tabular  view  copied  from  the 
author's  u  Zoology,"  which  briefly  represents  the  more  apparent,  super- 
ficial differences  between  the  groups.  The  list  begins  with  the  lowest, 
ending  with  the  highest. 

Orders  of  insects  now  living. 

1.  Wingless,  often  with  a  spring. Thysanura :  Spring-tails,  eto. 

2.  Fore  wings  minute,  elytra-like Dermaptera:  Earwig. 

3.  Wings  net-veined;  fore  wings  narrow;  hind 

wings  folded Orthoptera :  Locusts,  Grassnoppers. 

4.  Four  net-veined  wings;  mouth -parts  adapted 

for  biting Platyptera  :  White  Ants,  Bird-lice. 

5.  Wings  net-veined,  equal Odonata:  Dragon-flies. 

6.  Wings  net- veined,  unequal Plectoptera  :  May  flies. 

7.  Mouth-parts  beak-like,  but  with  palpi Thysanoptera :  Thrips. 

8.  Mouth-parts  forming  a  beak  for  sucking;  no 

palpi Hemiptera :  Bugs. 

9.  Wings  net-veined;  metamorphosis  complete.  Neuroptera :  Lace-winged  Fly,  eto. 

10.  Wings  long  and  narrow  ;  body  with  a  forceps. Mecaptera :  Panorpa. 

11.  Wings  not  net-veined Trichoptera  :  Caddis-fly. 

12.  Fore  wings  sheathing  the  hinder  ones Co  hoptera  :  Beetles. 

13.  Wingless,  parasitic Siphonaptera  :  Fleas. 

14.  One  pair  of  wings Diptera :  Flies. 

15.  Four  wings  and  body  scaled Lepidoptera:  Butterflies. 

10.  Four  clear  wings;  hinder  pair  small;  a  tongue.  Hymenoptera  :  Bees,  Wasps,  eto. 

Allied  to  the  insects  are  the  myriopods,  or  centipedes  and  galley- 
worms,  none  of  which  are  injurious  to  forest  or  shade-trees,  although 
the  smaller  kinds  of  centipedes  (Lithobius,  etc.),  occur  under  the  bark  of 
decayed  trees.  No  spiders  or  allied  forms,  comprising  the  class  Arach- 
nida,  are  injurious  to  vegetation,  except  certain  mites  (Acarina)  whose 
forms  and  gall  making  habits  are  peculiar.  Many  spiders  take  up 
their  abode  in  the  leaves  of  shade  and  forest  trees,  but  none  are  known 
to  be  injurious.  The  false-scorpions  (Chelifer,  etc.)  often  occur  under 
the  bark  of  decayed  trees,  but  they  are  more  useful  than  otherwise,  as 
they  probably  devour  the  smaller  wood-boring  larvae. 

The  bulk  of  our  destructive  forest  insects  belong  to  the  orders  com- 
prising the  beetles,  the  caterpillars,  gall-flies,  saw-fly  larvae,  and  the 
bugs.  We  will  mention  them  in  the  order  of  their  importance  as 
destructive  to  shade  and  forest  trees. 


The  beetles  and  borers. — The  order  Coleoptera  comprises  about  100,000 
species  of  beetles,  divided  into  a  large  number  of  families.  The  beetles 
are  easily  recognized  by  the  hard,  sheath-like  fore  wings  which  pro- 
tect the  hind  wings ;  their  jaws  are  stout  and  thick,  more  or  less 
toothed,  and  adapted  for  biting. 

The  larvae  of  beetles  are  called  "  grubs."  They  have  been  thus 
characterized  in  the  author's  "  Guide  to  the  Study  of  Insects :  " 

The  larvae,  when  active  and  not  permanently  inclosed  (like  the  Cnrculio)  in  the 
substances  which  form  their  food,  are  elongated,  flattened,  worm-like,  with  a  large 
head,  well  developed  mouth  parts,  and  with  three  pairs  of  thoracic  feet,  either 
horny  or  fleshy  and  retractile,  while  there  is  often  a  single  terminal  prop-leg  on  the 
terminal  segment  and  a  lateral  horny  spine.  The  larvae  of  the  Cerambycidce  are 
white,  soft,  and  more  or  less  cylindrical,  while  those  of  the  Curculionidce  are  footless, 
or  nearly  so,  and  resemble  those  of  the  gall-flies,  both  hymenopterous  and  dipterous. 

The  pupae  have  free  limbs,  and  are  either  inclosed  in  cocoons  of  earth  or,  if 
wood-borers,  in  rude  cocoons  of  fine  chips  and  dust,  united  by  threads  or  a  viscid 
matter  supplied  by  the  insect.  *  *  *  Generally,  however,  the  antennae  are  folded 
on  each  side  of  the  clypeus,  aud  the  mandibles,  maxillae,  and  labial  palpi  appear  as 
elongated  papillae.  The  wing-pads  being  small,  are  shaped  like  those  of  the  adult 
Meloe.  and  are  laid  upon  the  posterior  femora,  thus  exposing  the  meso-  and  meta- 
thorax  to  view.  The  tarsal  joints  lie  parallel  on  each  side  of  the  middle  line  of  the 
body,  the  hinder  pair  not  reaching  to  the  tips  of  the  abdomen,  which  ends  in  a  pair 
of  acute,  prolonged,  forked,  incurved,  horny  hooks,  which  must  aid  the  pupa  in 
working  its  way  to  the  surface  when  about  to  transform  into  the  beetle. 

Most  of  the  destructive  kinds  belong  to  the  following  families  : 

Body  of  beetle,  broad,  flat,  hard ;  antennae  short,  serrated.     Larva  with  head  and 

first  succeeding  segment  very  broad  aud  flat Buprestidce. 

Body  of  beetle  more  or  less  cylindrical,  with  very  long,  slender  antennae  ;   larva? 

called  "borers,"  their  bodies  cylindrical,  usually  footless Cerambycidce. 

Small  cylindrical  beetles,  with  no  snout,  called  bark-borers ;  larvae  footless,  thick, 

cylindrical,  pointed  at  each  end Scolytidce. 

Hard-bodied  beetles,  called  "weevils,"  with  a  long  beak  or  snout,  with  jaws  at  tne 

end ;  larvae  grub  like,  footless,  thick  and  fleshy Curculiotiidce. 

Moths  and  butterflies. — While  a  few  caterpillars  (mostly  of  the  family 
^geriadse  and  the  Cossidse)  bore  into  the  trunk  and  branches  of  trees, 
the  great  bulk  devour  the  leaves.  Caterpillars  are  provided  with 
stout,  toothed  jaws  (mandibles)  for  cutting  leaves.  They  are  voracious 
feeders,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  following  extract  from  Mr.  L.  Trouvelot 
in  Packard's  "  Guide  to  the  Study  of  Insects : n 

Caterpillars  gi  ow  very  rapidly  and  consume  a  great  quantity  of  food.  Mr.  Trouve- 
lot gives  us  the  following  account  of  the  gastronomical  powers  of  the  Polyphemus 
caterpillar:  " It  is  astonishing  how  rapidly  the  larva  grows,  and  one  who  has  no 
experience  in  the  matter  could  hardly  believe  what  an  amount  of  food  is  devoured 
by  these  little  creatures.  One  experiment  which  I  made  can  give  some  idea  of  it. 
When  the  young  silk-worm  hatches  out  it  weighs  one-twentieth  of  a  grain ;  when 
ten  days  old  it  weighs  half  a  grain,  or  ten  times  its  original  weight;  twenty  days 
old  it  weighs  3  grains,  or  sixty  times  its  original  weight;  thirty  days  old  it  weighs 
31  grains,  or  620  times  its  original  weight;  forty  days  old  it  weighs  90  grains,  or 
1,800  times  its  original  weight ;  fifty-six  days  old  it  weighs  207  grains,  or  4,140  times 
its  original  weight. 

When  a  worm  is  thirty  days  old  it  will  have  consumed  about  90  grains  of  fpod  ;  but 
when  fifty-six  days  old  it  is  fully  grown  and  has  consumed  not  less  than  one  hundred 


and  thirty  oak  leaves  weighing  three-fourths  <>f  a  pound;  besides  this  it  has  drunk 
not  leu  than  one-half  en  ounce  of  water.  So  the  food  taken  by  a  single  silk-worm 
in  fifty-ail  days  squall  in  weight  eighty-six  thousand  times  the  primitive  weight  of 
the  worm.  Of  this,  about  one-fourth  of  a  pound  becomes  excrementitious  matter  j 
207  grains  ere  assimilated  and  over  .6  onnoea  have  evaporated.  What  a  destruction 
of  leaves  this  sin^lr  species  of  insect  could  make  if  only  a  oue-hundredth  part  of 
the  eggs  laid  came  to  maturity.  A  few  years  would  be  sufficient  for  the  propaga- 
tion of  a  uuinber  large  enough  to  devour  all  the  leaves  of  our  forests."  The 
Lepidoptera  are  almost  without  exception  injurious  to  vegetation,  and  are  among  the 
chief  enemies  of  the  agriculturist. 

In  our  descriptions  of  the  larvae  of  Lepidoptera  the  following  points 
are  noticed:  Behind  the  head  are  twelve  segments;  the  first  or  pro- 
thoracic  is,  in  the  small  leaf- rolling  and  mining  kinds,  protected  by  a 
"cervical"  or  prothoracic  shield;  there  are  three  thoracic  segments, 
called  the  prothoracic,  mesothoracic  or  metathoracic,  or  sometimes  the 
first,  second,  and  third  thoracic  segments;  these  correspond  to  the  thorax 
of  the  imago  or  adult  butterfly  or  moth.  Behind  these  are  nine  distinct 
abdominal  segments;  on  the  eighth  is  often  situated  a  dorsal  hump. 
Many  caterpillars  are  striped  with  a  dorsal,  subdorsal,  and  lateral  lines 
or  bands,  moreover,  the  body  in  many  is  provided  with  warts  or  tuber- 
cles beating  a  hair  or  spine;  the  "lateral  ridge"  is  a  broken  swelling 
extending  along  the  sides  of  the  body.  The  abdominal  feet  are  in  cer- 
tain leaf  miners  wanting;  or  in  the  span  or  geometrid  worms  there  are 
but  two  pairs;  and  the  last  or  "anal  legs"  are  often  broad  and  large, 
the  better  adapted  for  seizing  firm  hold  of  a  leaf  or  twig. 

While  a  few  butterflies  live  in  the  caterpillar  state  on  trees,  the  fol- 
lowing brief  synopsis  gives  the  most  salient  characteristics  of  the 
families  of  moths  which  especially  abound  on  the  leaves  of  shade  and 
forest  trees : 

Moths  of  large  size;  larvae  with  a  horn  on  the  eighth  abdominal  segment..  Sphingidce. 
Moths  with  stout  hairy  bodies  and  small  heads  and  broad  wings;  larvae  more  or  less 

hairy  or  with  spines;  usually  spinning  silken  cocoons Bombycidce. 

Moths  of  moderate  size:  stout  bodies;  shining  hind  wings;  larvae  with  five  pairs  of 

abdominal  legs;  sometimes  semi-loopers Xoctuidce. 

Moths  with  slender  bodies,  broad  wings,  both  pairs  colored  alike ;  larvaB  with  only 

two  pairs  of  abdominal  legs;  span-worms  or  geometrids   PhaJwrnda. 

Small  moths  with  narrow,  straight  fore-wings,  the  hind  wings  plain  ;  larvae  glossy 

green  or  pale,  the  head  spotted,  and  the  body  more  or  less  striped Pyralidcp. 

Still  smaller  moths,  the  fore-wings  more  or  less  oblong;  the  larvae  green,  with  dark 

heads  aud  cervical  shields ;  not  striped ;  rolling  leaves  or  eating  buds. .  Tortricidce. 
Minute  moths  with  narrow,  pointed  wings;  larvae  small,  pale  greenish,  etc.,  with  a 

darker  head  and  cervical  shield  ;  often  mining  leaves,  buds,  etc Tineidas. 

Forest  trees,  and  especially  evergreen  trees,  support  each  year  hordes 
of  caterpillars,  comprising  species  of  diflereut  families.  In  beating  the 
branches  of  any  spruce,  fir,  larch,  poplar,  or  mapl^,  and  especially  the 
oak,  a  great  number  and  variety  of  caterpillars  are  shaken  down,  and 
the  question  arises  whether  the  innumerable  host  constantly  aud  ordi- 
narily at  work  from  spring-time  to  the  fall  of  the  leaf  m  our  forest 
trees  are  really  injurious  to  the  tree.     It  is  not  improbable  that  good 


is  done  to  the  tree  by  these  voracious  beings.  The  process  up  to  a 
certain  limit  may  be  one  of  natural  and  healthy  pruning,  but  there  is 
no  certainty  that  the  limit  may  not  at  auy  time  be  overstepped  and 
destruction  ensue.  The  tree  is  attacked  in  a  multitude  of  ways  by  cater- 
pillars alone.  The  buds  are  eaten  by  various  leaf-rollers  (Tortrices), 
the  leaves  are  mined  on  the  upper  and  under  sides  by  various  Tineids, 
while  the  leaves  are  rolled  over  in  various  ways  and  in  various  degrees 
to  make  shelter  for  the  caterpillars,  or  they  are  folded  ou  the  edges,  or 
gathered  and  sewed  together  by  Tineid,  Tortricid,  and  Pyralid  larvae. 
The  entire  leaves  are  devoured  by  multitudes  of  species  of  larger  cater- 
pillars, belonging  especially  to  the  Pyralid,  Geometrid,  Bombycid,  and 
Sphingid  moths ;  while  certain  species  prey  on  the  fruit,  acorns,  nuts, 
and  seeds. 

It  is  a  singular  fact  that  of  the  great  family  of  Owlet  or  Noctuid 
moths,  of  which  there  are  known  to  be  1,200  species  in  this  country, 
very  few  feed  on  trees,  the  bulk  of  them  occurring  on  herbaceous  plants 
and  grasses. 

While  the  smaller  caterpillars  (Microlepidoptera)  feed  concealed 
between  the  leaves  or  in  the  rolls  or  folds  in  the  leaf,  or  in  the  buds,  the 
caterpillars  of  the  larger  species  feed  exposed  on  or  among  the  leaves. 
Here  they  are  subject  to  the  attacks  of  birds  aud  of  Ichneumon  and 
Tachina  flies,  which  are  constantly  on  the  watch  for  them.  And  it  is 
curious  to  see  how  nature  has  protected  the  caterpillars  from  observa- 
tion. While  the  young  of  the  smaller  moths  are  usually  green  and  of 
the  same  hue  as  the  leaves  among  which  they  hide,  or  reddish  and 
brownish  if  in  spruce  and  fir  buds,  where  they  hide  at  the  base  of  the 
needles  next  to  the  reddish  or  brownish  shoots,  the  larger  kinds  are 
variously  colored  and  assimilated  to  those  of  the  leaves  and  twigs 
among  which  they  feed.  Were  it  not  for  this  they  would  be  snapped 
up  by  birds.  Of  course,  the  birds  devour  a  good  many,  and  the  pry- 
ing Ichneumons  and  Tachinae  lay  their  eggs  in  a  large  proportion,  but 
those  which  do  survive  owe  their  safety  to  their  protective  coloration. 

Of  some  twenty  or  more  different  species  of  Geometrid  caterpillars' 
which  occur  on  the  evergreen  trees,  some  are  green  and  so  striped  with 
white  that  when  at  rest  stretched  along  a  pine  needle,  they  could  with 
difficulty  be  detected;  others  resemble  in  various  ways  (being  brown 
and  warted)  the  small  twigs  of  these  trees ;  and  one  is  like  a  dead  red  leaf 
of  the  fir  or  hemlock.  There  are  several  span-worms  on  the  oak,  which 
in  color  and  markings,  as  well  as  in  the  tubercles  and  warts  on  the  body, 
resemble  the  lighter  or  darker,  larger  or  smaller  knotty  twigs;  this 
resemblance,  of  course,  is  in  keeping  with  the  characteristic  habit  of 
these  worms  of  holding  themselves  out  stiff  and  motionless  when  not 

In  an  entirely  different  way  the  various  kinds  of  Notodontian  cater- 
pillars, which  feed  exposed  on  oak  leaves,  are  protected  from  observa- 
tion.   They  feed  on  the  edges  of  the  leaves,  and  their  bodies  are  green? 


with  reddish  brown  patches,  so  that  these  irregular  spots,  when  the 
caterpillar  is  at  rest,  are  closely  similar  to  the  dead  and  sere  blotches 
so  frequent  on  oak  Leaves.  The  same  may  be  said  of  other  kinds  feed- 
ing on  the  leaves  of  other  lorest  trees. 

While  the  bodies  of  those  Moctuid  caterpillars  which  feed  on  herba- 
ceous plants  are  smooth,  those  of  the  tree-inhabiting  Catocala,  Homop- 
fora,  and  Pheooyma  are  mottled  with  brown  and  ash  like  the  bark  of  the 
tree,  and  provided  with  dorsal  humps  and  warts  assimilated  in  form 
and  color  to  the  knots  and  leaf  scales  on  the  twigs  and  smaller  branches. 

There  is  thus  a  close  harmony  in  color,  style  of  markings,  shape,  and 
size  of  the  humps  and  other  excrescences  of  tree-inhabiting  caterpil- 
lars, and  it  is  due  to  this  cause  that  they  are  protected  from  the  attacks 
of  their  enemies.  Mr.  Poulton  has  recently  called  attention  to  the  fact 
that  caterpillars  are  extremely  liable  to  die  from  slight  injuries,  owing  to 
their  soft  bodies  and  thiu  skins.  They  can  not  defend  themselves  when 
once  discovered.  The  means  of  protection  are  of  passive  kinds,  i.  e., 
such  as  render  the  delicately  organized  animal  practically  invisible  on 
the  part  of  its  enemies,  and  these  means  vary  with  each  kind  of  cater- 
pillar. In  this  way  different  kinds  of  larvae  can  live  on  different  parts 
of  the  leaf,  the  upper  or  under  side,  or  the  edge ;  on  different  colored 
twigs,  on  those  of  different  sizes,  with  different  kinds  of  leaf  scars, 
scales,  or  projections ;  and  thus  the  tree  is  divided,  so  to  speak,  into  so 
many  provinces  or  sections,  within  whose  limits  a  particular  kind  of 
worm  may  live  with  impunity,  but  beyond  which  it  goes  at  the  peril  of 
its  life. 

To  the  Hymenoptera  belong  the  gall-flies  and  saw-flies,  besides  bees 
and  ants,  and  ichneumons. 

Gallflies. — These  little  creatures  produce  tumors  or  galls  both  in  the 
trunk,  branches,  but  more  usually  the  smaller  twigs  and  leaves  of  the 
oak,  and  rarely  other  trees.  They  belong  to  the  family  Cynipidce,  and 
are  described  as  follows  in  the  writer's  u Guide  to  the  Study  of  Insects:" 

The  gall-flies  are  closely  allied  to  the  parasitic  Chalcids,  but  in  their  habits  are 
plant-parasites,  as  they  live  in  a  gall  or  tumor  formed  by  the  abnormal  growth  of  the 
vegetable  cells,  due  to  the  irritation  first  excited  when  the  egg  is  laid  in  the  bark  or 
substance  of  the  leaf,  as  the  case  may  be.  The  generation  of  the  summer  broods  is 
also  anomalous,  but  the  parthenogenesis  that  occurs  in  these  forms,  by  which  im- 
mense numbers  of  females  are  produced,  is  necessary  for  the  work  they  perform  in 
the  economy  of  nature.  When  we  see  a  single  oak  hung  with  countless  galls,  the 
work  of  a  single  species,  and  learn  how  numerous  are  its  natural  enemies,  it  becomes 
evident  that  the  demand  for  a  great  numerical  increase  must  be  met  by  extraordinary 
means,  like  the  generation  of  the  summer  broods  of  the  plant-lice. 

The  gall-flies  are  readily  recognized  by  their  resemblance  to  certain  Chalcids,  but 
the  abdomen  is  much  compressed  and  usually  very  short,  while  the  second,  or  the 
second  and  third  segments,  are  greatly  developed,  the  remaining  ones  being  imbri- 
cated, or  covered  one  by  the  other,  leaving  the  lined  edges  exposed.  Concealed 
within  these  is  the  long,  partially  coiled,  very  slender  ovipositor,  which  arises  near 
the  base  of  the  abdomen.  [See  Plate  xv,  ovipositor  of  the  gall-fly.]  Among  other 
distinguishing  characters,  are  the  straight  (not  being  elbowed)  thirteen  to  sixteen 
jointed  antennas,  the  labial  palpi  being  from  two  to  four  jointed  and  the  maxillary 


palpi  from  four  to  six  jointed.  The  maxillary  lobes  are  broad  and  membranous, 
while  the  ligula  is  fleshy,  and  either  rounded  or  square  at  the  end.  There  is  a  com- 
plete costal  cell,  while  the  subcostal  cells  are  incomplete.  The  egg  is  of  large  size, 
and  increases  in  size  as  the  embryo  becomes  more  developed.  The  larva  is  a  short, 
thick,  fleshy,  footless  grub,  with  the  segments  of  the  body  rather  convex.  When 
hatched  they  immediately  attack  the  interior  of  the  gall,  which  has  already  formed 
around  them.  Many  species  transform  within  the  gall,  while  others  enter  the  earth 
and  there  become  pupae. 

Like  the  Aphides  and  certain  other  insects,  the  females  often  repro- 
duce parthenogeuetically,  viz,  they  lay  eggs  without  having  paired  with 
males,  the  latter  not  being  at  the  time  in  existence.  Thus  the  late  B. 
D.  Walsh  *  discovered  that  the  autumn  brood  of  a  gall-fly  (Cynips  quer- 
cus-aciculata)  consisted  entirely  of  females  which  laid  eggs,  producing 
the  following  spring  both  males  and  females  which  were  originally  re- 
ferred to  a  supposed  distinct  species  (Cynips  quercusspongifica).  Hence, 
after  several  experiments  Mr.  Walsh  declared  that  uthe  agamous 
autumnal  female  form  of  this  Cynips  (G.  q.-aciculata)  sooner  or  later 
reproduces  the  bisexual  vernal  form,"  and  is  thus  ua  mere  dimorphous 
female  form"  of  C.  q.-spongifica.  It  was  reserved  for  two  other  Ameri- 
can students  of  the  gall-flies  to  establish  the  fact  that  an  alternation 
of  generations  takes  place  in  these  insects.  The  case  is  thus  stated  by 
Mr.  L.  O.  Howard,  in  Psyche  (in,  329,  June  24,  1882). 

America  may  justly  claim  the  credit  for  the  discovery  of  this  most  interesting  fact 
of  alternation  of  generations  among  Cynipids.  Kiley,  in  the  interjected  remarks  in 
his  article  on  "Controlling  Sex  in  Butterflies"  (American  Nat.,  Sept.,  1873,  v.  7,  p. 
519),  was  the  first  actually  to  establish  the  fact  beyond  all  perad venture,  asM.  Lichten- 
stein  points  out;  yet  Bassett,  four  months  previously  (Can.  Entomologist,  May,  1873, 
vol.  5,  p.  93)  had  stated,  in  the  following  words,  the  theory  which  Adler  has  so  fully 
verified :  "From  all  the  above  facts  I  infer  that  all  our  species  that  are  found  only  in 
the  female  sex  are  represented  in  another  generation  by  both  sexes,  and  that  the  two 
broods  are,  owing  to  seasonable  differences,  produced  from  galls  that  are  entirely 
•distinct  from  each  other."  In  this  article  Bassett  has  just  missed  the  actual  proof  in 
two  instances.  With  Cynips  q.  -operator  he  had  observed  the  females  of  the  vernal  brood 
ovipositing  in  acorn  cups  and  producing  the  gall  q.-operatola  of  Riley's  MS.;  but 
he  failed  to  rear  the  flies  from  these  galls  and  so  missed  the  complete  proof.  In  the 
case  of  C.  q.-batatus  Bass.,  he  had  bred  the  sexual  forms  from  leaf  galls,  and  the  agamic 
females  from  twig  galls,  but  had  not  actually  observed  the  females  of  the  former  in  the 
act  of  ovipositing  in  the  twigs  ;  thus  again  missing  the  proof.  Riley,  however,  as  he 
tells  us  in  his  published  note,  succeeded  in  breeding  the  agamic  females  of  q. -operator 
from  the  acorn  galls ;  thus,  in  connection  with  Bassett's  observation  of  the  oviposi- 
tion,  completely  establishing  the  fact  of  alternation.  So  the  credit  should  be  joint.  It 
is,  in  fact,  much  like  the  well  known  case  of  Siredon  and  Amblystoma,  in  which  the 
credit  should  be  divided  between  Baird  and  Dumeril.  Dr.  Adler  very  excusably 
overlooked  this  note  of  Riley's.  Walsh,  in  his  earlier  articles,  came  no  nearer  the 
actual  state  of  the  case  than  to  prove  that  two  females,  formerly  described  as  dis- 
tinct species,  may  belong  to  the  same  male. 

Independently  of  and  subsequently  to  the  work  done  in  the  United 
States,   Dr.  Adler,   of  Germany,   also  discovered   and    satisfactorily 

*  American  Entomologist,  ii,  330,  October,  1870. 


proved  in  an  extensive  and  beautifully  illustrated  memoir*  the  fact 
of  alternation  of  generations  in  a  number  of  European  species. 

In  a  notice  of  Adler's  work  in  the  American  Naturalist  for  July, 
1881,  Professor  Riley  added  that  Mr.  H.  F.  Bassett  "has,  following 
Adler's  interestiug  experiments  in  Europe,  suggested  the  probable  di- 
morphic, connection  of  several  of  our  vernal  galls  which  produce  bisexual 
individuals,  with  autumnal  forms  which  produce  larger  asexual  flies. 
Dr.  Adler  gives  a  list  of  nineteen  species  of  Cynipidre  in  which  the  oc- 
currence of  dimorphic  forms  has  been  proved,  giving  the  names  of 
the  agamic  forms  and  the  corresponding  bisexual  forms  the  latter 
of  which,  in  all  cases,  were  referred  to  distinct  genera  by  previous  ob- 

In  this  connection  should  be  mentioned  the  remarkable  fact  that  in 
certain  closely  allied  species  (Aphilotrix  seminationis,  marginalis,  quad- 
rilineatus  and  albopunctatus)  no  alternation  of  generations  seems  to 

Saiv-flies. — These  often  seriously  injure  evergreen  trees,  while  they 
occur  on  all  other  trees.  There  are  a  large  number  of  species.  Their 
larva3  resemble  caterpillars  in  appearance  and  in  voracity.  The  flies  dif- 
fer from  wasps,  etc.,  in  the  abdomen  being  broad  at  the  base  j  the  body 
is  somewhat  flattened,  and  the  head  is  wide,  while  the  antennas  are  not 
elbowed,  and  as  in  Lophyrus  are  pectinated  in  the  males,  serrated  in  the 
females.  In  the  end  of  the  hind  body  of  the  female  is  situated  the 
u  saw"  or  ovipositor.  This  consists  of  two  blades,  the  lower  edge  of 
the  lower  one  of  which  is  toothed  like  a  saw,  and  fits  in  a  groove  in  the 
under  side  of  the  upper  blade;  both  blades  being  protected  by  sheath- 


Fig.  1.— Saw  of  a  saw-fly  (Hylotoma):  a,  lateral  scale;  i,  saw;  /,  gorget.    After  Lacaze-Duthiers. 

like  stylets.  On  pressing  the  end  of  the  abdomen  the  saw  is  depressed ; 
by  this  movement  the  saw,  which  both  cuts  and  pierces,  makes  a  gash 
in  the  soft  part  of  the  leaf,  where  it  deposits  its  eggs.    (Fig.  1.) 

The  Lophyrns  of  the  pine  makes  a  series  of  punctures  on  each  side  of 
a  pine  needle ;  the  Nematus  of  the  alder  makes  from  twenty  to  forty  pairs 
of  semicircular  punctures  in  the  under  side  of  the  midrib  of  the  leaf, 
while  the  larch  saw-fly  inserts  her  eggs  in  two  alternating  rows  at  the 

*Zeitschrift  fur  Wissenschaftliche  Zoologie,  xxxv,  Feb.  1,  1881,  pp.  i:>l-'24b\  Pis. 
x— xii.  Dr.  Adler's  researches  were  commenced  in  1875,  and  his  first  paper  appeared 
in  1877.     (Deutsche  Entomolog.  Zeitschrift,  1877,  Heft  1.) 


base  of  the  fresb  leaves  of  the  Dew  shoots.  The  punctures  made  in  the 
willow  by  saw-flies  of  the  genus  Euura  result  in  the  formation  of  galls 
or  tumors  within  which  the  larvae  live. 

The  larvae  strongly  resemble  caterpillars,  hence  they  are  sometimes 
called  u false  caterpillars;"  but  they  have  from  six  to  eight  pairs  of  ab- 
dominal legs,  whereas  caterpillars  have  only  five  pairs.  Many  kinds 
{Nematus,  etc.)  curl  the  hind  body  spirally  when  feeding  or  at  rest. 
They  are  usually  green,  of  the  color  of  the  leaves  upon  which  they  feed, 
with  lines  and  markings  of  various  colors.  They  usually  molt  four 
times,  the  last  change  being  the  most  marked.  Most  of  the  larvae  se- 
crete silk  and  spin  a  tough  oval,  cylindrical  cocoon,  in  which  they 
hybernate  in  the  larva  and  often  in  the  pupa  state. 

Ants  and  bees. — Ants  have  not  been  noticed  in  the  United  States  to 
injure  trees,  but  in  the  tropics  species  of  (Ecodoma,  or  leaf-bearing  ants, 
are  very  destructive  to  trees;  it  is  possible  that  there  are  species  in  the 
Gulf  States  which  may  in  part  defoliate  trees. 

Bees  are  of  great  use  in  setting  the  fruit  of  trees  ;  little  has  been  ob- 
served on  this  point  in  this  country,  but  without  doubt  the  visits  of  in- 
numerable bees  to  linden  trees  are  of  service  in  "  setting  "  the  seed  of 
that  tree. 

Mr.  Lugger*  mentions  the  fact  that  the  seeds  of  the  rock  maple,  so 
numerous  in  the  grounds  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington, 
D.  C,  were  in  1886  uniformly  sterile.  He  attributed  this  phenomenon 
to  the  inclement  weather  prevailing  during  the  flowering  season,  which 
prevented  bees  from  visiting  the  flowers. 

Plant  lice. — While  many  Hemiptera,  such  as  the  bugs,  destroy  many 
caterpillars,  particularly  span-worms  and  leaf-rollers,  some  of  the  most 
annoying  and  destructive  of  our  forest  insects  belong  to  this  order. 
They  all  take  their  food  by  piercing  the  succulent  leaves  and  stems,  or 
twigs  of  trees,  shrubs,  or  herbs,  often  causing  them,  as  in  the  elm  aphis, 
to  crumple  up.  The  species  of  Psyllidce  are  very  common  on  the  leaves 
of  hard-wood  trees,  either  hopping  over  the  surface  or  living  in  leaf- 
galls  which  are  the  results  of  their  punctures. 

The  following  account  of  Aphides  or  plant-lice  is  adapted  from  the 
writer's  "Guide  to  the  Study  of  Insects:" 

The  plant-lice  have  greenish,  flask-shaped  bodies,  covered  with  a  soft,  powdery, 
bloom  ;  their  antennae  are  five  to  seven-jointed,  with  a  three-jointed  beak,  and  legs 
with  two-jointed  tarsi.  The  males  and  females  are  winged,  and  also  the  last  brood 
of  asexual  individuals,  while  the  early  summer  brood  are  wingless.  The  abdomen  is 
thick  and  rounded,  and  in  Aphis  and  Lachnus  provided  with  two  "honey  tubes"  for 
the  passage  of  a  sweet  fluid  secreted  from  the  stomach. 

In  the  early  autumn  the  colonies  of  plant-lice  are  composed  of  both  male  and  female 
individuals;  these  pair,  the  males  then  die,  and  the  females  begin  to  tieposit  their 
eggs,  after  which  they  also  die.  Early  in  the  spring,  as  soon  as  the  leaves  begin  to 
unfold,  the  eggs  are  hatched,  and  the  young  lice  begin  to  suck  the  sap,  and  soon  be- 
gin to  bring  forth  young,  which  develop  by  a  budding  process  within  the  body  of  the 

*  Entomolo<iica  Americana,  ii,  89. 


parent.  A  teoond  generation  of  sexiest  individuals  tlms  results,  jrhicfa  is  succeeded 
bj  a  third,  fourth,  fifth,  and  even  a  ninth  generation,  the  process  being  only  termi- 
nated by  the  approach  of  oold  vreather,  when  ;i  last  brood  of  males  and  females  ap- 
pear. By  this  anomalous,  asexual  mode  ot  reproduction,  a  single  Aphis  may  hecome 
the  parent  of  millions  of  yonng. 

Certain  plant-lice  occur  on  the  roots  of  plants,  others  on  the  stems  or  twigs;  others 
puncture  leaves,  eau-dng  them  to  roll  or  crumple,  or  to  form  galls.  Ants  are  fond  of 
the  sweet  excretions  from  the  "  honey  tabes,"  and  often  keep  them  captive  in  their 
ike  herds  of  cattle.  The  maggots  of  Syrphus  flies,  lady-birds  (Cocoinella),  and 
the  larva-  of  the  lace-winged  fly,  besides  small  ichneumons,  destroy  great  uumhers  of 
them  and  keep  them  within  due  limits. 

To  the  plant-lice  family  belong  the  species  of  Adelges  and  Cln>rmes  which  produce 
cone-like  swellings  on  the  new-grown  twigs  of  spruce;  alsc  of  Pemphigus,  which  pro- 
duce gall-like  swellings  on  poplars,  etc. 

Bark-lice. — In  the  species  of  Coccidce,  the  males  alone  are  winged, 
having  but  a  single  pair,  while  the  females  are  wingless,  scale-like  and 
do  great  damage  by  puncturing  the  bark  of  trees. 

Dipterous  or  tic<>  winged  gallflies. — Maples,  wild  plums,  poplars,  and 
other  trees  have  numerous  leaf-galls  of  varied  form  made  by  little  gnat- 
like  flies  belonging  to  the  dipterous  family  Cecidomyidce.  These  flies 
are  minute,  most  of  them  smaller  than  a  mosquito.  The  females  lay 
their  i^g^s  in  the  stems,  leaves,  and  buds  of  various  plants  and  trees, 
thus  producing  galls,  a  common  example  being  the  willow  dipterous 
gall-fly  ( Cecidomyia  strobiloides).  There  are  thirteen  other  species  found 
by  Mr.  Walsh  to  raise  galls  on  eight  different  kiuds  of  willow,  the  dif- 
ferent kinds  of  galls  being  readily  distinguished,  while  the  flies  them- 
selves and  their  maggots  are  closely  similar.  The  maggots  of  the 
Cecidomyiaus  are  usually  minute  orange,  pinkish,  or  yellowish  worms 
without  feet,  and  with  the  body  pointed  at  each  end. 

Insectivorous  or  parasitic  insects.  —  While  the  undue  increase  of  forest 
insects  is  largely  prevented  by  iusectivorous  birds,  their  numbers  are 
especially  reduced  by  the  attacks  of  parasitic  or  carnivorous  insects. 
Of  these  the  most  efficient  are  the  ichueumou  flies,  which  are  wasp- 
like insects  forming  a  large  group  of  the  order  Hymenoptera,  belonging 
to  the  families  Ichneumonidce,  Proctotrupithc,  and  Ghalcididw.  Of  the 
ichneumons  there  are  probably  from  4,000  to  5,000  species.  Many  of 
the  species  of  Proctotrupidce  oviposit  in  the  eggs  of  Lepidoptera  and  of 
dragon  flies,  etc.  The  largest  species  belong  to  the  first  named  family. 
They  are  recognized  by  their  long,  slender  body  and  long,  external 
ovipositor.  The  larva  is  like  the  maggot  of  a  bee  or  wasp,  being  foot- 
less, soft,  and  white,  and  with  a  smaller  head. 

"When  about  to  enter  the  pupa  state  the  larva  spins  a  cocoon, 
consisting  in  the  larger  species  of  an  inner  deuse  case  and  a  looser, 
thinner  outer  covering,  and  escapes  as  a  fly  through  the  skin  of  the 
caterpillar.  The  cocoons  of  the  smaller  genera,  such  as  Cryptus  and 
Microgaster,  may  be  found  packed  closely  in  considerable  numbers, 
side  by  side,  or  sometimes  placed  upright  within  the  body  of  cater- 

*  Packard's  "Guide  to  the  Study  of  Insects,"  p.  193. 



Fig.  2.— Head  of  a  Noctuid  cater- 
pillar on  the  hickory,  containing  a 
freshly-hatched  ichneumon  larva. 
A,  d,  egg-shell  of  the  ichueumon 
on  the  caterpillar's  head,  the  larva 
(e)  having  bored  into  the  piotho- 
racic  segment  of  its  host.  B  as 
the  host  appears  ten  minutes 
later,  the  egg-shell  bavins  dropped 
off.  The  prothoracic  segment  has 
contracted  and  the  bead  has  be- 
come swollen,  while  the  posterior 
part  of  the  caterpillar's  bead  has 
concealed  the  opening  of  the  lar- 
val parasite  seen  at  A,  e.  Gissler, 

Fig.  2  represents  the  mode  of  oviposition 
by  au  unknown  ichneumon  observed  by  us 
in  Providence.  The  egg  (d)  was  laid  on  the 
head,  and  the  larva  soou  hatching,  bored 
under  the  skin,  entering  the  body  so  as 
finally  to  disappear  out  of  sight. 

The  eggs  are  laid  either  within  or  on  the 
outside  of  the  body  of  the  host,  usually 
some  caterpillar. 

A  special  account  of  the  mode  of  egg-lay  - 
iug  of  au  European  ichneumon  (Paniscus 
cephalotes)  is  given  by  Mr.  E.  B.  Poulton  in 
the  Transactions  of  the  Entomological  So- 
ciety of  London,  1886,  page  162.  It  laid  14 
eggs  on  the  caterpillar  it  selected  as  its 
host,  firmly  attaching  them  to  its  skin,  most 
of  them  in  the  sutures  between  the  segments 
on  the  sides  of  the  body. 

"It  is  probable  that  an  excess  of  ova  is  generally  laid,  for  a  small 
proportion  do  not  develop,  and  the  way  in  which  they  are  attached  in 
small  groups  insures  that  of  those  that  do  develop  a  large  proportion 
of  the  larvae  are  so  crowded  by  the  others  that  they  die  at  an  early 
stage,  as  has  been  also  previously  observed.  If  too  large  a  number 
were  laid  and  all  developed,  it  is  obvious  that  none  could  arrive  at  ma- 
turity; but  this  is  obviated  iu  the  manner  described  above,  and  it  is 
partly  brought  about  by  the  limited  space  on  the  circumference  of  the 
larva  attacked.  This  space,  of  course,  varies  with  the  size  of  the  lat- 
ter, and  it  is  more  quickly  filled  in  the  rapid  development  of  the  para- 
sites upon  small  than  upon  large  larvae;  so  that,  if  they  are  too  numer- 
ous, crowdiug  ensues  earlier,  and  with  more  fatal  results  in  the  former 
than  in  the  latter  case.  Thus  the  smaller  surface  may  compensate  for 
the  less  amount  of  food,  and  may  itself  insure  that  the  parasites  reach 
maturity."  The  ichneumon  lays  a  smaller  number  of  eggs  on  small 
caterpillars  than  on  large  ones,  and  yet  lays  more  than  can  develop  in 
all  cases,  "the  eggs  beiug  laid  in  such  a  way  that  crowding  results  if 
all  or  nearly  all  develop;  so  that  the  chance  of  the  eggs  being  sterile 
is  obviated  on  the  one  hand  and  of  the  parasitic  larvae  dying  immature 
on  the  other." 

The  larva  of  the  ichneumon  does  not  attack  the  solid  or  vital  parts 
of  its  host,  but  absorbs  the  blood  and  other  fluids  of  the  body.  Mr. 
Poulton  thinks  that  the  motive  force  which  drives  the  blood  from  the 
body  of  the  host  into  the  digestive  tract  of  the  parasite  is  entirely 
supplied  by  the  contracted  body- walls  of  the  former. 

Many  ichneumons  are  polyphagous,  i.  e.,  live  in  insects  of  widely  differ- 
ent species,  and  those  of  different  orders.*     Others  confine  their  attacks 

*  This  and  the  following  remarks  on  ichneumons  are  taken  mainly  from  Judeich 
and  Nitsche's  Lehrhuch  der  Mittel-Enropiiischen  Forstiusektenkunde. 


to  a  single  species.  Most  ichneumons  have  bat  a  single  generation; 
a  few  are  double-brooded.  In  Germany,  Katzeburg  observed  a  brood 
Of  Mierogaiter  globatUS  early  in  .May,  and  another  early  in  August. 
Though  there  may  be  two  broods  of  the  hosts,  there  is,  as  a  rule,  but 
a  single  brood  of  iehneumons.  Katzeburg,  indeed,  found  that  certain 
ichneumons  of  saw-fly  larva*  imitated  the  habit  of  the  latter  of  living 
more  than  a  year,  I.  0.,  they  did  not  develop  until  the  greater  number 
of  saw-flies  bad  issued  from  the  belated  cocoons.  On  the  other  hand 
Pteromalu*  pupanim  undergoes  an  extraordinarily  rapid  growth;  it 
stings  early  in  June  the  chrysalids  of  Vanessa  poli/chloros,  and  by  the 
middle  of  July  the  adults  appear.  Teleas  orulorum  requires  only  four  to 
six  weeks  to  develop;  it  however  flies  somewhat  later,  so  as  to  tind  the 
suitable  objects  on  which  to  lay  its  eggs. 

Ichneumons  rarely  develop  in  adult  insects,  but  certain  Braconids 
infest  Coccinella  beetles.  The  small  Chalcids,  i.  e.,  Pteromali,  mostly 
inhabit  the  tender  pupse  of  bark-boring  beetles  and  leaf-rollers. 

Among  the  smaller  ichneumons  several  females  usually  inhabit  a 
single  host,  while  from  000  to  700  individuals  of  Pteromalus  puparum 
may  inhabit  a  single  chrysalid,  and  1,200  Apanteles  a  Sphinx  larva. 

Most  ichneumons  develop  within  their  hosts,  but  many  species  of 
Chalcids  live  on  the  outside  and  suck  the  blood  of  their  host.  The 
ichneumon  Larvae  living  within  their  hosts  often  undergo  the  most 
remarkable  transformation  of  their  mouth-parts.  In  Microgaster  globatus 
there  are,  at  first,  only  the  wart-like  rudimentary  sucking  month-parts; 
but  after  the  last  molt  the  larva?  acquire  ordinary  biting  mandibles, 
with  which  they  can  gnaw  through  the  skin  of  their  host.  However, 
the  food  of  the  ichneumon  larvae  is  wholly  fluid,  their  mouth-parts  not 
allowing  them  to  eat  the  fat-body  of  their  host. 

Other  parasitic  insects  are  the  larvae  of  the  Tachina  flies,  a  group 
closely  allied  to  the  common  house-fly.  The  larvae  are  true  maggots, 
footless,  and  take  their  food  by  suction  through  the  mouth,  the  mouth- 
parts  being  very  rudimentary.  The  Tachina  (Senometopia)  militaris 
has  been  observed  by  Riley  to  lay  from  one  to  six  eggs  on  the  skin  of 
the  army-worm,  "  fastening  them  by  au  insoluble  cement  on  the  upper 
surface  of  the  two  or  three  first  rings  of  the  body."  The  young  mag- 
gots in  hatching  penetrate  within  the  body  of  the  caterpillar,  and  lying 
among  the  internal  orgaus  absorb  the  blood  of  their  unwilling  host, 
causing  it  to  weaken  and  die. 

Other  insectivorous  insects  are  the  Aphis-lions,  the  young  of  the  lace- 
winged  flies  Ghrysopa  and  Hemerobius,  which  are  frequently  found  in 
trees  among  plant-lice;  also  Carabid  beetles. 

Artificial  breedingof  parasitic  and predaceous  insects. — Among  the  most 
important  preventive  measure  against  the  wholesale  ravages  of  insects 
is  the  artificial  breeding  of  parasitic  insects.  We  early  advocated  this 
in  dealing  with  the  Hessian-fly  and  wheat  midge,  suggesting  the  im- 
portation of  the  European  parasites  of  the  latter  species  in  straw.  Dr. 
Le  Baron  has  experimented  with  the  parasites  of  the  apple  bark-louse. 


Professor  tiiley  in  his  third  and  subsequent  Missouri  reports  has 
shown  how  easily  and  practically  certain  parasites  of  the  Plum  Cur- 
culio  and  of  various  scale-insects  may  be  artificially  disseminated,  and 
has  successfully  introduced  the  most  common  European  parasite  (Apan- 
teles  glomeratus)  of  the  imported  cabbage  worm.* 

*  The  most  strikiug  illustration  of  the  good  that  may  be  accomplished  by  this  means 
has,  however,  been  furnished  by  Professor  Riley  since  these  pages  were  prepared  for 
the  printer,  and  as  it  refers  to  an  insect  very  destructive  to  forest  as  well  as  fruit 
trees,  we  reproduce  here  the  paper  read  by  him  at  the  Toronto  (1889)  meeting  of  the 
American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  on  "  the  artificial  importation 
and  colonization  of  parasites  and  predac  eous  enemies  of  injurious  insects"  : 

"The  eucouragemeut  of  the  natural  checks  to  the  increase  of  insects  injurious  to 
vegetation  may  be  of  a  two-fold  nature.  It  frequently  happens  that  an  indigenous 
species  is  found  to  have  certain  parasites  in  only  a  portion  of  the  country  which  it 
inhabits.  In  such  cases,  where  it  is  practicable  to  transport  the  parasites,  a  great 
deal  of  good  may  be  accomplished.     Cases  in  point  are  not  uncommon.     *     *     * 

"  But  this  intentional  distribution  of  the  parasites  or  natural  enemies  of  an  injurious 
insect  from  one  part  to  another  of  its  native  couutry  is  by  no  means  to  be  compared 
in  importance  with  the  introduction  of  such  parasites  or  enemies  from  one  country  to 
another,  in  which  the  injurious  species  has  obtained  a  foothold,  without  the  corres- 
ponding natural  enemies  which  serve  to  keep  it  in  check  in  its  original  home. 

"  The  object  of  the  present  note  is  to  cite  an  illustration  of  artificial  introduction  on 
a  large  scale,  which  has  already  been  productive  of  great  good.  A  successful  attempt 
of  this  kind  had  been  made  by  me  in  the  case  of  Microgaster  glomeratus,  which,  after 
several  futile  efforts,  was  introduced  from  Europe  and  established  in  the  United  States 
in  1885,  and  which  has  now  become  so  widely  distributed  as  to  raise  the  question  of 
its  previous  existence  there.  This  Microgaster  is  one  of  the  commonest  parasites  of 
the  European  Cabbage  Worm,  Pieris  rapce,  which  got  a  foothold  in  America,  without 
its  European  enemies,  about  the  year  1859,  and  which  rapidly  spread  over  the  States 
and  parts  of  Canada,  with  disastrous  results  to  the  cabbage  crop. 

"  The  case  to  which  I  would  particularly  allude  is,  however,  far  more  important  and 
satisfactory.  Orange  culture  has  become  a  very  important  industry  in  southern  Cali- 
fornia. The  orange  groves  there  have  suffered  for  some  years  from  the  attacks  of 
several  insects,  but  particularly  of  a  very  pernicious  scale  insect  (Icerya  purchasi 
Maskell).  ThiB  is  one  of  our  largest  coccids  and,  from  its  habits  and  characteristics, 
very  difficult  to  overcome.  It  does  a  great  deal  of  damage — not  only  to  the  orange 
and  other  citrous  fruit-trees  but  to  many  other  cultivated  plants  and  to  forest  trees. 
The  damage  has  become  so  serious  during  the  past  few  years  that  many  orange- 
growers  have  abandoned  their  groves,  while  the  cost  and  trouble  of  protecting  these 
by  the  use  of  insecticides  have  always  been  great,  even  where  successful.  After 
careful  researches  I  ascertained  that  the  insect  was  without  much  question  a  native  of 
Australia  and  had  been  artificially  introduced  not  only  into  southern  California,  but 
also  into  Cape  Colony,  in  South  Africa,  and  probably  into  New  Zealand ;  also  that  in 
its  native  home  it  rarely  did  serious  damage,  being  kept  in  check  there  by  various' 
natural  enemies  and  parasites.  Some  attempt  was  made,  through  correspondence 
with  Mr.  Frazer  S.  Crawford,  of  Adelaide,  to  introduce  one  of  the  parasites  by  mail 
in  1887.  Specimens  were  received  alive  and  liberated  at  Los  Angeles  under  confine- 
ment, but  no  positive  evidence  was  obtained  of  multiplication  or  colonization.  Spe- 
cial effort  and  introduction  on  a  larger  scale  seemed  necessary. 

"Last  autumn  and  winter  in  connection  with  the  commission  appointed  to  visit  the 
Melbourne  International  Exposition  and  through  the  State  Department  I  was  able  to 
send  one  of  my  field  agents,  Mr.  Albert  Koebele,  to  Australia  with  instructions  to  study 
these  natural  enemies  and  to  send  living  specimens  to  California.  The  principal  facts 
have  been  recorded  in  my  last  annual  report  as  entomologist  of  the  United  States 
Department  of  Agriculture  and  in  late  numbers  of  "Insect  Life,"  a  monthly  bulletin 
published  under  the  auspices  of  the  entomologist  and  his  assistants.  Without  going 
into  detail  I  may  say  that  Mr.  Koebele's  mission  has  been  eminently  successful  and  that 
we  have  succeeded  in  introducing  alive  not  only  the  most  important  of  the  parasites, 
an  interesting  Dipteron  (Lestoplionus  iceryce  Williston),  but  also  several  predaceous 
species,  and  particularly  certain  ladybirds  (Coccinellidse.)  These  were  brought  over 
last  winter  and  spring,  have  become  well  acclimated,  and  are  now  spreading  and 
multiplying  at  a  rapid  rate.  The  latest  reports  which  I  have  received  from  California 
are  to  the  effect  that  one  of  the  commoner  ladybirds  but  recently  described,  namely, 
the  Vedalia  cardinalis,  and  another  lately  described  by  Dr.  D.  Sharp  as  Scymnus  res- 
titutor&re  multiplying  and  spreading  in  a  most  satisfactory  manner.  The  consign- 
5  ENT 2 


Coleopterous  enemies  of  borers. —  Besides  woodpeckers  and  other  birds 
which  pick  insects  out  of  bark,  and  thus  do  great  benefit  to  forestry, 
and  besides  ichneumon  and  Ohalcid  parasites  of  borers,  there  are  many 
carnivorous  grabs  which  prey  upon  the  borers. 

Among  the  external  though  less  known  enemies  belongiug  to  the 
order  of  beetles,  which  Penis  enumerates  from  his  extended  observa- 
tions on  their  habits,  are  a  Large  Dumber  which  live  under  the  bark  of 
9.  I  quote  his  accounts  of  them,  premising  that  we  have  similar 
insects  with  like  habits  in  this  country;  and  though  the  list  of  scientific 
names  seems  formidable,  yet  there  an*  no  common  names  for  them.  I 
nse  nearly  his  own  words,  with  occasional  interpolations  of  English 

When  one  of  the  Scolytids  injurious  to  pines  (the  Bostrichus  stenographus)  lays  its 
index  the  bark,  the  Platysoma  oblon§mm  introduces  itself  by  the  hole  which  has 
given,  entrance  to  the  first  named  uiM-ct ;  it  lays  its  eggs  in  the  gallery  of  the  Bostri- 
chus, and  from  those  eggs  are  boro  the  carnivorous  larva  which  devour  those  of  the 
wood-eating  beetles.  Other  beetles  conduct  themselves  in  the  same  manner  in  war- 
ring against  other  Beolyti.  The  larva1  or  grubs  of  Plegaderus  disci*us  destroy  the 
yonngof  Crypturgus  pusillus ;  another  wood-earing  beetle,  the  Aulonium  sulcatum,  is 
the  deadly  enemy  of  Scolytus  destructor,  so  formidable  a  foe  to  shade  trees  :  Julonium 
bicolor  attacks  Bostrichus  laricis ;  Colydium  bicolor  preys  upon  the  Bostrichus  of  the 
larch:  Colydium  elongatum  on  Platypus  cylindrus ;  Rhizophagus  depressus  on  Blastopha- 
gus  piniperda  and  B.  minor;  Lirmophla?us  hypobori  on  Hypoborus  ficus  ;  Hypophlatus 
pinion  Bostrichus  stenographus  ;  and  finally  Hypojyhlwus  linearis  on  Bostrichus  bidens. 
Who  will  not  be  struck  by  these  antagonisms  ?  Who  will  not  admire  this  infallibility 
o(  instinct  which  causes  these  insects  to  discover  the  tret-  attacked,  and  perceive 
among  the  species  wk  ich  the  tree  conceals  the  victim  which  has  been  assigned  to 
them  ? 

Other  beetles  exhibit  the  same  sagacity.  The  larva?  of  several  Elaterids  (wire- 
worms)  aud  those  of  Clerus  mutillarius  and  C.  formicarius  make  war  on  those  of  some 
lougicoru  beetles  of  the  oak,  the  elm,  alder  bush,  aud  the  pine.  The  Opilus  mollis 
and  0.  domesticus  are  the  enemies  of  the  borers  which  miue  our  floors  and  ceilings ;  the 
Cylidrus  albofasciatus  aud  the  Tillus  unifasciatus  prey  on  Sinoxylon  sexdtntatum  aud  on 
Xylopertha  sinuata,  which  seek  the  diseased  branches  of  the  vine  aud  those  of  several 
trees;  the  Tarsostenus  univittatus  attaeks  the  Lyctus  canaliculatus,  injuring  our  timber 
works;  while  the  Trogosita  mauritanica  destroys  the  grain  moth 

In  an  article  in  the  American  Naturalist  (xvi,  823)  on  iuquiline  wood- 
borers,  or  those  which  usually*  take  up  their  residence  in  mines  or  gal- 
leries made  by  true  wood-borers,  Mr.  E.  A.  Scuwarz  finds  that  the  com- 
mon Platypus  compositus  may  itself  bore  in  the  thick  bark  of  pine 

ments  from  Australia  were  received  at  Los  Angeles  by  Dr.  D.  W.  Coquillet,  another 
of  the  agents  of  the  division."     *     *     * 

The  people  of  California  are  enthusiastic  over  the  grand  success  of  this  effort,  and 
the  Vedalia  is  spreading  with  remarkable  rapidity  and  clearing  the  trees  in  its  wake. 
Prof.  W.  A.  Henry,  director  of  the  Wisconsin  Experiment  Station,  m  a  recent  report 
to  the  Department  of  Agriculture  writes: 

•A  word  in  relation  to  the  grand  work  of  the  Department  in  the  introduction  of 
this  one  predaceons  insect      Without  doubt  it  is  the  best  stroke  ever  made  by  the 

iltural  Department  at  Washington.  Doubtless  other  offorts  have  been  pro- 
ductive of  greater  good,  but  they  were  of  such  character  that  the  people  could  uot 
clearly  see  and  Appreciate  the  benefits,  so  that  the  Department  did  not  receive  The 
credit  it  deserved.  Here  is  the  finest  illustration  possible  of  the  value  of  the  Depart- 
ment to  give  people  aid  in  time  of  distress.     Aud  the  distress  was  very  great  indeed." 


stumps,  but  iu  hard  wood,  as  oak,  etc.,  associates  with  Colydium  lineola 
and  Sosylus  costatus,  living  in  their  mines.  Professor  Kiley  has  dis- 
covered that  the  larva  of  Hemirhipus  fa scicularis  is  parasitic  on  Cyllene 
picta,  living  in  its  mines.  Strongylium  tenuicolle  is  not  a  true  borer,  but 
Mr.  Schwarz  has  found  it  in  the  mines  of  longicoru  borers,  wherein  it 
perhaps  lays  its  eggs. 

Influence  of  temperature  on  insect  life. — The  following  statements  are 
taken  from  Judeich  and  Mtsche's  Lehrbuch.and  will  apply  to  insects 
in  this  country: 

"The  influence  of  temperature  may  either  work  injuriously  on  insect 
life  from  extremes  of  heat  or  cold,  or  from  sudden  and,  at  given  times 
of  the  year,  abnormal  changes.  High  temperature  does  not  directly  in 
our  climate,  in  the  natural  course  of  nature,  affect  insects.  On  the  other 
hand,  it  is  not  unfrequently  the  case  that  insects,  suddenly  overcome 
by  the  frost,  freeze  to  death  in  great  numbers,  since  with  the  lowering 
of  the  temperature,  benumbed  by  the  cold,  they  can  not  reach  crevices 
or  holes  out  of  the  reach  of  the  frost.  As  an  example,  we  may  refer  to 
the  winter  of  1864-'65,  in  which,  in  the  district  of  Mark  and  the  prov- 
ince of  Saxony,  the  caterpillars  of  pine  silk  worms  and  measuring  worms 
lemained  unusually  long  on  the  trees,  and  the  former  froze  in  the  mid- 
dle of  December,— 12.5°  C,  and  the  latter  during  the  considerably 
greater  cold  in  January.  Hence  the  influence  of  even  very  great  cold 
on  the  normal  hybernating  stages  of  our  insects  is  not  very  great.  In 
the  summer  of  1854  the  'nun'  moth  had  very  generally  laid  its  eggs  in 
eastern  Prussia  uncovered  on  the  bark,  and  these  did  not  freeze  in  the 
hard  winter  of  1854-'55,  notwithstanding  the  expectation  that  they 
would,  based  on  a  temperature  of  30  to  35°  G. 

"According  to  the  observations  of  Eegener,  openly  exposed  caterpil- 
lars of  the  pine  silk  worm  endured  —12.5°  G.  The  other  stages  froze 
earlier,  the  pupa  at  —6°  0.,  the  moth  at  —7.5°  G.,  the  eggs  at  —10°  G. 
According  to  Duclaux  (Comptes  Eendus,  83,  p.  1079)  the  eggs  of  the  silk 
worm  endure  well  remaining  two  months  in  a  temperature  of —8°  C. 

"Great  fluctuations  of  temperature  during  the  winter  produce  an 
abnormal  interruption  of  the  winter's  rest  or  hibernation,  and  thus  cause 
the  death  of  many  insects." 

Generations  or  broods. — The  length  of  time  which  any  insect  needs  in 
order  to  complete  a  single  developmental  cycle  from  the  time  the  egg 
is  laid  until  the  insect  is  mature  and  fit  for  reproduction  is  a  genera- 
tion ;  a  generation  then  is  the  time  from  an  egg  to  an  egg.  The  length 
of  time  of  a  generation  varies,  of  course,  in  different  insects.  Gener- 
ally an  insect  requires  twelve  months  for  its  development.  In  such  a 
case  we  speak  of  an  annual  generation.  On  the  other  hand  an  insect 
which  requires  for  its  developmental  cycle  twenty-four,  thirty  six,  or 
forty-eight  months  has  a  biennial,  triennial,  or  quadrennial  generation. 
The  European  May  beetle  has,  in  northern  Germany,  a  quadrennial -gen- 
eration ;  the  seventeen -year  locust  has  a  generation  of  seventeen  years. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  are  insects  which  repeat  their  developmental 



cycle  two,  three,  or  more  times  in  a  year;  such  insects  are  said  to  be 
doable  or  treble-brooded.  Lopkyrui  abietti  and  other  species  are  double- 
brooded,  while  many  butterflies  are  doable  or  treble  brooded,  and  the 
Aphides  have  from  nine  to  fourteen  generations  in  a  season,  i.  e.,  from 
Spring  to  autumn.  In  all  cases  of  seasonal  dimorphism  or  of  partheno- 
genesis there  are  several  generations. 

Jadeich  and  Nitsche  graphically  represent  as  follows  the  generations 

of  the  European  Lopkyrty  pint,  with  its  double  generations,  which  will 
also  apply  to  our  L.  (thirds:  The  egg  is  denoted  by  a  point  (  •  ),  the 
larva  by  a  dash  (  —  ),  the  larva  lying  in  a  semi-papa  condition  in  the 

cocoon,  thus  (  O  ) ;  the  papa  by  the  following  mark  (  m  ),  and  the  imago 
by  a  cross  (  -\-  ) ;  the  time  during  which  the  larva  is  eating,  by  a  heavy 
dash  HI  i;  lastly,  the  period  of  injury  by  the  larva  is  placed  under, 
the  time  of  imaginal  injury  above,  the  mark  for  the  stage  under  consid- 

Jan.     Feb. 


Apr.    May.  Jane. 







+  + 

•    • 







•  t-  + 

•  • 


In  the  United  States  a  butterfly  or  moth  which  is  siugle-btooded  in  the 
New  England  or  northern  Central  States  may  be  three-brooded  in  the 
Southern  or  Gulf  States.  A  generation  or  brood  which  appears  and 
ends  in  the  summer  is  shorter  than  that  which  hibernates. 

Thus  the  summer  generation  of  the  species  of  pine  saw-flies  (Lophyrus) 
is  about  four  mouths,  the  winter  generation  about  eight  months. 
Hence  the  leugth  of  the  generation  depends  on  the  temperature  and 
climate,  as  does  also  the  number  of  broods  or  generatious.  "This  influ- 
ence of  climate  is,  as  is  well  known,  so  considerable  that  a  species  of 
insect  which  has  a  double  generation  in  a  certain  locality,  in  another 
place  with  a  colder  climate  is  only  single-brooded,  while  in  a  warmer 
climate  it  is  three-brooded.  An  example  is  Rylesinus  piniperda.  Thus 
also  a  species  of  insect  whose  generations  in  a  certain  middle  location 
is,  for  example,  four-yearly,  in  a  more  southern  situation  is  three-yearly. 
A  proof  of  this  is  afforded  by  the  May  beetle,  which  north  of  the  '  main 
line'  is  four,  but  south  of  it  needs  only  three  years  to  complete  its 
development.  A  certain  species  of  insect  may  moreover  in  the  same 
locality  in  a  warmer  and  more  favorable  year  be  double-brooded,  while 
in  the  next  harsher  unfavorable  year  it  is  single-brooded.  But  if  the 
checking  influence  of  the  harsh  weather  is  less,  then  even  in  an  un- 
favorable year  a  second  generation  may  begin  to  develop,  but  does  not 
complete  its  cycle  by  the  end  of  twelve  months.  Hence  there  are  in 
twenty-four  months  three  generations,  and  then  arises  what  Ratzeburg 
calls  a  'one-and-a-half  generation.'  Of  this  Tomicus  bidentatus  not  rarely 
affords  an  example. 



"We  have  observed  that  certain  species  of  insects  and  often  individ- 
ual insects  may  without  any  assignable  reason  remain  a  considerably 
longer  time  than  usual  in  the  pupa  state.  Lyda  stellata  usually  has  a 
single  brood  (one  year  generation)  while  it  frequently  happens  that 
from  the  pupa  beginning  the  first  of  May,  the  imago  does  not  fly  at  the 
end  of  May  or  in  June,  as  is  the  rule,  but  that  the  pupa  state  lasts  over 
to  the  next  May,  when  the  adult  flies!  The  pupal  rest  in  this  case  lasts, 
instead  of  three  weeks,  more  than  a  year.  A  similar  case  is  that  of 
Cnethocampa  pinivora.  This  relation  is  connected  with  the  fact  that 
insects  are  cold-blooded,  or  better,  poikilothermic,  i.  e.,  changeably  warm 
animals.  We  understand  thereby  such  animals  as  those  whose  peculiar 
body  heat,  although  constantly  a  little  higher  than  that  of  the  surround- 
ing medium,  the  air,  water  or  earth,  i.  e.,  their  habitat,  yet  varies  with 
the  changing  temperature  of  this  medium.  In  contrast  with  these  are 
the  warm-blooded,  or,  more  exactly,  the  homceothermal.  i.  e.,  animals  with 
an  even  temperature  which  as  long  as  they  live  steadily  maintain  their 
own  normal  temperature  up  to  a  height  ranging  at  most  1°  O.  The 
blood-heat  of  a  healthy  man,  although  he  may  be  exposed  to  a  degree 
of  cold  of  —  30o  C.  or  a  warmth  of  +  30°  C,  remains  steadily  at  38°  0. 
( Judeich  and  Nitsche.)* 

The  duration  of  development  of  a  warm-blooded  animal  is  definite. 
The  development  of  an  insect's  eggs,  however,  is  analogous  to  that  of 
a  fish.  We  best  see  this  when  at  the  beginning  of  spring  the  leafing 
out  of  the  foliage  is  late  and  the  caterpillars  of  Clisiocampa  hatch  cor- 
respondingly late.  Exact  series  of  observations  of  indubitable  cer- 
tainty are  scarcely  at  hand,  but,  add  our  authors,t  we  will  cite  the  posi- 
tive statements  of  Regener|  on  the  influence  of  temperature  on  the 
duration  of  development  and  of  life  of  the  pine  Bombyx  at  different 
temperatures,  though,  indeed,  they  are  somewhat  inexact  and  incom- 

Provisional  tabular  view  of  the  life-history  of  the  Pine  spinner  (Gaslropacha  pini)  at  dif- 
ferent temperatures,  after  Begener. 


Duration  (in  days)  of— 

from  laying 
to  hatching. 

from  hatch- 
ing to  spin- 
ning of 

Spinning  of 

tions for 

Pupal  rest. 

+    4°  to    5° 
-t-     6° 

+     9°  to  11° 
+  11°  to  14° 
+  15°  to  19° 
+   18°  to  21° 
+  20°  to  24° 
+  24°  to  28° 










*  Each  degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer  is  equal  to  lg-°  of  Fahrenheit;  and 
0°  is  at  the  freezing  point  of  water. 

tJudeich  and  Nitsche,  I,  116. 

X  E.  Regener.  Erfahrungen  iiher  den  Nahrungsverbrauch  und  liber  die  Lebens- 
weise,  Lebensdauer  und  Vertilgung  der  grossen  Kiefernraupe.  Leipzig :  Emil 
Baensch's  Verlag.     1865. 


What  combination  of  different  climatic  influences  in  reality  causes 
that  one  and  the  same  insect  either  in  different  years  in  tin- same  locality, 
or  in  different  localities  in  the  same  year,  needs  a  time  different  in 
length  for  the  completion  of  a  generation,  conld  not  be  determined  in 
advance.  Ratzebnrg  was  inclined  in  this  matter  to  follow  the  similar 
relations  established  by  Bonssinganlt  as  regards  the  duration  of  vege- 
tation of  plants.  According  to  the  views  of  this  French  observer  each 
plant  needs  a  definite  amonnt  of  heat;  i.  e.,  the  sum  of  the  mean  daily 
temperature  of  its  time  of  vegetation  should  be  a  constant  one,  while 
the  duration  of  the  time  of  vegetation  may  itself  vary.  It  is  als  >  theo- 
retically assumed  that  a  plant  needs  heat  amounting  to  2000°  0,,  SO  that 
it  can  develop  in  one  hundred  days,  with  an  average  mean  tempera- 
ture of  20°  C;  also  as  well  in  oue  hundred  and  eleven  with  18° C, aud in 
ninety-one  days  with  an  average  mean  temperature  of  22°  C. 

Katzeburg*  applies  this  to  the  case  of  the  May  beetle.     He  says  : 

Interesting  and  important  is,  moreover,  the  behavior  of  the  May  beetle.  Iu  mid- 
dle and  northern  Germany  its  generation  is  a  quadrennial  one,  iu  southern  Germany  a 
triennial  one.  The  reason  of  this  plainly  lies  in  the  climatic  features  of  those 
regions.  In  the  south  the  season  opens  much  earlier  and  closes  later,  which  mnst 
exert  some  influence  ou  animals  of  a  pliable  nature,  such  as  the  May  beetle,  ;i- 
as  on  plants.  The  grub  there  has,  in  three  years,  a  start  of  at  least  three  months, 
iu  comparison  with  those  in  the  north  :  also,  even  iu  the  third  summer,  its  develop- 
ment may  be  ready,  though  we  should  consider  that  with  us  in  the  fourth  summer,  it  is 
usually  in  July  ;  it  eats  uo  more,  and  in  August  pupates.  Eriehsou  found  that  the 
pupation  sometimes  occurs  even  in  May  :  it  fails  only  a  little  of  a  three-years'  genera- 
tion. Finally,  everything  depends,  as  in  plants,  on  the  amount  of  heat  iu  the  soil 
and  air  which  a  genus  or  species  needs  for  its  development.  If  the  May  beetle  does 
not  find  this  in  the  third  summer,  it  requires  it  in  the  fourth,  aud  can  shorten  the 
time  in  an  especially  favorable  year,  but  with  us  can  never  complete  it  in  three  years. 

Should  we,  for  example,  add  together  the  mean  temperature  of  Berlin  for  twelve 
mouths  it  would  amount  to  106°  C,  aud  for  four  years  4  x  10ii3—  4*24-;  on  the  other 
hand  Carlsruhe  would  in  three  years  give  375°,  and  beyond  the  Alps  there  is  fully 
424°.  Should  we  also  take  into  account  the  temperature  of  the  soil,  the  amount  in 
the  south  would  be  still  better  for  the  May  beetle.  In  north  Germany  in  humous 
sandy  soil  (in  the  Waldsohutten),  the  thermometer  in  the  hybernation  stage  of  the 
May  beetle  in  one  month,  from  the  end  of  March  to  the  end  of  April  and  beginning 
of  May,  rises  from  -p-b0  to  -J-9°  C.  How  is  it  now  iu  the  south?  All  other  insects 
which  inhabit  both  the  north  and  south  must  have  a  "heat  surplus;"  but  since  this 
lasts  only  one,  but  at  the  most  two  years,  it  follows  that  such  results  as  in  the  case 
of  the  May  beetle,  which  requires  so  loug  a  time  to  develop,  can  not  occur  there. 

Accurate  researches  ou  this  problem  are  still  very  rare.  Herr  Uhlig 
iu  Tharaud  found  by  observations  on  the  temperature  made  three  times 
daily  during  a  generation  of  Tomicus  typographus,  from  May  30  to  July 
21,  a  heat-amount  of  145°  O.,  or  divided,  a  daily  amount  of  22.02°;  dur- 
ing the  second  generation,  from  August  4  to  October  3,  an  amount  of 
1228.5°,  or  divided,  a  daily  amount  of  20.48°  (Thar.  Tagebuch,  25  Bd.,  s. 

Katzeburg's  statement  should  also  be  noticed.  A  double  brood  of 
Tomicus  typographic  appears  if,  as  is  usual   in  central  Germany,  the 

^Die  Waldverderber  uud  lhre  Feinde;  tt°,  p.  oGO. 


mean  temperature  of  the  months  reaches  13°  G.  iu  May,  17°  C.  in  June, 
19°  C.  in  July,  17°  0.  in  August,  and  14°  C.  in  September. 

But  it  has  now  long  been  proved  that  plant  physiology  does  not 
accept  the  simple  heat-amount  of  Boussingauit^  and  we  have  besides 
to  consider  the  period  of  suulight  (duration  of  light)  during  which  alone 
the  chlorophyll-containing  parts  are  assimilated,  as  well  as  the  mean 
temperature  reached  in  the  sun — at  best  measured  by  an  actinometer. 
However,  in  animals  the  transformation  of  tissue  depends  much  less 
on  the  amount  of  light  than  in  plants,  hence  simply  the  total  heat- 
amount  can  scarcely  be  sufficient  to  explain  the  differences  in  the  ani- 
mal developmental  processes,  especially  if  we  only  take  into  account 
the  temperature  of  the  air.  It  would  be  much  better  to  take  into  con- 
sideration the  temperature  of  the  soil  throughout  their  larval  life  of 
insects  living  in  the  earth,  and  in  insects  living  in  wood  the  temperature 
of  the  tree,  L  e.,  the  portion  of  the  tree  concerned.  Compare  the  exact 
researches  of  Krutzsch.*  Such  researches  should  determine  what  is  the 
minimum  temperature  at  which  generally  an  advance  in  development 
would  be  possible.  Also  the  optimum  temperature,  i.  e.,  the  tempera- 
ture which  is  most  favorable  to  any  process  should  be  noted. 

For  example,  these  optima  would  require  to  be  different  for  the  dif- 
ferent developmental  stages  in  the  insects,  as  would  the  temperature- 
minima  supportable  to  the  same.  We  also  know,  through  the  re- 
searches of  Semper,  t  that  as  in  the  germination,  growth,  and  flowering  of 
plants,  so  also  in  animals;  i.  e.,  in  our  common  fresh  water  snails,  the 
temperature- optima  for  the  different  function,  i.  e.,  for  the  ripening 
of  the  sexual  products  and  for  growth,  are  different,  a  thesis  which  by 
Semper  has  been  applied  to  a  striking  attempt  at  an  explanation  of  the 
occurrence  of  wingless,  larval-like,  but  still  sexually  developed  Ortho- 
ptera  in  southern  lands,  i.  e.,  the  so-called  "stick  insect n  (Judeich  and 

Hibernation  stage. — The  developmental  cycle  of  two  species  of  insects 
with  similar  generations  may,  under  similar  climatic  relations,  produce 
a  very  different  shape,  namely,  in  the  cases  where  they  pass  the  winter 
in  different  stages  of  development,  since  the  hibernation-stage  is  always 
the  longest,  and  hibernation  is  possible  in  the  egg,  as  in  the  larva,  pupa, 
or  imago,  stage.  But  under  normal  relations  a  given  species  of  insect 
always  hibernates  in  the  same  stage,  i.  e.,  many  moths  as  pupa?,  some 
butterflies  as  imagines. 

It  is  not  possible,  then,  to  predicate  in  general  for  a  single  order  of  in- 
sects as  to  what  stage  they  may  hibernate  in,  since  species  of  the  same 
family  differ  in  this  respect.     Thus,  for  example,  according  to  an  estimate 

*Untersuchungen  iiber  die  Temperatur  der  Baume  im  Vergleiche  zur  Luft  und 
Boden-Teinperatur.  Forstwirthscbaftlickes  Jahrbuch  der  Akadeinie  Tbarand,  x, 
1854,  214-270. 

tAnimal  life  as  affected  by  tbe  natural  conditions  of  existence.  Tbe  Internationa] 
Scientific  Series.     New  York,  1881. 


of  Werneburg's*  of  the  German  Maerolepidoptera  3.4  per  cent,  hiber- 
nated as  egtf>  00.9  per  cent,  as  larva*,  28.2  per  cent,  as  pap®,  and  1.5 
percent,  as  imagines,  while  in  considering  a  single  family  the  result  stood 
entirely  different.  Thus  all  the  Zyga*nidie  hibernated  as  larvie,  most 
SphingidflB  as  pupae,  and  of  the  butterflies  9  per  cent,  in  the  egg,  54  per 
cent,  in  the  larval,  28  per  cent,  in  the  pupal,  and  9  per  cent,  in  the 
imaginal  state.  Thus  it  appears  that  insects  which,  not  to  take  too 
narrow  a  limitation  of  genera,  belong  to  one  and  the  same  genus,  may 
hibernate  in  wholly  different  stages. 

Of  many  species  of  insects  only  the  females  hibernate  after  impreg- 
nation in  autumn,  /.  e.,  many  gnats  and  our  common  paper  wasp  (Vespa), 
while  the  honey  bees  tolerate  no  droues  in  their  hives,  so  that  only  the 
queen  with  the  workers  lives  through  the  winter. 

But  abnormal  meteorological  phenomena  may  so  effect  such  chauges 
that  a  species  of  insect  may  hibernate  in  a  different  stage  of  develop- 
ment from  what  is  customary.  Indeed  there  are  cases  where  au  insect 
may,  though  rarely,  live  through  the  winter  in  another  of  the  four 
stages  of  metamorphosis  than  the  usual  one,  for  it  has  been  observed 
that  the  pine  Gastropacha  lives  through  the  second  winter  as  pupa. 
(Ratzeburg :  Die  Forstinsekten,  ii.,  147,  Anm.)  On  the  other  hand,  it  is 
very  common  for  caterpillars,  which  seek  winter  quarters  when  half 
grown.  This  they  have  to  do  as  very  young  animals.  Thus  the  pine 
Gastropacha  hibernates  after  the  first  molt,  instead  of,  as  usual,  after 
the  second. 

Insects  which  have  generations  requiring  several  years  must  natur- 
ally hibernate  several  times.  This  may  occur  in  the  same  or  in  different 
stages  of  metamorphosis;  thus,  for  example,  the  one,  two  to  three  years' 
generation  of  the  May  fly  remains  as  a  larva  in  the  water,  while  the 
May  beetle  passes  three  winters  as  a  larva,  but  the  fourth  as  au  imago.t 

For  the  following  interesting  remarks  we  are  indebted  to  Judeich  and 
Nitsche's  work  on  Forest  Entomology  : 

Diseases  of  trees  produced  by  the  attacks  of  insects. — Various  deformi- 
ties and  alterations  of  the  wood,  branches,  and  leaves  result  from  the 
attacks  of  borers  and  bud  and  leaf  devourers.  Before  the  tree  com- 
pletely heals  there  is  a  more  or  less  long  period  during  which  the  tree 
assumes  an  abnormal,  morbid  appearance.  Such  appearances  in  which 
the  disease  affects  the  growth  of  the  wood  are :  1.  The  appearance  of 
unusual  new  structures,  such  as  leaves,  etc.,  both  in  form  and  dimensions. 
2.  The  origin  of  repaired  parts  from  representative  growths  or  sleeping 
buds.     3.  The  diminution  of  growth. 

The  appearance  of  unusual  new  growths. — In  general  the  changed 
sickly  new  growths  are  smaller  and  more  sparse  than  the  normal.  A 
thinner  foliage  in  the  year  after  the  damage  is  generally  the  result  of 

*A.  Werneburg.     Der  Schuietterliug  und  seiu  Leben.     8°.    Berlin  :  1SV1. 
tThe  foregoing  remarks  on  insect-generations  and  hibernation  have  been  trans- 
lated from  Jndeicb  and  Nitsche's  valuable  work  on  Central  European  Entomology. 



stripping  the  trees  bare.     After  injury  by  the  nun  caterpillar  the  trees 
seem  to  suffer  most  in  the  secoud  year  following  the  damage. 

The  new  growth  of  the  fir  generally  sends  out  only  very  short  needles, 
which  remain  as  brush  shoots  (Fig.  3.)  In  the  pine  there  arises  after 
defoliation  from  lateral  buds  u  rosette  shoots,"  i.  e.,  very  short,  persist- 
ing growths  bearing  dense,  short,  broad,  and  serrate  (gesagte)  single 
needles  (Fig.  4).  But  on  the  other  hand  cases  occur,  when  many  buds 
are  destroyed,  where  the  remaining  remnant  of  the  entire  sap-stream  is 
used  and  the  organs  formed  out  of  it,  i.  e.,  needles  or  leaves  become 
unusually  large,  as  for  example  in  the  ordinary  pine,  in  which  case  the 
leaves  bear  three  needles. 

Fig.  3.  Lateral  twig  of  a  fir  eaten  by  nun  cater- 
pillars in  1856.  which  in  1858  only  produced 
"brush  needles."    After  Ratzeburg. 

Fig.  4.    Rosette  shoot  on  the  pine.    After 

Similar  relations  are  observed  in  the  helve  oak  attacked  by  Orchestes, 
Generally  the  first  growth  seems  to  grow  straight  on  and  resist  the  in- 
jury arising  from  the  laying  of  the  eggs  by  the  female  of  this  leaping 
weevil,  and  the  injured  leaves  are  crumpled,  but  such  leaves  on  the 
Johaunis  growth  (Johannistriebe)  become  unusually  large  and  abnor- 
mally formed,  while  those  situated  on  the  summit  entirely  assume  their 
normal  shape. 

The  origin  of  repaired  parts  from  representative  indefinite  growths  is 
very  general. — The  clearest  example  is  afforded  by  pines  deprived  by 
Eetinia  buoliana  of  their  terminal  shoots.  In  this  case  there  grows  out 
after  a  certain  time  a  shoot  of  the  uppermost  branch  (Quirles),  which 
now  becomes  the  terminal  shoot,  though  in  growing  up  there  is  acrum- 
bliug  of  the  stem  in  the  place  under  consideration. 

For  the  formation  of  mostly  abnormally  shaped  organs  which  have 
been  replaced  from  sleeping  bud^,  the  pine  affords  the  best  example. 
From  the  usually  dormant  sheathing- buds  on  the  point  of  origin  of  the 
short  shoot  pccurrjiig'  between  every  two  pine  needles,  are  developed 



(ill  the  course  of  the  appearance  of  needles,  and  dwarfing  the  leading 
shoot)  iheatking  shoots,  which,  however,  usually  reach  do  great  age,  but 
arc  provisionally  of  much  importance  to  the  life  of  the  tree. 

The  loss  of  increase  in  size  resulting  from  disease  is  twofold.  Some- 
times the  shoots  suffer  in  decrease  in  length,  at  others  in  shrinking  in 
size.  The  diminution  of  length  is  shown  after  the  year  succeeding  that  in 
which  the  injury  took  place ;  that  in  the  terminal 
shoot  of  the  branch,  and  especially  the  topmost 
shoot,  the  needles  remain  shorter.  Not  until 
later  do  they  again  assume  their  normal  length. 
The  fir  also,  whose  topmost  shoot  is  here  repre- 
sented (Fig.  5),  after  injury  received  in  the  year 
1857  formed  only  short  leading  shoots,  but  in 
1861  again  formed  a  strong  shoot. 

The  diminution  of  the  growth  in  diameter  is 

especially  noticeable  in  the  loss  of  the  foliage  or 

needles,  which  sometimes  occurs  in  the  year  of 

injury,  but  more  decidedly  the  following  year. 

After  a  greater  loss  of  leaves  the  annnal  rings 

•lfcP>*  •••••*'•  "«>»l»«  •■«'•••   '••«••-.  ••••■■.«»'  ■" 



Fig.  6. 

Fig.  5.  Terminal  shoot  of  a 
fir  defoliated  by  the  nun-cat- 
erpillar in  1857,  showing  the 
different  lengths  of  the 
year's  growth.  After  Ratze- 

The  last  seven  rings  of  pine  stem  almost  wholly  defoliated  in. 
1858,  but  not  killed  outright.     After  Ratzeburg. 

are  smaller  and  feebler,  and  this  may  sometimes 
last  over  for  many  years.     (Fig.  6.) 

Nordlinger  has  repeatedly  found  signs  of  de- 
foliation by  the  May  beetle  for  three  years  on 
oaks,  also  on  Carya  alba,  in  southern  Germany,  indicated  by  very  small 
annual  rings. 

The  counting  of  the  aunual  rings  to  ascertain  the  age  of  the  tree  in 
the  practically  so  important  matter  of  discovering  its  rate  of  growth  is 
rendered  unsafe  by  the  formation  of  double  riugs,  which  may  result 
from  the  sudden  leaving-out  in  summer  on  young  shoots,  or  by  the  co- 
alescence of  two  annual  rings  in  one,  aud  sometimes  even  by  the  total 
omission  of  a  ring.  The  sharply-defined  difference  between  the  spring 
and  autumn  growth  of  wood  as  denoted  by  the  color,  "  white  aud  brown 
wood  "  of  an  annual  ring,  especially  in  the  coniferous  woods,  enable 
them  to  be  very  easily  counted,  pr6vided  there  :s  no  interruption  in  the 
growth.     In  the  deciduous  trees  the  two  layers  of  the  aunual  rings  are 


less  sharply  distinguished  ;  and  it  is  only  in  the  oaks,  ashes,  and  elms, 
where  the  pores  are  arranged  in  rings  ("ringporeu")  that  the  richly 
vascular  spring  wood  sharply  defines  each  new  annual  ring  from  the 
denser  and  more  compact  autumnal  layer  of  the  preceding  ring. 

Injuries  in  the  production  of  the  resin  also  arise  from  molds,  which 
effect  a  transformation  of  the  starch  and  of  the  cellulose  into  turpen- 
tine, and  thus  cause  a  morbid  increase  as  well  as  outflow  of  the  resin  or 
pitch ;  e.  #.,  Agaricus  melleus,  Aecidiumpini,  Peziza  Willkommii.  All  in- 
sects which  externally  gua  w  the  bark  or  the  wood  of  coniferous  trees,  e.  g„ 
bark  borers,  wood  wasps,  Grapholitha pactolana  and  G.coniferana,  Bioryc- 
tria  abietella;  different  weevils  (Hylobius  and  Pissodes),  produce  a  more 
or  less  strong  flow  of  pitch  or  resin.  But  also  in  the  interior  of  the  wood 
arise  abnormal  formations,  as,  for  example,  the  so-called  pitch-chains. 
We  understand  by  these  a  morbid  increase  of  the  pitch  canals  of  coni- 
fers into  concentric  chains  which  often  coalesce  ;  also  the  pitch  canals 
in  the  last  year's  ring  are  completely  omitted. 

Prevention  and  remedies  against  forest  insects. — Besides  the  insecticides 
for  such  insects  as  feed  upon  the  leaves,  and  the  means  of  applying 
them  to  single  trees,  to  groves,  or  to  more  or  less  extensive  forest  areas, 
and  which  will  be  described  farther  on  by  Professor  Riley,  there  are  some 
suggestions  which  may  be  made  as  to  the  remedies  against  borers. 

In  the  first  place  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  dead  stumps  and 
decaying  trees  or  logs  left  standing  near  groves  or  road-side  trees,  are 
a  continual  menace  to  healthy  trees,  since  they  afford  an  asylum  or 
breeding-place  to  timber  and  bark  borers.  Such  objects,  large  and 
small,  should  be  cut  down  or  pulled  up  and  burnt.  Forests  should  be 
kept  free  from  standing  dead  trees  and  stumps,  or  if  left  standing 
should  have  the  bark  removed.  It  is  well  known  that  lumberers  remove 
the  bark  of  logs  to  prevent  injury  to  the  lumber  of  "  sawyers,"  or  the 
grubs  of  timber-beetles. 

While  in  the  virgin  spruce  forest  on  the  eastern  shores  of  Lake  Ken- 
nebago,  Maine,  which  had  never  been  lumbered,  my  attention  was 
forcibly  called  to  the  necessity  of  cutting  down  the  dead  and  dying 
spruces  so  as  to  save  the  healthy  trees.  It  is  of  course  out  of  the  question 
to  burn  such  dead  timber,  but  we  question  whether  it  would  not  in  the 
long  run  pay  the  owners  of  lumber  lands  to  send  parties  in  to  cut  down 
the  trees,  remove  the  bark,  and  thus  prevent  the  breeding  of  bark- 
borers,  and  hasten  the  decay  of  trees  infested  by  timber  and  bark-borers. 

Plantations  and  forests  of  limited  extent  can  with  comparative  ease 
and  slight  expense  be  kept  in  neat,  trim  order  by  judicious  thinning 
and  removal  of  injured  or  infected  branches,  the  latter  being  burnt. 

Borers  in  shade  and  ornamental  trees. — Our  experience  in  detecting  the 
gashes  in  the  bark  of  the  spruce  and  fir  made  by  the  female  Monoham- 
mus,  the  parent-beetle  of  the  "sawyer"  or  borer,  aud  those  made  in 
rock -maples  by  the  female  beetle  of  the  maple-tree  borer,  so  destructive 
in  parks  aud  streets,  has  taught  us  that  it  is  quite  practicable  during 


August  to  liud  these  gashes  and  to  cut  out  the  small  grubs  in  the  bark 
underneath,  at  a  time  when  they  have  not  descended  deep  into  the  tree. 
An  observant  and  intelligent  gardeuer  could  easily  prevent  further 
damage  from  such  a  cause. 

One  of  the,  most  formidable  and  deadly  borers  of  the  oak,  from  Maine 
to  California  and  Texas,  is  the  caterpillar  of  the  Carpenter  moth.  In 
Europe  a  similar  borer  is  dealt  with  m  the  following  ways,  according  to 
different  writers  quoted  by  Miss  Ormerod  in  her  '-Manual  of  Injurious 
Insects/'  A  wire  thrust  into  the  "mine"  or  hole  may  destroy  them. 
Paraffine  injected  by  a  sharp-uozzled  syringe  with  as  much  force  as  pos- 
sible into  the  holes  where  the  caterpillars  are  working  is  a  good  remedy, 
also  any  oily  or  soapy  mixture  (kerosene  injections  might  injure  the 
tree  more  than  the  borer).  The  flames  of  sulphur  blown  into  the  hole 
might  be  of  use.  u  Where  a  tree  is  much  infested,  it  is  the  best  plan 
to  cut  it  down,  split  it,  and  destroy  the  caterpillars  within.  As  many  as 
sixty  or  more  caterpillars  maybe  taken  from  one  tree,  aud  when  in  this 
state  it  will  never  thoroughly  recover,  aud  it  becomes  a  center  to  attract 
further  attack,  as  well  as  one  to  spread  infection.'1 

As  preventive  measures,  to  preveut  ovipositiou,  the  lower  part  of  the 
trunk  should  b^  washed  with  whale  oil  soap  of  the  consistency  of  thick 
paint.  This  should  be  done  at  or  about  the  time  the  moth  lays  her  eggs, 
viz,  as  early  as  April  aud  May  in  Texas,  aud  in  June  and  July  in  the 
Northern  States. 

These  suggestions  will  also  apply  to  the  Sesiau  borers  of  the  maple, 
ash,  etc. 

Prevention,  and  remedies  against  Timber-beetles  and  Bark-borers. — The 
family  of  bark-borers  (Scolytidai)  include  those  which  live  in  the  bark 
and  those  which  descend  into  the  wood,  the  latter  often  being  called 
timber-beetles.  We  have  given  in  this  work  some  of  the  known  facts 
regarding  their  habits,  which  are  very  curious.  EichhofFs  excellent 
work  in  German  on  European  bark-beetles  is  replete  with  fresh  obser- 
vations on  these  beetles.  We  may  here  draw  attentiou  to  what  Eich- 
hoff  says  concerning  some  causes  of  the  undue  increase  of  these  insects, 
and  their  sudden  appearance  iu  places  not  before  frequented  by  them. 

The  chief  factors  iu  the  growth  of  bark-beetles  are  good  weather  and 
sufficient  nourishment.  An  uninterrupted  dry,  aud  heuce  hot,  summer 
checks  the  growth  of  the  larva,  and  retards  the  speedy  development 
aud  more  often  prevents  a  repetition  of  auother  brood,  than  au  unin- 
terrupted wet  aud  cold  spring  and  summer.  Hence,  on  account  of  great 
heat  aud  drought  many  trees  survive  which  would  otherwise  be  injured 
by  the  later  brood  of  bark-beetles.  The  most  favorable  conditions  for 
the  increase  of  bark-beetles  are  doubtless  a  warm  early  spring  and  a 
warm  summer,  with  frequent  rains  and  a  long,  mild  autumu. 

Other  circumstances,  says  Eichhoff,  favorable  to  the  increase  of  bark- 
beetles,  are  strong  wiuds,  snow,  frosts,  forest  tires,  the  devastation 
wrought  by  caterpillars,  whereby  the  trees  are  more  or  less  decorti- 


cated  in  places  and  .otherwise  wounded,  so  that  the  beetles  can  gnaw 
into  the  wood  or  inner  bark,  lay  their  eggs,  and  thus  finally  form  brood- 

Eichhoff  asks  the  pertinent  question:  "  How  do  great  numbers  of 
bark-beetles  pass  into  regions  where  perhaps  before  they  were  scarcely 
known  by  name  ?  For  example,  at  the  end  of  a  period  of  fifty  years, 
-all  at  once  Tomicus  curvidens  appeared  in  the  Botanic  Garden  of  the 
University  of  Vienna,  and  were  very  destructive  to  different  exotic 
cedars,  larches,  etc.,  afterwards  attacking  white  firs,  which  contained 
numbers  of  the  beetles. 

The  bark-borers,  especially  Tomicus  typographies,  belong  to  those  in- 
sects which  sometimes  produce  extensive  devastations  by  immigration 
from  without.  According  to  a  German  writer  they  doubtless  migrate 
for  short  distances,  since  not  seldom  there  result  local  destruction  of 
groups  of  firs  when  previously  no  bark-borers  were  to  be  seen.  It  is 
also  certain  that  forests  previously  entirely  free  from  bark-beetles  be- 
come infested  by  bark-beecles  bred  in  wood  and  lumber  yards.  It  is 
difficult  and  questionable  how  far  such  an  immigration  may  extend. 
An  example  of  an  extensive  emigration  of  Tomicus  typographus  is 
afforded  by  H.  Tiedemann  in  the  province  of  Mshny-Novgorod. 

In  the  midst  of  an  imperial  forest  of  about  2,500  ha  lying  in  the  district  Arsamass, 
and  composed  almost  exclusively  of  hard-wood  trees,  occur  two  fir-growths  of  50, 
perhaps  60,  ha  in  extent.  In  both  there  was  no  windfalls,  no  burnt  areas,  but  a  good 
close  growth  in  which  no  bark-borers  had  appeared.  Suddenly  in  the  year  1883  the 
bark -borers  were  so  numerous  that  2,000  fir  trunks  at  once  fell,  and  had  to  have  the 
bark  stripped  off  and  burnt.  The  appearance  of  the  bark-beetles  is  in  this  case  only 
to  be  explained  by  their  flying  into  this  area.  The  nearest  fir-growths  are  from  15 
to  20  kilometers  distant,  and  those  of  sufficient  size  to  afford  time  for  the  infection  of 
the  fir-growths  in  question,  about  50  kilometers  distant. 

Perhaps  the  best  method  o  preventing  or  stopping  the  work  of  bark- 
beetles  is  that  of  a  Frenchman,  M.  Robert,  given  in  the  Gardener's 
Chronicle  and  quoted  by  Miss  Ormerod: 

The  best  remedy  appears  to  be  that  adopted  with  great  success  in  France  by  M. 
Robert,  after  careful  observation  of  the  circumstances  which  stopped  the  operations 
of  the  female  beetle  when  gnawing  her  gallery  for  egg-laying,  or  which  disagreed 
with  or  destroyed  the  maggots,  and  is  based  in  part  on  similar  observations  of  the 
effect  of  flow  of  sap  to  those  noticed  in  England  by  Dr.  Chapman. 

It  appeared  on  examination  that  the  grubs  died  if  they  were  not  well  protected 
from  the  drying  action  of  the  air;  on  the  other  hand,  if  there  was  a  very  large 
amount  of  sap  in  the  vegetable  tissues  that  they  fed  ou,  this  also  killed  them  ;  and 
it  was  observed  that  when  the  female  was  boring  through  the  bark,  if  a  flow  of  sap 
took  place  she  abandoned  the  spot  and  went  elsewhere.  It  was  also  noticed  that  the 
attack  (that  is,  the  boring  of  the  galleries  which  separates  much  of  the  bark  from 
the  wood)  is  usually  under  thick  old  bark,  such  as  that  of  old  elm  trunks  rather 
than  under  the  thinuer  bark  of  the  branches.  Working  on  these  observations,  M. 
Robert  had  strips  of  about  two  inches  wide  cut  out  of  the  bark  from  the  large 
boughs  down  the  trunk  to  the  ground,  and  it  was  found  that  where  the  young  bark 
pressed  forward  to  heal  the  wound  and  a  vigorous  flow  of  sap  took  place  that-many 
of  the  maggots  near  it  were  killed,  the  bark  which  had  not  been  entirely  undermined 
was  consolidated,  and  the  health  of  the  tree  was  improved. 


Working  on  from  this,  M.  Robert  tried  tin*  more  extended  treatment  of  paring  off 

the  outer  bark,  ■  practice  much  used  in  Normandy  and  sometimes  in  England  for  re- 
storing vigor  ol  growth  to  bark-bonnd  apple  trees,  and  noted  by  Andrew  Knight  as 
giving  a  great  stimulus  t<»  vegetation.  M.  Robert  had  the  whole  of  the  rough  outer 
bark  removed  from  tbe  elm  (this  may  be  done  conveniently  by  a  scraping-knife 
shaped  like  a  spoke-shave).  Thi§  operation  caused  a  great  flow  of  sap  in  tbe  inner 
lining  of  the  bark  (the  liber),  and  the  grubs  of  tbe  8ooljftut  beetle  were  found  in 
almost  all  cases  to  perish  shortly  after.  Whether  this  occurred  from  the  altered  sap 
disagreeing  with  them,  or  from  the  greater  amount  of  moisture  around  them,  or  from 
tbe  maggots  being  more  exposed  to  atmospheric  changes,  01  any  other  cause,  was 
not  ascertained,  but  the  trees  that  were  experimented  on  were  cleared  of  the  mag- 
jmUs.  'flic  treatment  was  applied  on  a  large  scale,  and  the  barked  trees  were  found, 
att.r  examination  by  the  Commissioners  of  the  Institute  at  two  different  periods,  to 
be  in  more  vigorous  health  than  the  neighboring  ones  of  which  the  bark  was  un- 
touched.    More  than  two  thousand  elms  were  thus  treated. 

This  account  is  abridged  from  the  leading  article  in  the  •'  Gardener's  Chronicle  and 
Agricultural  Gazette,"  for  April  "J'J,  1848,  and  the  method  is  well  worth  trying  in  our 
public  and  private  parks.  It  is  not  expensive:  the  principle  on  which  it  acts  as  re- 
gards vegetable  growth  is  a  well-known  one.  and  as  regards  insect  health  it  is  also 
well  known  that  a  sudden  flow  of  the  sap  that  they  feed  on,  or  a  sudden  incre, 
moisture  around  them,  is  very  productive  of  unhealthiness  or  of  fatal  diarrhu-a  to 
vegetable  feeding  grnbs. 

A  somewhat  similar  process  was  tried  by  the  Botanic  Society,  in  1842,  on  trees  in- 
fested by  the  Scolytus  destructor  in  the  belt  of  elms  encircling  their  garden  in  the  Re- 
gents' Park,  London.  "It  consists  in  divesting  the  tree  of  its  rough  outer  bark,  be- 
ing careful  at  the  infested  parts  to  go  deep  enough  to  destroy  the  young  larvae,  and 
dressing  with  the  usual  mixture  of  lime  and  cow-dung."  This  operation  was  found 
very  successful,  and  details  with  illustrations  were  given  in  a  paper  read  in  1848  be- 
fore the  Botauic  Society. 

Various  applications  have  been  recommended,  such  as  brushing  the  bark  of  infested 
trees  with  coal-tar  or  with  whitewash,  in  order  to  keep  off  the  beetle  attack.  Any- 
thing of  this  kind  that  would  make  the  surface  unpleasant  to  the  beetle  would  cer- 
tainly  be  of  use  so  long  as  it  was  not  of  a  nature  to  hurt  the  tree,  and  if  previously 
the  very  rugged  bark  was  partially  smoothed  it  would  make  the  application  of  what- 
ever mixture  might  be  chosen  easier  and  more  thorough. 

Anything  that  would  catch  the  beetles,  either  going  into  or  out  from  the  bark,  like 
coal-tar,  would  be  particularly  useful,  and  probably  strong-smelling  and  greasy  mixt- 
ures, such  as  fish-oil  soft  soap,  would  do  much  good. 

Washing  down  the  trunks  of  attacked  trees  has  not  been  suggested,  but,  looking 
at  the  dislike  of  the  female  beetle  to  moisture  in  her  burrow,  it  would  be  worth  while, 
in  the  case  of  single  trees  which  it  was  an  object  to  preserve,  to  drench  the  bark  daily 
from  a  garden-engine  for  a  short  time  when  the  beetles  were  seen  (or  known  by  the 
wood-dust  thrown  out)  to  be  at  work  forming  burrows  for  egg-laying. 

The  possibility  of  carrying  out  the  importaut  point  of  clearing  away  or  treating 
infested  standing  trees  depends,  of  course,  on  local  circumstances;  but,  whatever 
care  is  exercised  in  other  ways,  it  is  very  unlikely  that  much  good  will  be  done  in 
lessening  attack  so  long  as  the  inexcusable  practice  continues  of  leaving  the  felled 
trunks  of  infested  elms  lying,  uith  their  hark  still  on,  when  containing  myriads  of 
these  maggots,  which  are  all  getting  ready  shortly  to  change  to  perfect  beetles,  and  to 
fly  to  the  nearest  growing  elms. 

Such  neglected  trunks  may  be  seen  in  our  parks  and  rural  wood-yards  all  over  the 
country,  where,  without  difficulty,  the  hand  may  be  run  under  the  bark  so  as  to 
detach  feet  and  yards  in  length  from  the  truuk  all  swarming  with  white  Scolytus 
maggots  in  their  narrow  galleries. 

This  bark,  with  its  contents,  ought  never  to  be  permitted  to  remain.  Where  it  is 
loose  it  may  be  cleared  of  many  of  the  maggots  by  stripping  it  off  and  letting  the 


poultry  have  access  to  it;  or,  if  still  partly  adhering,  it  may  be  ripped  from  the  wood 
by  barking  tools  and  burnt;  but  it  is  a  tangible  and  serious  cause  of  injury,  and  if 
our  landed  proprietors  were  fully  aware  of  the  mischief  thus  caused  to  their  own  trees 
and  those  of  the  neighborhood  they  would  quickly  get  rid  of  it. 



This  subject  may  be  divided  into  two  parts,  viz,  (1)  a  discussion  of 
insecticides  and  (2)  a  discussion  of  insecticide  apparatus. 

(1)  insecticides. — Remedial  measures  against  forest-tree  insects 
are  not  different  from  those  employed  against  the  insect  enemies  of  fruit- 
trees  or  farm  and  garden  crops.  The  same  species  are  frequently  the 
culprits  in  both  cases ;  and,  in  general,  insects  of  the  same  orders  and 
families,  having  similar  habits  and  requiring  similar  treatment,  attack 
wild-growing,  woody  plants  aud  the  cultivated  sorts. 

For  convenience  of  treatment,  the  first  part  may  be  considered  under 
the  following  heads :  Insecticides  which  act  through  the  food ;  insecti- 
cides which  act  by  contact;  fumigants  and  gases. 

Insecticides  which  act  through  the  food. — These  insecticides 
are  available  against  all  mandibulate  insects  that  feed  externally  on  the 
leaves,  such  as  the  larvae  of  Lepidoptera,  larvae  and  adults  of  leaf- 
feeding  beetles,  and  saw-fly  larvae.  Gall-insects,  leaf-miners,  and  in- 
sects which  burrow  beneath  the  bark  or  in  the  wood  cannot  be  con- 
trolled by  these  means. 

It  would  be  possible  to  enumerate  under  this  heading  a  large  number 
of  substances  depending  for  their  effects  on  arsenic,  strychnine,  or  other 
poisons,  but  I  prefer  to  limit  the  discussion  to  the  consideration  of  two 
substances  which  are  now  commonly  used  to  the  exclusion  of  nearly  all 

Paris  green  and  London  purple. — The  arsenites  of  copper  and  cal- 
cium, Paris  green  and  London  purple,  are  so  well  known  as  not  to 
need  particular  description  here.  The  safety  and  efficiency  with  which 
they  can  be  used  and  their  slight  cost  fully  satisfy  all  the  demands 
of  practical  work. 

As  containing  records  of  a  general  nature,  together  with  full  in- 
structions for  the  use  of  these  poisons,  I  can  not  do  better  than  quote 
from  Bulletin  No.  10  of  the  division  of  entomology,!  the  conclusions 
being  based  on  experiments  under  my  direction,  especially  by  the  late 
Dr.  W.  S.  Barnard. 

The  quotation  refers  particularly  to  work  against  the  imported  Elm 
leaf- beetle  (Galeruca  xanthomelama)  and  deals  with  the  treatment  of 
elm  trees  only,  but  the  results  obtained  may  apply  to  other  insects 
infesting  various  shade  and  forest  trees.    The  recommendation  given 

•    'Prepared,  at  the  author's  request,  by  Professor  Riley. 

t  Our  Shade  Trees  and  Their  Insect  Defoliators,  by  C.  V.  Riley,  Entomologist, 
Washington,  1887.     Second  revised  edition,  1888. 


will  Deed  to  be  modified  to  correspond  with  the  varying  conditions  in 
habits  and  life-history  of  any  particular  species,  as  found  detailed  in  the 
following  pages  of  Dr.  Packard's  report : 

l-jj',i/s  >>f  Argenioal  Poi$om  on  Insect  and  l'lant. — Species  of  elms  are  somewhat 
differently  affected  by  the  poison.  When  treated  alike  there  is  always  manifest  some 
difference  in  the  susceptibility  of  differed  elms  t<>  the  corrosive  effects  of  the  poison. 

Even  individuals  of  the  same  .species  or  variety  are  differently  impaired.  As  a  rule, 
those  which  snit  the  insect  best  are  injured  most  by  the  poison,  and  those  which 
resist  the  insect  most  withstand  the  DOISOD  best.  The  latter  have  coarser  foliage 
with  a  darker  green  color  and  more  vigorous  general  growth ;  the  former  have  more 
delicate  foliage,  lighter  in  color  and  weight,  apparently  less  succulent. 

Certain  elms  of  the  species  l'.  oampettrU  and  other  species  which  were  over- 
poisoned,  and  shed  most  of  their  leaves  in  consequence  in  the  last  of  June.  L883,  sent 
out  a  profuse  new  growth  of  leaves  and  twigs.  The  foliage  fell  gradually  for  three 
weeks,  and  this  was  somewhat  promoted  by  the  succeeding  rains. 

The  larva'  move  from  place  to  place  so  seldom  that,  if  the  leaves  are  imperfectly 
poisoned  from  the  mixture  being  weakly  diluted  or  from  its  application  only  in  large, 
scattered  drops,  which  are  much  avoided  by  the  larva-,  they  are  not  killed  off  thor- 
oughly for  several  days,  and  in  all  cases  it  requires  considerable  time  to  attain  the 
full  effect  of  the  poison.  This  result  appears  on  the  plant  and  on  the  insect.  After 
each  rain  the  poison  takes  a  new  effect  upon  the  plant  and  the  pest,  which  indicates 
that  the  poison  is  absorbed  more  or  is  more  active  when  wet,  and  that  it  acts  by  de- 
hydrating thereafter.  Where  the  tree  is  too  strongly  poisoned,  each  rain  causes  a 
new  lot  of  leaves  to  become  discolored  by  the  poison  or  to  fall.  On  some  of  the  trees 
the  discoloration  appears  in  brown,  dead  blotches  on  the  foliage,  chiefly  about  the 
gnawed  places  and  margins,  while  in  other  instances  many  of  the  leaves  turn  yellow, 
and  others  fall  without  change  of  color.  The  latter  may  not  all  drop  from  the  effects 
of  poison,  but  the  coloration  referred  to  is  without  doubt  generally  from  the  caustic 
action.  The  poison  not  only  produces  the  local  effects  from  contact  action  on  the 
parts  touched  by  it,  but  following  this  there  appears  a  more  general  effect,  manifest 
in  that  all  the  foliage  appears  to  lose,  to  some  extent,  its  freshness  and  vitality. 
This  secondary  influence  is  probably  from  poisoning  of  the  sap  in  a  moderate  degree. 
When  this  is  once  observable,  no  leaf-eater  thrives  upon  the  foliage.  Slight  over- 
poisoning  seems  to  have  a  tonic  or  invigorating  effect  on  the  tree. 

Preventive  Effects  of  the  Poison. — In  this  grove  the  elms  that  were  poisoned  in  1882 
were  attacked  in  the  spring  of  1883  less  severely  than  were  those  which  were  not 
poisoned  the  previous  year.  This  would  seem  to  imply  that  the  insects  deposit  mostly 
on  the  trees  nearest  to  where  they  develop,  and  are  only  partially  migratory  before 
ovipositing.  The  attack  afterward  became  increased,  probably  by  immigration  and 
the  new  generation,  so  that  later  in  the  season  the  trees  were  mostly  infested  to  the 
usual  extent. 

In  the  region  of  Washington  a  preventive  application  of  poison  should  be  made  before  the 
last  of  May  or  first  of  June,  when  the  eggs  are  being  deposited  and  before  they  hatch. 
This  will  prevent  the  worms  from  ever  getting  a  start.  By  the  preventive  method 
the  tree  escapee  two  kinds  of  injury:  first,  that  directly  from  the  eating  by  the  in- 
sect ;  second,  that  which  follows  indirectly  from  the  deleterious  effects  of  the  poison 
on  the  plant,  for  its  caustic  effect  is  much  greater  where  the  leaves  have  been  so 
gnawed  that  the  poison  comes  in  contact  with  tl»e  sap. 

Treatment  with  London  Purple. — Already  early  in  June  the  insect  appears  plentiful. 
On  June  7,  1882,  it  was  at  work  on  all  the  trees,  and  its  clusters  of  eggs  were  numer- 
ous beneath  the  leaves.  Some  of  the  trees  had  half  of  the  leaves  considerably  gnawed 
and  perforated  by  larva'  of  all  sizes,  and  by  the  adults.  At  this  date  fifteen  trees. 
constituting  the  south  part  of  the  grove,  were  treated. 

Preparation  of  the  Poison. — London  purple  (one-half  pound),  flour  (3  quarts),  and 
water  (barrel,  40  gallons)  were  mixed  as  follows:  A  large  galvanized  iron  funnel  of 


thirteen  quarts  capacity,  and  having  a  cross-septum  of  fine  wire  gauze,  such  as  is  used 
for  sieves,  also  having  vertical  sides,  and  a  rim  to  keep  it  from  rocking  on  the  barrel, 
was  used.  About  three  quarts  of  cheap  flour  were  placed  in  the  funnel  and  washed 
through  the  wire  gauze  by  water  poured  in.'  The  flour  in  passing  through  is  finely 
divided,  and  will  diffuse  in  the  water  without  appearing  in  lumps.  The  flour  is  a  suit- 
able medium  to  make  the  poison  adhesive.  The  London  purple  is  then  placed  upon 
the  gauze  and  washed  in  by  the  remainder  of  the  water  until  the  barrel  is  filled.  In 
other  tests  the  flour  was  mixed  dry  with  the  poison  powder,  and  both  were  afterward 
washed  through  together  with  good  results.  It  is  thought  that  by  mixing  in  this 
way  less  flour  will  suffice.  Three-eighths  of  a  pound  of  London  purple  to  one  barrel  of 
water  maybe  taken  as  a  suitable  percentage.  Three-eighths  of  an  ounce  may  be  used 
as  an  equivalent  in  one  bucketful  of  water.  The  amount  of  this  poison  was  reduced 
to  one-fourth  of  a  pound  to  the  barrel  with  good  effect,  but  this  seems  to  be  the  min- 
imum quantity,  and  to  be  of  value  it  must  be  applied  in  favorable  weather  and  with 
unusual  thoroughness.  With  one-half  or  three-fourths  of  a  pound  to  the  barrel, 
about  the  maximum  strength  allowable  is  attained,  and  this  should  be  applied  only 
as  an  extremely  fine  mist,  without  drenching  the  foliage. 

Effects  of  the  Mixture. — The  flour  seems  to  keep  the  poison  from  taking  effect  on  the 
leaf,  preventing  to  some  extent  the  corrosive  injury  which  otherwise  obtains  when 
the  poison  is  coarsely  sprinkled  or  too  strong.  It  also  renders  the  poison  more  per- 
manent. On  the  leaves,  especially  on  the  under  surfaces,  the  London  purple  and 
flour  can  be  seen  for  several  weeks  after  it  has  been  applied,  and  the  insect  is  not 
only  destroyed,  but  is  prevented  from  reappearing,  at  least  for  a  long  period.  By 
poisoning  again,  a  few  weeks  later,  the  insect  is  deterred  with  greater  certainty  for 
the  entire  season.  By  being  careful  to  administer  the  poison  before  the  insect  has 
worked,  and,  above  all,  to  diffuse  the  spray  finely,  but  not  in  large  drops,  no  harm 
worth  mentioning  will  accrue  to  the  plant  from  the  proportion  of  poison  recom- 
mended. The  new  growth,  that  developed  after  the  first  poisoning,  was  protected 
by  one-fourth  of  a  pound  to  the  barrel  in  1882.  From  midsummer  until  autumn  the 
uupoisoned  half  of  the  grove  remained  denuded  of  foliage,  while  the  poisoned  half 
retained  its  verdure.  The  little  damage  then  appearing  in  the  protected  part  was 
mostly  done  before  the  first  treatment.  Eggs  were  laid  abundantly  throughout  the 
season.  Many  of  these  seemed  unhealthy  and  failed  to  develop,  probably  because 
they  were  poisoned.  Many  hatched,  but  the  young  larvae  soon  died.  The  eggs  were 
seldom  deposited  on  the  young  leaves  that  were  appearing  after  the  poison  was  ap- 
plied, but  were  attached  to  the  developed  leaves,  and  here  the  larvae  generally  got 
the  poison  to  prevent  their  attack  upon  the  aftergrowth.  Still  the  young  leaves  be- 
came perforated  to  some  extent.  The  adults,  which  fly  from  tree  to  tree,  appeared 
plentifully  without  much  interruption  throughout  the  season,  and  often  several 
could  be  seen  feeding  on  each  tree.  Possibly  many  of  these  may  have  become  poi- 
soned before  depositing  the  eggs. 

The  efficiency  of  London  purple  being  established,  it  will  generally  be  preferred  to 
other  arsenicals,  because  of  its  cheapness,  better  diffusibility,  visibility  on  the  foli- 
age, etc.  As  the  effects  of  the  poisons  commonly  do  not  appear  decidedly  for  two  or 
three  days  after  their  administration,  the  importance  of  the  preventive  method  of 
poisoning  in  advance  can  not  be  too  strongly  urged.  As  the  effect  is  slow  in  appear- 
ing, impatient  parties  will  be  apt  to  repoison  on  the  second  or  third  day,  and  thus 
put  on  enough  to  hurt  the  plant  when  the  effect  does  come.  Much  depends  on  dry- 
ness or  wetness  of  the  weather ;  but  good  effects  may  be  expected  by  the  third  or 
fourth  day. 

London  purple  seems  to  injure  the  plant  less  than  Paris  green. 

Treatment  with  Paris  green.— In  1883  the  Paris  green  was  first  applied  on  the  29th  of 
May,  at  which  date  the  eggs  were  extremely  abundant  and  hatching  rapidly  on  the 
leaves.  Paris  green,  flour,  and  water  were  mixed  by  the  means  previously  employed 
with  London  purple  and  already  described.  The  mixture  was  applied  to  the  north 
part  of  the  same  grove  of  elms.  Thus  far  experience  shows  that  the  Paris  green  is 
5  ENT 4 


effective  against  thfl  Insect,  but  that  this-  poison  injures  the  plant  more  than  does  the 
London  pniple. 

Three-fonrthfl  <»t'a  ponnd  of  Paris  greeo  to  ■  ban.]  :;r,  of  10  gallons)  of  water,  with 
:>  quarts  of  flour,  may  be  regarded  ss  ■  poison  mixture  «>t"  medium  or  average  strength 

fol   treating   elms  against    these  beetles,  and    tin-   indications  thue   l'ar  are  that  the 

amount  of  Pai is  green  should  not  be  inereased  above  one  pound  or  he  diminished  much 
below  one-hall  a  pound  in  this  mixture.  To  a  bucketful  of  water  three-fourths 
ounce  of  Paris  green  may  be  used.  The  action  of  this  poison  is  Blow  but  severe,  and 
varies  much  with  the  weather.  Thus  far  the  results  of  fcOSte  have  been  varied  no  much 
by  the  weather  and  different  modes  of  preparation  and  application  that  they  will  be 
repeated.  When  u>ed  strong  enough  to  cauterize  the  leaves  the  poisonous  action 
upon  the  plant  may  be  observed  to  continue  for  several  TTTttdre 

The  species  of  Limits  are  quite  susceptible  to  the  effects  of  poison, 
perhaps  as  much  so  as  any  common  species  of  forest  tree.  But  little 
can  be  added  to  the  above  quotation,  as  there  are  few  experiments  re- 
corded concerning  work  of  this  kind  on  other  forest  trees.  With  fruit 
trees  and  vines  there  is  a  large  experience,  and  the  results  indicate 
That  either  of  these  arsenicals  can  be  safely  used  on  the  most  tender 
plants  in  proportion  of  1  pound  to  100  gallons  of  water,  if  properly 
atomized.  Strong,  hardy  plants  readily  stand  a  strength  of  1  pound 
to  50  gallons  of  water,  if  applied  with  proper  care.  It  is  safe  to  con- 
clude that  between  these  two  limits  a  strength  suitable  for  all  plants 
may  be  obtained. 

A  thoroughly  atomized  weak  mixture  will,  under  favorable  con- 
ditions, prove  as  efficient  as  the  stronger  ones ;  but  in  wet,  showery- 
weather  weak  applications  are  more  liable  to  be  washed  off. 

Properly  atomizing  the  liquid  is  of  the  greatest  importance,  for  only 
by  this  means  can  all  the  foliage  be  reached.  The  even  distribution 
thus  obtained  enables  the  leaves  to  retain  a  greater  amount  of  the 
poison  with  less  injury  than  when  sprayed  in  coarse  drops. 

Insecticides  which  act  by  contact. — This  class  of  remedies 
apply  principally  to  non-masticating  insects,  i.  e.,  those  which  take 
their  food  through  a  sucking-tube  or  proboscis,  such  as  the  plant- 
bugs,  aphids,  and  scale  insects.  They  may.  however,  often  be  suc- 
cessfully applied  to  soft-bodied  maudibulate  insects,  in  lieu  of  the 
poisonous  mixtures. 

There  are  a  great  variety  of  substances,  such  as  alkaline  washes 
and  powders,  and  preparations  of  oils,  and  particularly  the  products  of 
petroleum,  which  have  been  successfully  used  on  insects  affecting 
roots,  trunks,  branches,  and  foliage  of  trees.  The  experimental  data 
concerning  them  have  been  mostly  obtained  from  cultivated  fruit  trees 
and  vines,  but  they  will  prove  equally  available  against  the  similar 
enemies  of  forest  trees. 

Wood  Ashes  and  Lime. — Of  alkaline  powders,  wood  ashes  aud  slaked 
lime  are  commonly  used  either  pure  or  in  mixtures  around  the  bases  of 
trees  or  interred  in  the  earth  among  the  roots  of  plants  to  destroy  root 
aphids  or  other  insects  affecting  the  roots.  Xo  definite  instructions 
concerning  their  use  can  be  given,  as  both  substances  vary  as  to  strength, 


aud  the  conditions  of  application  also  vary  greatly.  Unleached  wood 
ashes  should  not  be  applied  too  freely  in  contact  with  the  body  of  the 
tree  or  the  roots,  since  water  leaching  through  them  may  contain  pot- 
ash enough  to  iujure  the  plant.  Lime  in  any  reasonable  quantity  could 
hardly  cause  injury.  The  application  of  either  of  these  is  generally 
beneficial  and  tends  to  destroy  and  repel  insects  from  the  base  and  roots 
of  trees.    The  ashes  act  beuficially  as  a  fertilizer. 

Coal  Ashes  and  coal  Bust. — Coal  ashes  and  coal  dust  have  been  used 
for  this  purpose,  but  their  effects  could  only  be  mechanical,  and,  while 
doubtless  of  value  to  the  plant  as  a  mulching,  could  have  but  little 
effect  on  insects.  The  beneficial  effects  of  either  of  these  used  dusted 
on  the  plant  are  doubtful,  except  in  cases  of  soft-bodied  slugs  (saw-fly 
larvae),  where  their  action  is  generally  good. 

Pyrethrum,  Hellebore,  Sulphur. — These  well  known  insecticides  may 
be  used  in  powdered  form  or  may  be  mixed  with  water  and  applied  in 
a  spray.  While  they  can  not  be  recommended  for  general  forest  work, 
cases  will  frequently  arise  warranting  their  use  in  a  limited  way  against 
aphids  and  other  soft-bodied  insects.  Hellebore  is  of  especial  value 
against  saw-fly  larvae.  Sulphur  is  a  valuable  agent  against  the  red 
spider  (Tetranychus  telarius)  and  may  be  used  alone  or  in  connection 
with  emulsion  of  kerosene. 

Alkaline  lYashes :  potash  Lye  and  soda  Lye. — Alkaline  washes  are 
solutions  of  crude  soda  or  potash,  or  soap  preparations  of  these  sub- 
stances. Concentrated  soda  or  potash  lye  can  be  purchased  at  the 
stores,  and  are  often  used  as  washes  for  aphids  and  coccids  with  con- 
siderable success.  Of  these  the  potash  lye  is  to  be  preferred,  as  its 
action  on  the  tree  is  not  so  harmful  as  the  soda  lye.  The  best  possible 
source  of  a  caustic  wash  is  the  potash  lye  leached  from  wood  ashes* 
Crude  lye  washes  should  be  used  with  caution,  since  when  too  strong 
it  injures  both  branches  and  foliage.  Definite  statements  as  to  the 
strength  to  be  used  can  not  be  made.  The  different  brands  of  concen- 
trated lye  vary  much  in  composition,  so  that  it  will  always  be  advisable 
to  make  test  applications  before  general  work  is  attempted.  In  the 
preparation  of  washes,  one  can  (1  pound)  of  lye  is  dissolved  in  from  3 
to  5  gallons  of  water;  the  stronger  solution  is  very  injurious  to  tender 
plants,  and  even  the  weaker  one  is  entirely  too  harsh  for  a  safe  wash  ; 
yet,  if  diluted  much  more,  its  effect  on  the  iusect  will  be  impaired. 
The  same  quantity  of  lye  used  in  the  preparation  of  a  soap  will  give 
better  results,  and  its  use  will  not  then  be  attended  with  like  danger 
to  the  plant. 

Alkali?ie  Washes  :  Soaps. — Soap  preparations  are  made  from  either  of 
the  above  lyes  with  grease  or  oils  of  any  kind  and  in  my  experience  are 
much  preferable  to  the  crude  lyes. 

Auy  soft  or  jelly  soap  makes  a  good  wash  for  Aphides,  and  for  this 
purpose  need  not  be  strong ;  for  Coccids  the  strength  should  be  greater. 
The  preparation  known  as   "  whale-oil "  soap  has  a  more  or  less  stand- 


aid  strength  and  has  long  been  used  as  an  insecticide  wash.  It  is  made 
from  various  fish  oils  and  fish-oil  residue  with  caustic  soda.  Better 
success  attends  (he  use  of  jelly  soaps  made  directly  from  fish  oil  and 
concentrated  lye.  with  water,  using  about  three  gallons  of  water,  three 
pints  of  fish-oil,  and  one  can  of  lye.  Various  preparations  of  this  nature 
can  easily  be  made.     Coarse  grease  does  not  make  so  good  asoap  as  oils. 

The  whale-oil  soap  sold  in  the  stores  is  used  in  solutions  of  one  pound 
in  two  to  five  gallons  of  water,  experiment  being  necessary  to  deter- 
mine what  strength  will  be  efficient.  The  jelly-soap  made  as  mentioned 
above  has  been  successfully  used  on  Aphides,  when  fresh,  in  strength  of 
1  pound  to  8  gallons  of  water.  For  most  work,  however,  it  would  need 
to  be  stronger. 

Petroleum  Products:  Kerosene,  Naphtha,  etc. — Among  the  washes  of  an 
insecticide  nature  which  kill  by  contact  there  is  probably  nothing  equal 
to  the  preparations  from  petroleum.  Of  these  it  is  only  necessary  to 
notice  those  made  from  kerosene,  as  experience  has  fully  demonstrated 
the  value  of  this  product  for  insecticide  work.  In  most  instances  either 
the  low  or  high  grade  can  be  used  with  equally  good  effect.  Kerosene, 
naphtha  and  some  of  the  lighter  products  of  petroleum  have  beeu  used 

Naphtha  and  the  lighter  products  of  petroleum  can  be  used  in  this  man- 
ner with  safety  to  most  plants,  but  the  destructive  effect  on  the  insects 
is  by  no  means  satisfactory.  The  use  of  kerosene  pure  is,  however,  at- 
tended with  danger  and  should  never  be  undertaken  except  in  a  small 
way  and  with  the  utmost  care.  Finely  atomized,  I  have  employed  it  with 
some  success,  especially  on  oranges  and  certain  conifers  in  years  gone 
by,  before  the  emulsions  were  discovered. 

Kerosene  Emulsions. — The  ease  and  practicability  of  emulsifying  and 
diluting  kerosene  to  any  desired  strength  have  been  so  fully  demon- 
strated in  the  course  of  the  work  of  the  division  of  entomology  under 
my  direction  that  there  is  no  longer  need  of  attempting  its  use  pure. 

The  methods  of  emulsificatiou  have  been  so  fully  set  forth  elsewhere 
that  it  is  unnecessary  to  undertake  their  discussion  here  more  than 
in  the  nature  of  general  instructions. 

An  emulsion,  if  properly  made,  always  contains  a  greater  per  cent, 
of  kerosene  than  of  the  other  ingredients.  This  per  cent,  may  vary 
from  60  per  cent,  to  90  per  cent.,  but  experiment  has  shown  that  66  per 
cent  kerosene  will  give  the  most  satisfactory  results. 

The  formula  for  the  preparation  of  kerosene  emulsion  ordinarily 
recommended  by  me  is  the  one  originated  by  my  former  agent,  Mr.  H. 
G.  Hubbard,  in  his  work  against  orange  insects.     It  is  as  follows: 

Kerosene - 2  gallons     =  67  per  cent. 

Common  soap,  or  whale-oil  soap i  pound    ( _  33  ,,er  cent 

Water    1  gallon    $  ] 

Dissolve  the  soap  in  the  water  by  heating  and  add  the  solution, 
boiling  hot,  to  the  keroseue  and  churn  the  mixture   by  means  of  a 


force-pump  and  spray-nozzle  for  five  minutes.  The  emulsion,  if  per- 
fect, forms  a  cream  which  thickens  on  cooling  and  should  adhere  with- 
out oiliness  to  the  surface  of  glass.  Dilute,  before  using,  one  part  of 
the  emulsion  with  nine  parts  of  cold  water.  The  above  formula  makes 
3  gallons  of  emulsion,  and  when  diluted  gives  30  gallons  of  wash. 

Resin  Washes. — Various  compounds  of  resin  and  emulsions  of  resin 
with  kerosene  are  now  being  extensively  used  in  California  against  scale- 
insects  and  other  enemies  of  the  orange  tree.  Resin  compounds  were 
first  used  as  an  insecticide  by  one  of  my  agents,  Mr.  Albert  Koebele, 
and  his  experiments  with  this  substance  are  given  in  full  in  my  annual 
reports  as  United  States  Entomologist  for  1886  and  1887,  and  addi- 
tional experiments  by  Mr.  Coquillett  are  given  in  the  report  for  1888. 

Mr.  Koebele  had  good  success  with  the  resin  compound  prepared  as 
follows :  Dissolve  3  pounds  of  sal-soda  and  4  pounds  of  resin  in  3  pints 
of  water  above  fire ;  when  properly  dissolved,  add  water  slowly,  while 
boiling,  to  make  36  pints  of  compound.  A  very  strong  solution  of  this 
was  used  on  pear  tiees  without  injury  to  the  foliage,  the  solution  con- 
sisting of  3  pints  of  the  compound  to  4  of  water.  Numerous  successful 
experiments  were  made  with  one  part  of  the  compound  and  8  parts  of 
water,  and  this  strength  for  most  purposes  will  be  sufficient. 

Mr.  Coquillett  has  found  the  following  to  be  an  excellent  formula  for 
the  preparation  of  this  compound:* 

Caustic  soda pound . .   1 

Resiu pounds..  8 

Water  to  make gallons . .  32 

Dissolve  by  boiling  the  caustic  soda  in  a  gallon  of  water ;  add  the  resin  to  one  half 
the  soda  solution  and  dissolve  it  by  boiling  ;  add  the  remainder  of  the  soda  solution 
and  boil  over  a  hot  fire,  stirring  constantly.  When  sufficiently  cooked  it  will  assim- 
ilate with  water  like  milk,  which  it  much  resembles.  Add  water  and  strain  through 
a  fiue  sieve. 

An  emulsion  of  kerosene  with  resin  compound  was  satisfactorily  ac- 
complished by  taking  equal  parts  of  both  substances  and  working  them 
together  for  two  minutes  with  a  pump.  This  emulsion  is  not  so  stable 
as  the  emulsion  with  soap,  but  is  eminently  effective  against  scale- 
insects  and  Aphides.  At  my  suggestion  the  addition  of  arsenic  in  the 
proportion  of  1  pound  to  from  75  to  300  gallons  of  the  resin,  or  resiu 
and  kerosene  wash,  was  made,  and  this  addition  was  found  to  greatly 
increase  the  efficiency  of  these  insecticides. 

The  value  of  these  insecticides  for  the  protection  of  shade  and  orna- 
mental trees,  which,  where  scale-insects  abound,  are  as  liable  to  attack 
and  injury  as  the  various  fruit  trees,  need  not  here  be  emphasized. 

Fumigants — Gases. — The  destruction  of  hot-house  pests  by  fumiga- 
tion with  sulphur,  tobacco,  or  other  noxious  substances  has  long  been 
practiced.  The  application  of  such  methods  to  trees  on  a  large  scale  is, 
however,  of  recent  origin. 

The  experiments  of  the  last  few  years  conducted  by  my  California 
agent,  Mr.  D.  W.  Coquillett,  relating  to  the  use  of  poisonous  fumes*  or 
gases  against  the  scale-insects  of  citrous  trees  have  been  attended  with 

*See  Rep.  of  the  U.  S.  Entomologist  "for  1838,  p.  130. 


such  good  results  that  the  value  of  this  comparatively  new  method  of 
combating  out-of-door  insects  is  now  well  established.  It  is  not  to  be 
supposed  that  work  of  this  kind  can  be  carried  on  in  the  case  of  forest 
trees,  except  on  a  very  limited  scale,  to  protect  cherished  trees  in  lawns 
or  parks.  This  treatment  is  also  effective  against  Aphides  and  leaf- 
mites — and  indeed  is  calculated  to  destroy  any  insects  whatever. 

Hydrocyanic  acid  (las. — Of  the  several  gases  experimented  with  by 
Mr.  Coquillett,  of  which  full  accounts  are  given  in  my  annual  reports  as 
Entomologist  for  1S87  and  1>S8,  the  one  named  has  given  much  the 
best  results. 

A  number  of  methods  of  generating  this  gas  have  been  devised,  of 
which  the   most  satisfactory  is   now  known  as  the  k- dry-gas  process." 

The  necessity  of  drying  the  gas  was  very  evident  from  the  first,  for 
it  was  found  that  the  injury  to  foliage  was  very  serious  when  the  gases 
were  charged  with  any  considerable  amount  of  aqueous  vapor.  In  the 
dry-gas  process  the  cyanide  is  dissolved  by  boiling  in  water  for  a  few 
minutes,  using  I  gallon  of  water  for  each  5  pounds  of  cyanide.  To 
generate  the  gas,  sulphuric  acid  is  caused  to  flow  upon  the  cyanide 
solution  in  a  tine  stream,  causing  the  gas  to  be  rapidly  given  off  in  the 
form  of  a  whitish  fog.  The  moisture  is  taken  up  by  passing  the  gas 
through  sulphuric  acid,  which  by  reason  of  the  water  taken  up  becomes 
diluted,  but  may  still  be  employed  to  generate  fresh  quantities  of  gas. 

The  gas  is  confined  to  the  trees  under  treatment  by  means  of  a  suit- 
able canvas  tent  or  fumigator,  of  which  a  number  of  styles  have  been 
patented.  They  are  constructed  so  as  to  be  lowered  over  the  tree  from 
above  or  to  inclose  it  from  the  sides.  Full  details  for  the  construction 
of  these  tents,  together  with  figures,  are  given  in  the  reports  cited 
above,  to  which  the  reader  is  referred,  also  for  a  detailed  account  of 
the  use  of  various  gases. 

INSECTICIDE  apparatus.— The  application  of  insecticides  to  fruit 
or  forest  trees  maybe  successfully  accomplished  by  the  use  of  the  same 
devices  employed  in  the  case  of  low-growing  plants,  except  that  more 
force  will  be  required  as  a  rule,  and  hence  larger  and  stronger  machinery. 
The  treatment  of  young  trees  or  application  to  the  lower  part  of  the 
trunk  or  to  the  base  or  roots  of  larger  ones  may  easily  be  effected  by 
hand,  but  in  the  case  of  the  branches  and  foliage  of  large  trees  other 
means  must  be  employed. 

As  has  been  already  indicated,  the  principal  insecticides  are  now 
used  in  the  liquid  form,  and  particularly  in  the  case  of  work  against 
the  insect  enemies  of  forest  trees  will  this  method  prove  the  only  prac- 
ticable one.  The  use  of  insecticides  in  the  form  of  powders  will  occasion- 
ally be  desirable,  however,  and  heuce  the  treatment  of  the  second  part 
of  the  subject  may  be  discussed  under  (1)  devices  for  applying  pow- 
ders aud  (2)  devices  for  applying  liquids. 

Devices  for  Applying  Powders. — Powder  Blowers. — The  appli- 
cation of  powders  to  trees  may  be  successfully  accomplished  by  the 
use  of  long-discharge-tube  power-bellows. 


The  Woodason  Bellows. — With  one  of  the  double-cone  bellows  manu- 
factured by  Thomas  Woodason,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  or  other  bellows  of 
similar  pattern,  it  is  possible  to  reach  branches  eight  or  ten  feet  high 
quite  readily,  and  by  mounting  into  the  tree,  or  by  means  of  a  ladder, 
quite  effective  work  can  be  done  on  trees  ot  moderate  size. 

The  Leggett  Brothers'  orchard  Gun. — Quite  recently  the  Leggett 
Brothers,  of  New  York  City,  have  invented  what  they  call  an  "orchard 
gun, n  a  machine  for  the  application  of  powders  to  foliage  beyond  the 
reach  of  the  ordinary  hand-bellows. 

This  device  has  been  tested  in  the  work  of  the  Entomological  Division 
and  promises  for  certain  kinds  of  work  to  be  a  very  useful  implement. 

It  is  constructed  of  tin  tubing  1J  inches  in  diameter  made  in  sections 
so  as  to  be  easily  adjusted  to  any  length  desired  up  to  16  feet.  On  the 
second  section  from  the  base  of  the  device  is  arranged  a  small  fan  4£ 
inches  in  diameter  propelled  by  a  crank  and  cog-gearing  of  such  rela- 
tive diameters  that  one  revolution  of  the  crank  gives  thirty  of  the  fan. 
This  delivers  a  strong  blast  into  the  distal  portion  of  the  tube  or  gur. 
Just  above  the  fan  is  arranged  on  the  upper  side  of  the  tube  a  can  8 
inches  long  and  4  inches  in  diameter,  from  which  the  powder  fed  is  into 
the  tube  when  the  crank  is  turned  by  the  following  contrivance: 

Between  the  can  and  tube  is  a  flat  perforated  surface  its  entire 
leugth,  and  along  this  surface  plays  a  set  of  sliding  arms  attached  to  a 
piston-rod  which  is  thrust  forward  and  backward  with  each  revolu- 
tion of  the  crank.  This  sifts  into  the  tube  just  the  amount  of  powder 
necessary  to  supply  a  constant  but  extremely  diffuse  blast.  The  short- 
est working  length  of  the  gun  is  5  feet,  and  in  this  length  it  serves 
for  all  ordinary  work  of  applying  powder.  The  weight  of  the  imple- 
ment when  full  length  is  7  pounds.  The  length  could  be  easily  increased 
without  impairing  the  efficiency  of  the  implement,  except  that  it  would 
become  too  heavy  and  unwieldly. 

Devices  for  applying  liquids.— For  the  application  of  liquids  to 
trees  the  requisites  are  a  good  force-pump  and  a  suitable  nozzle,  and  of 
both  of  them  there  is  no  scarcity  of  styles  manufactured  in  this  country.' 
In  fact,  the  abundance  of  pumps,  nozzles,  and  spraying  devices  tends  to 
confuse  the  would-be  purchaser  and  makes  it  the  more  necessary  that 
the  characteristics  of  a  good  apparatus  should  be  carefully  pointed  out. 

The  Pump.— While  secondary  in  importance  to  the  nozzle,  a  suitable 
force-pump  is  very  essential  to  successful  work.  As  I  have  previously 
stated,  the  nature  of  the  work  under  discussion  precludes  the  use  of 
any  but  the  more  powerful  machines,  except  for  comparatively  limited 
operations,  where  any  of  the  smaller  hand  pu  mps,  aquapults,  hydro- 
nettes,  or  syringes  may  be  used. 

In  the  case  of  tall  trees  in  parks,  such  as  elms,  which  frequently  attain  a 
height  of  40  or  50  feet  or  more,  I  have  recommended  the  use  of  fire  en- 
gines, with  which  the  liquid  might  be  thrown  to  a  considerable  distance 
and,  by  the  force  of  the  discharge,  caused  to  break  up  into  an  efficient 


The  same  end  maybe  more  easily  attained,  perhaps,  by  using,  in  con- 
nection with  a  good  barrel  or  tank 
force  pump,  long  hose  with  suitable 
supports,  so  that  the  spray  may  be 
brought  to  bear  on  the  upper  pur 
tion  of  the  tree.  Devices  for  this 
purpose  will  be  described  later  on. 

Several  forms  of  pumps  are  be- 
ing manufactured  in  this  country 
with  which  satisfactory  work  may 
be  done,  and  in  the  list  of  manu- 
facturers of  insecticide  apparatus 
appended  to  this  article  are  given 
a  number  of  addresses  of  reliable 
firms  whose  pumps  I  have  used 
and  can  recommend. 

1  will  content  myself  here  with 
describing  somewhat  fully  a  force- 
pump  which,  in  the  work  of  the 
United  States  Entomological  Com- 
mission and  of  the  Division  of  En- 
tomology, has  proved  itself  well 
adapted  to  the  purposes  desired. 

The  double  Cylinder  brass  Pump. — 
The  special  recommendation  of  this 
pump  is  the  more  freely  given  from 
the  fact  that  at  present  no  one  holds 
a  patent  on  it  and  various  modifi- 
cations embracing  the  essential  fea- 
tures are  largely  manufactured  in 
different  parts  of  the  country.  At- 
tention was  directed  to  the  advan- 
tages of  this  pump  in  the  work  of 
the  commission,  and  it  is  illustrated 
in  section  and  also  in  operation 
at  plate  XLVI  of  the  fourth  re- 
port. The  pump,  fitted  in  a  barrel 
with  stirrer  attachment,  there  illus- 
trated, was  specially  constructed  by 
Dr.  Barnard,  and  has  been  several 
times  mentioned  and  illustrated  in 

Fig.  7.-Double  cylinder  brass  pump.  other  official  reports. 

The  appended  illustration  (Fig.  7)  is  a  sectional  view  of  a  similar  pump 
now  in  use  by  the  Division. 

The  essential  features  of  this  pump  are  an  outer  cylinder  a  and  an 
inner  cylinder  a\  which  may  be  called  the  piston  cylinder.  This  inner 
cylinder  is  provided  with  a  valve,  />,  similar  to  the  valve  iut  he  outer  cyl- 



inder  bl  and  above  the  valve  b  the  inner  cylinder  is  closed  as  shown  in 
the  cut.  Thus  it  represents  a  displacement  cylinder  and  its  capacity 
bears  such  a  relation  to  the  outer  cylinder  that  on  the  downward  stroke 
it  displaces  a  body  of  water  equal  to  that  taken  up  by  the  upward 
stroke  of  the  piston,  thus  producing  a  constant  pressure  in  a  simple 
single-barreled  pump. 

The  packing  >d  is  held  in  place  by  a  metal  follower  and  fits  snugly  to 
the  inner  surface  of  the  outer  cylinder.  The  pipe,  c,  is  of  rubber  hose  and 
made  of  any  length  desired  to  suit  the  depth  of  cask  or  tank  and  with 
a  fine  wire  strainer  on  the  bottom.  The  head  of  the  pump  is  of  cast  iron 
and  bulged  to  allow  room  for  a  considerable  head  of  water  j  iron  flanges 
extend  out  from  its  lower  part  and  furnish  support  by  which  it  is  bolted 
to  the  tank.  All  of  the  working  parts  are  brass.  The  packing  burr  and 
follower  around  the  upper  end  of  the  piston  cylinder  are  the  same  style 
as  ordinarily  used  with  steam  machinery  so  as  to  withstand  any  reason- 
able pressure.  The  head  to  which  is  attached  the  compensating  bar 
screws  into  the  top  of  the  piston  cylinder.  The  outlet  is  tapped  through 
the  bulged  cast-iron  head,  and  the  pressure  is  much  better  if  a  good- 
sized  air  chamber  is  attached  to  the  discharge  pipe  just  outside  of  the 
pump  head. 

The  pump  from  which  Fig.  7  was  made  has  two  discharge  pipes,  and 
one  man  easily  supplies  pressure  for  two  ordinary  streams  of  spray. 

Fig.  8.— Single-discharge  pump. 

Fig.  8  shows  a  similar  pump  entire,  fitted  with  a  single  discharge  pipe. 



This  style  of  pump  is  especially  convenient  from  the  fact  that  it  can 
readily  be  bolted  on  to  a  tank  of  almost  any  shape  or  dimensions. 
The  fulcrum  post  is  not  cast  with  the  flange-plate,  but  bolts  to  it. 
The  stirrer  Pump. — A  barrel-tank,  with  pump  similar  to  the  one  just 
described,  attached,  as  used  in  the  work  of  the  commission  in  the  cot- 
ton -tields,  has  already  been  referred  to  and  is  hgured  in  the  fourth 

Host  and  Bamboo  extension  Rod. — The  hose  commonly  used  on  spray 
apparatus  is  half-inch  in  internal  diameter,  or  even  larger.  This  size  is 
entirely  unnecessary  and  entails  extra  labor  upon  the 
operator ;  it  is,  moreover,  quite  difficult  to  get  a  small 
extension-rod  of  any  length  sufficiently  strong  to  carry 
such  a  hose.  In  the  work  of  the  Division  of  Ento- 
mology I  have  found  that  a  good  quality  of  quarter- 
inch  cloth  insertion  rubber  tubing  is  sufficiently  strong 
for  all  ordinary  work.  No  spray-nozzle  used  by  hand 
power  will  require  a  stronger  stream  than  this  will 
carry.  In  some  work  it  is  convenient  and  necessary 
to  have  as  much  as  30  feet  of  discharge-pipe,  and 
where  this  small  tubing  is  used  it  can  readily  be 

For  elevating  the  nozzle  among  the  branches,  a  bam- 
boo rod  with  the  septa  burned  out  so  that  the  rubber 
tubing  may  be  passed  through,  and  made  in  sections  to 
be  adjusted  to  the  desired  length,  is  the  most  useful 
contrivance.  If  this  is  large  enough  to  admit  the  tube 
to  pass  up  the  center,  and  is  provided  with  a  clamp  at 
the  top  to  hold  the  nozzle  vertical  or  in  any  direction 
desired,  it  is  superior  to  any  other  device  which  I  have 
ever  used.  The  smaller  southern  cane,  so  commonly 
used  for  fishing  tackle,  makes  a  very  good  supporting- 
rod,  but  in  such  case  the  discharge-pipe  must  be  fast- 
ened to  the  outside  by  means  of  suitable  spring 

Fig.  9  shows  a  section  of  an  extension  pole  of  the 
sort  first  mentioned  above.  A  special  feature  of  this 
pole  is  the  washer  j.  which  prevents  the  drip  from 
trickling  down  the  pole  upon  the  operator.  It  is  cut 
out  of  a  heavy  piece  of  sole  leather  and  fitted  snugly  over  the  rod  a 
few  inches  below  the  nozzle. 

By  means  of  this  supporting  pole,  trees  below  20  feet  in  height  can 
readily  be  sprayed.  For  higher  trees,  I  know  of  nothing  better  than 
a  ladder  mounted  on  wheels  so  as  to  be  easily  moved  from  tree  to  tree, 
such  as  has  been  used  in  California  in  the  work  against  the  Fluted 
scale.  This  ladder  is  supported  so  that  it  does  not  rest  against  the 
tree,  and  the  operator  can  move  up  and  down  without  being  hindered 
by  projecting  branches. 

Fu;.9.— Parts  of  hose 
pole  device  for 
spraying  trees: 
bamboo  pole,  6  b  ,• 
drip  washr.j;  hose 
h  X;  side  liook.  P  ; 
eddy  chamber  no*- 
zle,  n  m,-  spray, 2*, 





Fig.  10  is  taken  from  my  annual  report  as  United  States  Eutoinolo^ist 
for  188C.  It  represents  a  spraying  outfit  in  operation  against  the  Fluted 
scale  (Icerija  purchaM),  and  indicates  sufficiently  well  the  use  of  tbe  lad- 
der just  referred  to,  and  also  of  tbe  extension  poles. 

In  Garden  and  Forest  for  June  19,  1889,  Prof.  J.  B.  Smith,  entomol- 
ogist of  the  New  Jersey  experimental  station,  reports  the  successful 
spraying  of  elm  trees  in  the  Rutgers  College  campus,  some  of  which 
were  over  50  feet  high.  A  Seneca  Falls  force-pump,  provided  with 
some  50  feet  of  hose,  was  used.  By  removing  the  spraying  attachment 
from  the  nozzle — a  large-size  Nixon — the  liquid  could  be  thrown  in  a 
small  stream  to  a  distance  of  20  feet.  A  light  ladder  gave  access  to 
the  center  of  the  tree,  from  which  point  the  extreme  tips  of  the 
branches  could  be  reached. 

Nozzles. — In  any  device  for  applying  liquid  insecticides  the  nozzle  is 
of  prime  importance,  for  on  its  efficiency  will  depend  in  large  degree 
the  success  or  failure  of  the  work.  The  desiderata  in  a  spray  nozzle, 
as  I  have  elsewhere  stated,  are  "ready  regulation  of  the  volume  to  be 
thrown  ;  greatest  atomizing  power  with  least  tendency  to  clog  ;  facility 
of  cleansing,  or  ready  separation  of  its  component  parts;  cheapness  ; 
simplicity  and  adjustability  to  any  angle." 

Without  attempting  a  general  discussion  of  the  merits  of  different 
classes  of  nozzles,  I  shall  content  myself  with  a  brief  reference  to  a  few 
styles,  which,  to  a  greater  or  less  degree,  answer  the  conditions  just 
enumerated  and  which  have  stood  the  test  of  practical  work. 

The  Riley  or  cyclone  Nozzle. — This  nozzle  is  now  so  widely  known  as 
hardly  to  require  description.  As  there  have  been  some  erroneous  state- 
ments as  to  its  Invention,  I  may  take  occasion  here  to  reiterate  what  was 
recorded  in  the  fourth  report  of  the  commission,  viz:  that  it  was  a  devel- 
opment and  outgrowth  of  my  work  on  the  Cotton  Worm,  the  first  sug- 
gestion of  the  principle  being  my  own  and   its  development  resulting 

Fk;.  IL— The  Riley  or  cyclone  Nozzle. 

from  two  years'  experimentation  under  my  direction  and  chiefly  through 
the  assistance  of  the  late  Dr.  W.  S.  Barnard.  u  Its  principal  feature  con- 
sists in  the  inlet  through  which  the  liquid  is  forced  being  bored  tangeu- 
tially  through  its  wall,  so  as  to  cause  a  rapid  whirling  or  centrifugal 


motion  of  the  liquid,  which  issues  in  a  funnel-shaped  spray  through  a 
central  outlet  in  the  adjustable  cap.  The  breadth  or  height,  fineness  or 
coarseness  of  the  spray  depend  on  certain  details  in  the  proportion  of 
the  parts,  particularly  of  the  central  outlet." 

Fig.  11  shows  two  styles  of  this  nozzle,  which  I  have  adopted  from  a 
host  of  experimental  forms  as  the  best  for  all  ordinary  work.  At  A  is 
shown  the  typical  small-stemmed  nozzle,  with  the  screw  cap  removed 
to  show  the  inlet  orifice  d.  At  B  is  shown  a  sectional  view  of  the  same 
again  with  the  cap  removed,  showing  the  tangential  entrance  to  the 
chamber  a  through  the  orifice  e,  which  when  the  cap  is  inserted  coincides 
with  the  orifice  d.  At  0  is  shown  a  face  view  of  the  cap  c,  which  should 
be  countersunk  about  the  orifice  of  exit  on  the  exterior  surface  only  ; 
and  also  an  outline  drawing  of  a  chamber  placed  at  an  angle  of  45° 
with  the  stem — a  form  of  advantage  especially  in  overhead  spraying. 

The  stem  may  be  inserted  into  the  discharge-pipe  and  fastened  by 
wrapping  tightly  with  copper  wire,  or  a  more  convenient  form  is  made 
with  a  female  screw  of  a  size  to  fit  a  three-eighth  inch  nipple.  The 
nipple  is  inserted  into  the  discharge-pipe  and  fastened  in  the  ordinary 
manner,  and  allows  an  easy  interchange  of  nozzles  of  different  sizes  or 
patterns.  A  discharge  orifice  of  about  one-sixty-fourth  of  an  inch  may 
be  used  for  a  very  fine  spray  ;  for  coarser  and  heavier  work  a  one-six- 
teenth-inch orifice  will  be  preferable. 

The  value  of  rotating  the  liquid  to  break  it  up  into  a  suitable  spray 
and  to  prevent  clogging,  which  are  the  essential  features  of  the  Riley 
nozzle,  has  been  universally  recognized. 

In  this  country,  owing  to  the  fact  that  this  nozzle  has  not  been  pat- 
ented and  is  not  pushed  by  interested  parties  as  are  patented  contriv- 
ances, it  has  not  come  into  such  general  use  as  its  merits  warrant  or 
as  has  accompanied  the  introduction  of  patented  modifications  of  it  in 
other  countries.  It  is  now,  however,  being  quite  extensively  manufact- 
ured and  offered  by  the  trade,  and  a  number  of  modifications  of  this 
nozzle  have  appeared  in  France,  which,  while  adding  certain  new  feat- 
ures, have  not  departed  from  the  valuable  principle  of  the  typical  form, 
viz :  that  of  the  centrifugal  motion  of  the  liquid.  These  nozzles  are 
employed  in  France,  Germany,  and  other  European  countries  almost 
to  the  exclusion  of  all  other  forms,  and  in  this  country  they  are  also 
extensively  used.  More  recently  a  valuable  modification  has  appeared 
in  this  country,  the  Universal  Spray  Tip,  and  in  New  Zealand  a  com- 
pound form  is  manufactured,  known  as  the  New  Zealand  Triplet,  and 
fashioned  after  one  which  I  used  and  described  in  California  in  1887. 

A  full  description  of  the  important  modifications  of  the  Riley  nozzle 
that  have  appeared  in  this  and  in  foreign  countries  is  given  by  me  in 
Insect  Life,  Vol.  I,  Nos.  8  and  9,  to  which  the  reader  is  referred  for  fuller 

In  this  country,  these  nozzles  are  manufactured  under  contract,  for 
dealers,  by  Thomas  Somerville  &  Son,  Washington,  D.  C,  and  by 



Woodio  &  Little,  509  and  511,  Market  street,  San  Francisco,  Cal.  The 
universal  spray  tip,  the  only  valuable  modification  of  the  Riley  nozzle 
that  has  appeared  in  this  country,  is  the  invention  of  and  is  inauu- 
iaetured  by  J.  Crofton  and  L.  1).  Green,  Walnut  Grove,  Cal. 

The  addresses  of  the  manufacturers  of  the  foreign  modifications  of 
the  Riley  nozzle  are  as  follows: 

The  Noel  nozzle,  by  the  firm  of  Noel,  Paris. 

The  Vermont  nozzle,  by  V.  Vermorel,  Villefranche  (Rhone),  France. 

Two  modifications  of  the  Vermorel  nozzle  are : 

The  J  up  j/  nozzle,  by  Japy  Pre  res  &  Cie,  Beaucourt,  France,  and 

The  Albrand  nozzle,  by  M.  C.  Albrand,  87  rue  dela  Republique,  Mar- 
seilles, Frauce. 

The  Marseilles  nozzle,  by  L'Aveuir  Viticole,  Marseilles,  Frajice. 

In  New  Zealand  the  Riley  nozzle  is  manufactured  by  Kutzuer  Bros., 
of  Masterton,  who  call  it  the  American  cyclone  nozzle  and  make  it 
single  and  in  triplets. 

I  will  call  attention  here  to  but  one  of  the  most  successful  of  these 
modifications,  which  is  shown  in  figure  12.  It  is  known  as  the  Vermorel 
nozzle,  and  was  devised  by  a  gentleman  of  that  name  in  France.    The 

Fig.  12.— The  Vermorel  Nozzle— natural  size  (original). 

important  feature  of  this  nozzle  is  the  pin  inserted  through  its  base, 
bearing  on  its  upper  end  a  paint  sufficiently  small  to  enter  the  dis- 
charge orifice  when  thrust  upward  from  below.  This  enables  the  ope- 
rator to  clean  the  discharge,  when  it  becomes  clogged,  and  is  a  great 
convenience,  especially  for  spraying  heavy  suspension  liquids. 

The  Xixon  or  Climax  Nozzle. — This  is  the  invention  of  Mr.  A.  H. 
Nixon,  of  Dayton,  Ohio.  Its  work  is  so  satisfactory,  especially  where 
considerable  force  is  required,  as  will  be  generally  the  case  in  forest  work, 
that  1  notice  it  here.  A  nipple  screws  on  the  distal  end  of  a  discharge- 
pipe,  and  on  its  outer  end  is  screwed  a  brass  tube  varying  in  length  and 
diameter  according  to  size  of  nozzle.  The  discharge  orifice  through  the 
nipple  regulates  the  quantity  of  spray,  and  nipples  with  different  sized 
discharge  orifices  are  interchangeable.  The  stream  projected  through 
this  nipple  strikes  a  brass  screen  at  the  outer  end  of  the  tube  and  is  cut 
into  a  perfect  spray. 


Cost  of  a  spraying  Outfit. — In  the  foregoing  I  have  presented  briefly, 
yet  in  sufficient  detail,  the  essential  requisites  of  a  good  spray  apparatus. 
An  entire  outfit,  embracing  the  best  materials  mentioned  above,  can  be 
gotten  together  by  an  ingenious  person  for  a  sum  not  exceeding  $20. 
Outfits  may  be  purchased  from  manufacturers  at  prices  ranging  from 
#20  to  $50,  according  to  sizes  or  styles. 

A  list  of  responsible  firms  with  whom  the  Division  of  Entomology 
has  had  business  relations  is  here  appended : 

W.  &  B.  Douglass,  Middletown,  Conn.;  Kumsey  &  Co.,  Seneca  Falls, 
25".  Y.;  Field  Force-Pump  Company,  Lockport,  N.  Y.;  Eobert  T.  Deakin 
&  Co.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.;  Nixon  Xozzle  and  Machine  Company,  Dayton, 
Ohio ;  Woodin  &  Little,  San  Francisco,  Cal.;  The  Gould's  Manufactur- 
ing Company,  Seneca  Falls,  N.  Y.;  Thomas  Woodason,  451  East  Cam- 
bria street,  Philadelphia,  Pa. ;  Leggett  &  Brother,  New  York. 

Chapter  I. 

Various  species  of  Quercm. 

The  oak  perhaps  affords  our  most  valuable  lumber,  whether  ship- 
timber,  carriage  wood,  or  when  used  for  carved  work,  floors,  or  furniture. 
As  a  shade  tree  it  will  always  be  in  demand,  while  groves  of  oaks  are 
among  the  chief  ornaments  of  parks.  The  oak  can  be  easily  planted, 
and  it  is  one  of  the  trees  most  available  in  the  renewal  of  our  forests. 

Unfortunately  the  oak  is  preyed  upon  by  a  larger  number  of  kinds  of  in- 
sects than  perhaps  all  the  other  hard-wood  forest  trees  mentioned  in  this 
work  put  together.  From  the  roots  to  the  extremity  of  the  smallest  twigs, 
including  the  buds  and  acorns,  there  are  assemblages  of  insects  which 
divide  the  arboreal  territory  among  themselves,  not  often  encroaching 
on  each  other's  domain.  In  this  way  the  work  of  destruction  often  be- 
comes thoroughly  well  done.  Yet,  considering  the  number  of  species  of 
insects  which  prey  upon  this  devoted  tree,  particularly  when  isolated  from 
its  fellows,  it  is  a  wonder  how  evenly  preserved  is  the  balance  of  nature. 
Undoubtedly,  as  in  all  other  trees  and  most  vegetable  growths,  a  cer- 
tain amount  of  natural,  healthy  pruning  is  accomplished  by  insects. 
But  were  there  not  a  complicated  system  of  checks,  particularly  those 
due  to  parasitic  insects  and  to  unfavorable  climatic  changes,  the  tide  of 
insect  life  would  sweep  away  every  tree  and  shrub  from  the  face  of  the 

In  his  work  on  "  Plant-Enemies  of  the  Class  of  Insects,"  Kaltenbach 
enumerates  five  hundred  and  thirty-seven  species  of  insects  of  all  orders 
which  in  Germany  prey  upon  the  oaks  of  that  empire. 

It  is  probable  that  nearly  if  not  quite  as  many  will  be  found  in  a  re- 
gion of  the  same  extent  in  this  country,  especially  since  the  species  of 
oaks  are  more  numerous  in  the  eastern  United  States  than  in  central 
Europe,  the  number  of  species  in  the  latfer  region  being  but  two  or 
three  to  twenty  in  the  United  States,  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains. 

The  number  of  determined  species  of  oak  insects  recorded  in  the  fol- 
lowing pages  is  over  400,  while  the  number  of  undetermined  species 
would  carry  the  number  up  to  over  500,  or  about  as  many  as  Kaltenbach 



records  for  Germany.  It  is  not  improbable  that  ultimately  the  number 
of  species  for  the  United  States  will  be  between  600  and  800  or  even 

We  will  now  briefly  indicate  those  species  of  insects  which  are  habit- 
ually more  or  less  destructive  to  the  oak. 

The  roots  of  the  live  and  probably  the  water  oak  are  infested  by  the 
great  longicorn  borer,  Mallodon  melanopus,  the  trees  being  permanently 
dwarfed  and  their  growth  arrested. 

Of  the  borers  in  the  trunk,  the  caterpillar  of  the  Carpenter  moth 
(Prionoxystus  robinice)  probably  does  more  damage  than  all  other  borers 
combined.  Next  to  this  borer,  come  the  flat- head  borers,  and. the  bark- 
borers,  with  the  oak-pruner  (Elaphidion  villosum),  while  the  seventeen- 
year  Cicada  periodically  prunes  or  destroys  many  of  the  twigs. 

The  leaves  suffer  most  from  the  attacks  of  the  forest  tent-caterpillar 
{Clisiocampa  disstria)  aud  the  large  black- and-red-striped  spiny  cater- 
pillar of  the  senatorial  moth  (Anisota  senator ia).  These  two  caterpillars 
in  the  Atlantic  aud  Central  States  as  a  rule  do  more  harm  to  oak  for- 
ests than  perhaps  all  the  other  species  combined. 

Finally,  many  acorns  are  worm-eaten,  the  intruder  being  the  grub  of 
the  long-snouted  weevil  (Balaninus).  We  have,  so  far  as  practicable, 
described  the  habits  and  appearance  of  the  most  destructive  species 


The  roots  of  various  species  of  oak  are,  without  much  doubt,  more 
or  less  injured  by  the  attacks  of  the  seventeen-year  Cicada  while  in  its 
preparatory  state,  as  it  is  known  that  this  insect,  so  abundant  in  the 
central  and  southern  States  of  the  Union,  remains  for  over  sixteen 
years  attached  by  its  beak  to  the  rootlets  of  the  oak  and  probably  other 
forest  trees,  where  it  sucks  the  sap,  thus  in  a  greater  or  less  degree  in- 
juring the  health  of  the  tree.  Observations  as  to  the  subterranean 
life  of  the  seventeen-year  locust  are  few  aud  obscure,  and  it  is  quite 
uncertain  how  much  injury  is  really  done  to  trees  by  this  habit.  They 
have  sometimes  been  found  sucking  the  sap  of  forest  trees,  notably  the 
oak,  and  also  of  fruit  trees,  such  as  the  pear  and  apple.  According  to 
Riley  (First  Keport,  p.  24),  the  larvae  are  frequently  found  at  great  depth, 
sometimes  as  much  as  10  feet  below  the  surface.  It  has  been  claimed 
by  Miss  Margaret!  a  H.  Morris,  in  an  account  published  in  1846,  that 
pear  trees  have  been  killed  by  the  larvae  sucking  the  roots.  This  has 
been  denied  by  the  late  Dr.  Smith,  of  Baltimore,  who  says : 

The  larva  obtains  its  food  from  the  small  vegetable  radicels  that  everywhere  per- 
vade the  fertile  earth.  It  takes  its  food  from  the  surface  of  these  roots,  consisting  of 
the  moist  exudatiou  (like  animal  perspiration),  for  which  purpose  its  rostrum  or  snout 
is  provided  with  three  exceedingly  delicate  capillaries  or  hairs,  which  project  from 
,the  tube  of  the  snout  and  sweep  over  the  surface,  gathering  up  the  minute  drops  of - 
moisture.  This  is  its  only  food.  The  mode  of  taking  it  can  be  seen  by  a  good  glass. — 
Prairie  Farmer,  December,  1851. 
5  ENT 4 


Dr.  Riley  adds  that  Dr.  Hall,  of  Alton,  111.,  has  often  found  them 
firmly  attached  to  different  roots  by  the  legs,  but  never  found  the  beaks 
inserted.     He  remarks  as  follows  : 

Tin-  tact  that  tiny  will  rise  from  land  which  has  been  cleaned  of  timber,  cultivated, 
and  even  built  upon  for  over  a  dozen  years,  certainly  contravenes  Miss  Morris's  state- 
ment, while  their  long  subterranean  existence  precludes  the  necessity  of  rapid  suc- 
tion. It  is  also  quite  certain  that  if  they  thus  killed  trees  we  should  oftener  hear  of 
it,  and  I  have  captured  a  gigantic  but  unnamed  species  of  Cicada  on  the  plains  of 
Colorado,  50  miles  from  any  tree  other  than  a  few  scattering  willows. 

We  would  add  that  in  June,  in  Idaho  Territory,  we  have  seen  numer- 
ous CicadaB  which  had  just  appeared  above  the  surface  of  the  earth  in  a 
desert  region  with  scattered  sage  bushes,  upon  whose  roots,  which  it 
is  kuown  descend  to  a  great  depth,  the  young  may  feed.  While,  then, 
the  Cicada  may  seldom  do  marked  injury  to  the  oak,  the  reader  is  re- 
ferred to  a  subsequent  page  for  a  further  notice  of  the  injury  done  by 
this  insect  to  the  twigs  and  smaller  branches  of  the  oak  and  other  trees. 

In  Europe  the  roots  of  oaks  are  affected  by  a  small  wingless  gall-fly, 
which  punctures  the  root  and  inserts  an  egg  into  the  hole.  The  irrita- 
tion set  up  by  the  presence  of  the  larva  causes  the  root  to  swell  until  a 
tumor  or  gall  is  formed,  in  the  center  of  which  lies  the  white  footless 
larva  or  maggot  of  the  fly. 

Fitch  has  found  similar  wingless  flies  in  this  country,  but  they  will 
always  remain  objects  rather  of  a  scientific  than  economic  interest.  He 
has  described  them  under  the  names  of  Biorhizanigra,  Philonix  ful- 
vicollis  and  nigricollis.  They  are  wingless,  and  occur  in  forests  in  No- 
vember and  December,  often  walking  on  the  snow  in  company  with 
other  snow  insects,  such  as  Boreus  and  Chionea.  There  is  also  a  root 
gall,  of  which  Professor  Riley  has  detected  a  species.  The  known  species 
of  root-galls  are  enumerated  in  Mr.  Ashmead's  catalogue  of  Cynipidae, 
reprinted  further  on  in  this  chapter,  at  the  end  of  the  section  on  insects 
infesting  oak  twigs. 


Mallodon  melanopus  Linn.     (Larva.     PI.  xxxv,  Fig.  1.) 

Boring  under  ground  in  the  roots  of  the  live-oak  and  dwarfing  the  young  trees  in 
Florida  aud  the  Gulf  States;  a  very  large  white  grub,  transforming  to  a  large  brown 
longicorn  beetle. 

While  in  Florida,  at  Crescent  City,  I  had  an  opportunity,  owing  to 
the  kindness  of  Mr.  H.  G.  Hubbard,  of  collecting  the  grubs  (described 
below)  and  seeing  the  injury  done  by  this  borer  to  the  live  oaks. 

The  following  account  is  taken  from  Professor  Riley's  report  for  1884: 

This  beetle  is  one  of  our  largest  insects,  being  about  two  inches  long  and  very 
broad  aud  heavy.  Its  larva  is  a  cylindrical  grub,  or  "  sawyer,"  about  an  inch  in 
thickness  and  over  three  inches  in  length. 

In  Texas  Mr.  Schwarz  found  the  larva  of  this  Mallodon  excavating  its  galleries  in 
the  heart-wood  of  the  Hackberry  (Celtis),  a  tree  of  the  largest  size.  In  Florida  aud 
elsewhere  it  feeds  upon  the  live-oak,  and  it  would  seem  that  so  large  and  powerful 
a  borer  was  well  chosen  to  be  the  destroyer  of  this  giant  among  trees. 


In  point  of  fact,  however,  in  its  connection  with  this  tree  the  beetle  shows  a  sur- 
prising modification  of  its  recorded  habits.  Its  larva  is  found,  not  in  the  stem  of  the 
mature  tree  so  justly  celebrated  for  its  strength  and  toughness,  but  always  in  the 
root  of  infant  trees,  and  usually  in  degenerate  highland  varieties  of  Quercua  virem, 
or  of  its  relatives,  Q.  aquatica  and  Q.  cateabaei. 

The  mother  beetle  selects  small  saplings  as  a  place  of  deposit  for  her  eggs,  which 
are  laid  in  the  foot,  or  collar,  of  the  tree,  just  below  the  surface  of  the  ground. 
How  long  a  larval  existence  the  insect  has  is  not  known,  but  it  must  extend  over 
several  years,  since  the  roots  occupied  by  these  larvae  grow  to  a  large  size,  while  at 
the  same  time  they  show  an  entirely  abnormal  development  and  become  a  tangle  of 
vegetable  knots.  In  fact,  the  entire  root  in  its  growth  accommodates  itself  to  the 
requirements  of  the  borer  within.  Very  few  new  roots  are  formed,  but  the  old  roots 
excavated  by  the  larva  are  constantly  receiving  additions  of  woody  layers,  which 
are  in  turn  eaten  away  and  huge  flattened  galleries  are  formed,  which  are  for  the 
most  part  tightly  packed  with  sawdust. 

The  beetle  thus  becomes,  not  the  destroyer,  but  the  parasite  of  the  tree,  and  lives 
in  a  domicile,  which  may  not  improperly  be  termed  a  gigantic  root-gall.  The  effect 
on  the  tree  is  to  kill  the  original  sapling,  which  becomes  replaced  by  a  cluster  of  in- 
significant and  straggling  suckers,  forming  perhaps  a  small  clump  of  underbrush. 
In  many  cases  the  branches  and  leaves  are  barely  sufficient  to  supply  the  materials 
for  sluggish  growth,  and  the  entire  strength  of  the  plant  goes  toward  the  formation 
of  a  root  plexus,  out  of  all  proportion  to  the  growth  above  ground,  and  plainly  de- 
signed to  repair  the  ravages  of  the  borer. 

The  Mallodon  borers  are  very  abundant  in  South  Georgia  and  Florida,  and  as  a 
result  of  their  attacks,  vast  tracks  which  might  otherwise  have  become  forests,  en- 
riching the  ground  with  annual  deposits  of  leaves,  are  reduced  to  comparatively  bar- 
ren scrub,  in  which  the  scattered  oak  bushes  barely  suffice  to  cover  the  surface  of 
the  sand. 

Many  a  new  settler,  seeing  his  sandy  hill-side  covered  only  by  insignificant  oak 
bushes,  and  anticipating  easy  work  in  converting  the  wilderness  into  a  blooming 
garden  of  orange-trees,  has  been  grievously  disappointed  to  find  before  him  no  light 
task  in  clearing  from  the  soil  these  gnarled  and  tangled  roots.  In  fact  the  great 
strength  and  weight  of  the  southern  grubbing-hoe  appears  no  longer  a  mystery  when 
one  contemplates  the  astonishing  pile  of  "grub  roots"  which  in  vigorous  hands  it 
will  extract  from  a  few  square  rods  of  apparently  unoccupied  soil. 

The  results  of  the  work  of  this  beetle  are  very  plainly  visible  around  Savannah, 
and  especially  on  Tybee  Island,  where  Mr.  George  Noble  first  drew  our  attention  to 
it;  while  Mr.  Hubbard  has  carefully  studied  its  work,  as  here  recorded,  in  Florida. 
{Riley's  report,  1884.) 

The  genus  Mallodon  contains  species  of  large  size  with  the  sides  of  the  prothorax 
armed  with  numerous  small  teeth.  The  head  is  comparatively  large,  the  eyes 
strongly  granulated,  distant,  transverse,  feebly  emarginate.  The  antennas  are  slender, 
not  exceeding  half  the  length  of  the  body  in  the  male  and  shorter  in  the  female.  The 
sexual  differences  are  worthy  of  note.  The  prothorax  in  the  male  is  nearly  quadrate, 
densely  punctured,  with  smooth  separate  facets,  while  in  the  female  it  is  narrowed 
in  front,  more  coarsely  punctured  towards  the  sides,  and  uneven  on  the  disk. 

The  present  species  is  distinguished  by  the  decidedly  serrate  prothorax,  while  the 
tibiae  are  densely  ciliated  on  the  lower  edge.  It  is  dark  brown,  almost  black. 
Length,  45  to  55mm,  (1.75  to  2.25  inches).  It  inhabits  Florida,  Arkansas  and  Texas. — 

Larva. — Body  as  large  and  thick  as  one's  forefinger.  It  closely  resembles  the  larva 
of  Orthosoma  brunneum*  in  general  appearance  and  proportions,  but  considerably 
thicker.     Shape  of  the  prothoracic  segment  and  size  of  the  head  and  shape  of  the 

*  1  have  no  larva  of  Prionus  laticollls  with  which  to  compare  it,  and  which  it  may 
more  closely  resemble  than  Orthosoma. 



mouth- parte  much  as  in  Orthosoma.  Dorsal  prothoracic  plate  ami  the  segment  be- 
neath as  in  Orthosoiua,  hut  on  each  side  in  front  of  and  above  the  prothoracic  feet  is 
a  UUg6  hairy  t  aberole  of  which  Orthosoiua  has  do  traces.  The  remaining  segments  of 
the  body  abore  and  beneath  are  almost  identical  in  form  nnd  markinga  with  those  of 
Orthosoiua.  The  callosities  on  the  upper  side  of  the  abdominal  segments  differ 
slightly  in  having  the  transverse  areas  not  divided  by  a  median  impressed  line,  as 
they  are  in  Orthosoiua  (see  PL  xxxv,  Fig.  1).  The  thoracic  feel  as  in  Orthosoiua,  but 
the  spiracles  are  much  larger  in  proportion. 

Head  as  in  Orthosoiua,  except  that  the  front  edge  of  the  epierauiuin  next  to  the 
clypcus  is  smooth  and  straight,  not  dentate,  as  in  Orthosoiua  (PI.  xxxv.  Fig.  \a). 
Clypeusand  lahrum  identical  iu  form  with  those  of  Orthosoma.  but  the  stiff  bristh->  on 
the  front  edge  of  the  labium  are  considerably  longer.  Antenna-  three-jointed  and  as  in 
Orthosoiua,  as  is  the  shape  of  the  labium  with  its  two-jointed  palpi;  the  latter,  how- 
ever, much  stouter,  though  not  reaching  beyond  the  end  of  the  labrum.  Maxilla 
as  iu  Orthosoiua,  but  the  four-jointed  palpi  are  a  little  stouter.  Length  of  body, 
87mm  (3jo  inches);  breadth  of  prothoracic  segment,  201""1. 


Prio**s  laticoUis  (Drury). 

Fir..  13.— Broad-necked  Prionus.  its  larva  and  pupa.    After  Riley. 

Though  usually  living  in  the  roots  and  trunks  of  the  poplar  and  balm- 
of-Gilead,  Mr.  F.  Clarkson  states  that  at  Oak  Hill,  Columbia  County, 
N.  Y.,  this  borer  infests  the  black  oak,  the  beetle  emerging  at  twilight 
during  the  first  two  weeks  in  July. 

Their  presence  is  quickly  realized  by  the  odor  of  the  female,  which  is  very  power- 
ful, and  can  readily  be  detected  20  feet  distant.  I  placed  a  female  immediately 
after  emergence  in  an  uncovered  jar.  and  wherever  I  positioned  it,  on  the  piazza  or 
elsewhere,  the  males  were  attracted  from  every  directiou.     I  captured  twenty  males 



in  a  very  few  minutes.  Oak  Hill  can  not  boast  of  a  balm-of-Gilead  or  a  Lombardy  pop- 
lar, but  it  is  famous  for  its  oaks,  and  while  it  is  admitted  that  the  former  trees,  as 
mentioned  by  Harris,  serve  as  food  for  the  larvae,  my  observations  indisputably  prove 
that  they  feed  also  upon  the  roots  of  the  oak.     (Can.  Eat.,  xvi,  95.) 


3.  The  oak  carpenter  worm. 

Prionoxystus  robinice  (Peck). 

Order  Lepidoptera;  Family  Cossid^e. 

Boring  large  holes  and  galleries  in  the  trunk ;  a  large,  livid,  reddish  caterpillar, 
nearly  three  inches  long,  greenish  beneath,  and  the  head  shining  black ;  the  body 
somewhat  flattened,  and  with  scattered  long,  fine  hairs.  The  chrysalis  also  in  the 
burrow,  and  transforming  to  a  large,  thick-bodied  moth  in  June  and  July. 

In  different  parts  of  New  England,  from  Maine  to  Rhode  Island,  and 
southward  to  Texas,  oak  lumber  and  cord- wood  is  commonly  seen  to  be 
often  honeycombed  by  the  large  black  burrows  of  this  common  and 
destructive  borer.  It  is  the  most  directly  injurious  of  all  the  insects 
preying  on  this  noble  tree,  since  it  sinks  its  tunnels  deep  in  towards  the 
heart  of  the  tree  in  the  living  wood,  and  is  a  difficult  insect  to  discover 
until  after  the  injury  is  done.  It  may  be  found  in  the  autumn  and 
winter  months,  of  different  sizes,  showing  that  at  least  there  is  an 
interval  of  one  year  between  the  smaller  and  larger  sizes,  and  that 
consequently  the  moth  is  two,  and  probably  three  years  in  attaining 

Fig.  14.— Larva  and  pupa  of  female,  and  male  imago  of  Oak  Carpenter  Worm— all  natural  size. 

After  Riley. 

The  female  moth,  without  doubt,  lays  her  eggs  in  the  cracks  and 
interstices  of  the  bark  of  the  oak  or  locust,  in  the  latitude  of  Boston, 
about  the  middle  of  July. 

I  have  taken  the  larva  and  chrysalis  from  the  red  oak  in  Maine,  and 
the  insect  occurs  westward  to  the  Mississippi  Valley  and  southward  to 
Bosque  County,  central  Texas.   At  Houston,  Tex.,  I  have  found  a  dozen 


or  more  of  the  cast  chrysalid  skins  projecting  from  the  stumps  of  the  pin 
oak  ;  one  papa  was  alive  early  in  April.  It  is  said  by  Fitch  to  be  more 
common  in  the  Southern  and  Southwestern  States  than  in  the  Northern. 
It  is  also  an  inhabitant  of  California,  and  may  be  found  to  occur  in 
nearly  all  the  United  States  wherever  the  black,  red,  and  white  oak  or 
locust  trees  grow.  The  habits  and  metamorphoses  of  the  moth  were 
first  discovered  by  Peck,*  who  bred  it  from  caterpillars  found  in  the 
locust,  but  Harris  afterward  discovered  that  it  u  perforates  the  trunks 
of  the  red  oak."  Bailey  states  that  it  also  feeds  on  the  willow.  (Bull. 
No.  3,  Div.  Ent.,  U.  S.  Dept.  Ag.,  p.  54). 

Riley  states  that  the  male  caterpillar  is  only  half  as  large  as  the 
female.  He  adds  that  with  her  extensile  ovipositor  the  moth  deposits 
her  eggs  in  the  deep  notches  and  dark  bottoms  of  crevices.  uThe 
young  worms  which  hatch  from  them  are  dark  brown  with  large  heads ; 
they  are  active  and  commence  spinning  as  soon  as  they  are  born n 
(Amer.  Ent.,  II,  127).  He  finds  it  more  partial  in  the  West  to  the 
locust  than  to  the  oak. 

The  following  account  of  its  habits  and  transformations  is  copied  from 
Fitch : 

Of  all  the  wood-boring  insects  in  onr  land  this  is  by  far  the  most  pernicious,  wound- 
ing the  trees  the  most  cruelly.  The  statelies't  oaks  in  our  forests  are  ruined,  probably 
in  every  instance  where  one  of  these  borers  obtains  a  lodgment  in  their  trunks.  It 
perforates  a  hole  the  size  of  a  half-inch  auger,  or  large  enough  to  admit  the  little 
finger,  and  requiring  three  or  four  years  for  the  bark  to  close  together  over  it.  This 
hole  running  inward  to  the  heart  of  the  tree,  and  admitting  the  water  thereto  from 
every  shower  that  passes,  causes  a  decay  in  the  wood  to  commence,  and  the  tree  never 
regains  its  previous  soundness. t 

This  is  also  a  most  prolific  iusect.  The  abdomen  of  the  female  is  so  filled  and  dis- 
tended with  eggs  that  it  becomes  unwieldy  and  inert,  falling  from  side  to  side  as  its 
position  is  shifted.  A  specimen  which  I  once  obtained  extruded  upwards  of  three 
hundred  eggs  within  a  few  hours  after  its  capture,  its  abdomen  becoming  diminished 
hereby  to  nearly  half  its  previous  bulk  ;  and  in  the  analogous  European  species  more 
than  a  thousand  eggs  have  been  found  on  dissection.  It  hence  appears  that  a  single 
one  of  these  insects  is  capable  of  ruining  a  whole  forest  of  oak  trees.  This  calamity, 
however,  is  prevented,  probably  by  most  of  the  eggs  being  destroyed,  either  by  birds 
or  by  other  insects,  for  these  borers  are  by  no  means  so  common  in  our  trees  as  the 
fecundity  of  their  parents  would  lead  us  to  expect. 

Our  moth  comes  abroad,  as  already  stated,  in  June  and  the  forepart  of  July.  It  dies 
only  in  the  night  time,  remaining  at  rest  during  the  day,  clinging  to  the  trunks  of 
trees,  its  gray  color  being  so  similar  to  that  of  the  bark  that  it  usually  escapes  notice. 
In  repose  its  wings  are  held  together  in  the  shape  of  a  roof,  covering  the  hind  body. 
From  observing  her  motions  in  confinement,  I  think  the  female  does  not  insert  her 
eggs  into  the  bark,  but  mepely  drops  them  into  the  cracks  and  crevices  upon  its  outer 
surface.  They  are  coated  with  a  glutinous  matter  which  immediately  dries  and 
hardens  on  exposure  to  the  air,  whereby  they  adhere  to  the  spot  where  they  touch  ; 
and  if  the  short  two-jointed  ovipositor  be  not  fully  exserted  as  the  egg  is  p 

*  Mass.  Agr.  Report  and  Journal,  Vol.  v,  p.  67,  with  a  plate,  1318. 

t  We  have  observed  that  the  old  burrows  are  lined  by  a  dark  layer,  consisting  of  a 
mealy  debris  about  as  thick  as  pasteboard  ;  this  detritus  is  probably'composed  of  the 
castings  of  the  larva,  which  form  a  paste  that  in  drying  strongly  adheres  to  the  sides 
of  the  gallery.—  A.  S.  P. 


through  it,  so  as  to  carry  the  egg  beyond  the  hair-like  scales  with  which  the  body  is 
clothed,  some  of  these  touching  adhere  to  it,  their  attachment  to  the  body  being  so 

The  eggs  are  of  a  broad  oval  form,  and  about  half  the  size  of  a  grain  of  wheat,  be- 
ing the  tenth  of  an  inch  in  length  and  three-fourths  as  thick,  of  a  dirty  whitish  color 
with  one  of  the  ends  black.  When  highly  magnified  their  surface  is  seen  to  be  retic- 
ulated or  occupied  by  numerous  slightly  impressed  dots  arranged  in  rows  like  the 
meshes  in  a  net.  From  the  fact  that  several  worms  of  the  same  size  are  sometimes 
met  with  in  a  single  tree,  indicating  them  all  to  be  the  progeny  of  one  parent,  it  ap- 
pears that  the  female  drops  a  number  of  eggs  upon  each  tree  that  she  visits,  and  prob- 
ably disposes  of  her  whole  supply  upon  a  very  few  trees.  The  size  of  the  eggs  doubt- 
less renders  them  a  favorite  article  of  food  to  some  of  our  smaller  birds.  And  a  bird 
in  discovering  some  of  these  eggs  will  be  incited  thereby  to  search  for  others  in  the 
same  vicinity,  which  search  being  successful,  will  be  perseveringly  continued  so  long 
as  an  egg  can  be  found  upon  that  or  any  of  the  adjacent  trees.  Thus  it  may  be  that 
of  the  whole  stock  of  eggs  which  a  female  deposits,  scarcely  one  escapes  being  picked 
up  and  devoured.  This  appears  the  most  probable  cause  of  so  few  of  these  worms 
being  met  with,  although  the  females  are  so  prolific. 

The  worm  on  hatching  from  the  egg  sinks  itself  inward  and  feeds  at  first  on  the  soft 
inner  bark,  till  its  jaws  acquiring  more  strength  it  penetrates  to  the  harder  sap-wood 
and  finally  resorts  to  the  solid  heart-wood,  residing  mostly  in  and  around  the  center 
of  the  trunk,  boring  the  wood  here  usually  in  a  longitudinal  direction,  and  moving 
backwards  and  forth  in  its  burrow,  enlarging  it  by  gnawing  its  walls  as  it  increases 
in  size,  whereby  the  excavation  comes  to  present  nearly  the  same  diameter  through 
its  whole  length.  In  an  oak  in  which  I  met  with  two  worms  fully  grown  and  several 
others  but  half  grown,  the  whole  of  the  central  part  of  the  trunk  had  been  exten- 
sively mined  by  preceding  generations  of  this  insect  and  was  in  a  state  of  incipient 
decay ;  and  I  thus  had  an  opportunity  to  notice  the  fact  that  none  of  the  worms  were 
lying  in  the  decaying  wood,  all  being  outside  of  this,  where  the  wood  was  still  sound. 
Hence  it  is  evident  that  it  is  living  healthy  trees  which  this  insect  prefers,  and  not 
those  which  are  sickly  and  decaying,  which  latter  are  preferred  by  the  European 
Cossus,  some  authors  say,  though  perhaps  their  observations  have  not  been  exact  upon 
this  point,  for  in  the  instance  here  alluded  to  it  would  have  been  said  on  a  first  glance 
that  these  worms  preferred  decaying  wood,  since  the  diseased  heart  of  the  tree  was 
•everywhere  traversed  with  their  burrows,  and  the  sound  wood  showed  few  of  them; 
and  thus  no  doubt  in  many  other  cases  we  mistake  the  cause  for  the  effect,  and  on 
seeing  semi-putrid  wood  filled  with  worm-holes,  we  suppose  the  worms  have  preferred 
wood  of  this  character,  when  in  truth  it  is  these  holes  which  have  caused  the  decay 
of  the  wood. 

These  worms  are  probably  three  years  in  obtaining  their  growth.  They  cast  off 
their  skin  several  times,  and  after  the  last  of  these  moltings  their  color  becomes 
different  from  what  it  has  previously  been. 

The  larva  previous  to  the  last  change  of  its  skin  is  of  a  rose-red  or  a  pale  cherry- 
red  color,  often  with  a  faint  yellowish  stripe  along  the  middle  of  its  back,  on  all 
except  the  three  anterior  rings.  It  is  of  a  cylindrical  form,  slightly  broadest  ante- 
riorly and  a  little  flattened  beneath.  It  is  divided  by  transverse  constrictions  resem- 
bling broad  shallow  grooves  into  twelve  rings,  which  are  twice  as  broad  as  long.  On 
each  of  these  rings  are  a  few  pimples  of  a  deep  purple  color,  regularly  placed,  each 
giving  out  a  pale-brown  bristle.  Four  of  these  pimples  are  on  the  back,  placed  at  the 
angles  of  an  imaginary  square  or  a  trapezoid  having  its  hind  side  the  longest,  the  two 
hinder  pimples  being  larger.  Small  white  dots  confluent  into  broken  lines  may  also 
be  perceived,  forming  a  transverse  square  in  which  the  two  anterior  pimples  are 
inclosed,  and  other  dots  less  regularly  placed  surrounding  the  two  hind  pimples 
except  upon  their  hind  side.  Above  the  breathing  pores  on  each  side  is  also  a  large 
pimple,  which,  upon  the  four  rings  bearing  the  prolegs,  has  a  white  dot  in  its  lower 
edge,  which  dot  does  not  appear  in  the  corresponding  pimples  of  the  other  rings.     A 


minute  pimple  is  also  seen  forward  of  the  upper  end  of  each  breathing  pore,  below 
which  all  the  underside  of  the  worm  ia  greenish  white.  The  breathing  porea  are  oral 
and  light  yellow,  with  ■  rusty  brown  oval  spot  in  their  center  and  a  dark  purple  ring 
around  their  outer  edge.  Below  them  the  skin  bulges  out,  forming  a  longitudinal 
ridge,  or  rather  two  parallel  ridges  divided  by  a  deep  intervening  furrow.  Upon  the 
upper  one  of  these  ridges  near  the  middle  of  each  ring  is  a  round  cherry-red  spot  in 
which  are  fcwo  small  pimples,  and  on  tin?  lower  ridge  is  a  single  one,  placed  farther 
back,  whilst  four  others  equally  minute  maybe  seen  farther  down  and  around  the 
anterior  base  of  tin-  prologs.  The  second  and  third  rings  are  shorter,  each  with  four- 
teen pimples  of  different  sizes,  the  larger  ones  forming  a  single  transverse  row.  The 
tirst  ring  or  neck  is  polished  and  of  a  dark  tawny  brown  color  on  its  upper  side,  with 
a  white  line  in  its  middle  disappearing  anteriorly  in  a  black  t  wo-lobed  cloud.  Th© 
head  is  but  half  as  broad  as  the  body,  ami  is  of  a  shining  black  color,  tinged  more  or 
less  with  chestnut  brown  in  its  middle,  with  scattered  punctures  from  which  arise  line 
hairs.  The  antennte  are  chestnut  brown,  conical  and  three-jointed,  the  last  joint 
minute,  with  a  bristle  beside  it  given  out  from  the  apex  of  the  second  joint.  The 
palpi  are  similar,  with  two  small  processes  from  the  summit  of  their  second  joint, 
the  outer  one  of  which  ends  in  a  minute  fourth  joint.  Of  the  eight  pairs  of  legs,  the 
three  anterior  are  conical  and  end  in  a  single  chestnut-colored  claw.  The  others  are 
short,  thick,  and  retractile,  with  their  soles  surrounded  by  a  blackish  fringe-like  ring 
composed  of  a  multitude  of  minute  hooks,  the  last  pair,  however,  having  these  hooks 
only  around  the  anterior  and  outer  half  of  their  soles.  Placed  in  a  glass  or  tin  vessel, 
this  worm  is  perfectly  helpless,  being  unable  to  cling  with  these  hooks  to  a  hard 
smooth  surface. 

With  the  last  change  of  its  skin  it  loses  its  bright-red  color  and  is  then  white, 
tinged  with  green  at  the  sutures,  and  with  a  pale-green  stripe  along  the  middle  of  its 
back,  which  disappears  at  the  sutures.  The  pimples  are  of  a  pale  tawny  yellow  color 
with  black  centers.  The  head  is  light  tawny  yellow  varied  in  its  middle  with  green- 
ish white,  its  anterior  edge  blackish  and  the  jaws  deep  black.* 

As  the  moth  into  which  this  worm  changes  possesses  no  jaws  or  other  implements 
by  which  it  is  possible  for  it  to  perforate  the  wood,  it  is  necessary  for  the  worm  to  pre- 
pare a  way  for  its  future  escape  from  the  tree  ;  and  the  provisions  which  it  makes  for 
this  end  are  truly  interesting,  indicating  that  the  worm  has  a  clear  perception  of  what 
its  future  condition  and  requirements  will  be,  both  in  its  pupa  and  its  perfect  state. 
This  is  the  more  surprising  when  we  recur  to  the  fact  that  since  its  infancy  this  crea- 
ture has  been  lying  deeply  bedded  in  the  interior  of  the  tree,  the  only  act  of  its  life 
having  been  to  crawl  lazily  around  in  its  cell  and  gnaw  the  wood  there  when  impelled 
by  hunger.  How  does  it  now  come  to  do  anything  different  from  what  it  has  been 
doing  for  months  and  years  before  ?  But,  having  got  its  growth  and  the  time  draw- 
ing near  to  have  it  change  into  a  pupa  or  chrysalis,  we  see  it  engaging  in  a  new  work. 
It  now  bores  a  passage  from  the  upper  end  of  its  cell  outward  through  the  wood  and 
bark  till  only  a  thin  scale  of  the  brittle  dead  outer  bark  remains.  It  is  usually  at  the 
bottom  of  one  of  the  large  cracks  or  furrows  in  the  hark  that  this  passage  ends, 

*  Received  full  grown  larvas  from  F.  G.  Mygatt,  Richmond,  111.,  February  26,  1868, 
found  boring  in  a  large  black-oak  tree,  formiug  their  cocoons  soon  after  the  receipt. 
The  male  larvae  have  generally  broken  bands  of  reddish  brown  across  the  middle  of 
each  segment.  The  female  larvae)  are  perfectly  fulvous  or  of  the  color  of  ordinary 
yellow  butter;  subcylindrical ;  thoracic  segments  broadest,  tapering  thence  to 
anus.  Segment  1  flatter  than  the  rest;  head  polished  brown  and  fulvous;  pilifer- 
ous  spots  variable  in  size,  being  more  distinct  when  young,  and  often  connected  by 
transverse  bands  of  brown;  stigmata  brown,  large,  and  distinct;  feet  and  legs 
same  as  venter,  the  former  with  brown  extremities,  the  latter  fringed  with  brown  ; 
anal  segment  more  glaucous  than  the  rest.  Others  were  received  from  J.  M.  Shaffer, 
January,  1870,  found  boring  in  black  locust,  and  were  exactly  like  the  oak-feeding 
specimens.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 


whereby  the  hole  inside  is  less  liable  to  be  discovered  by  birds.  The  worm  then  dili- 
gently lines  the  walls  of  this  hole  with  silken  threads  interspersed  with  its  chips  and 
forming  a  rough  surface  resembling  felt,  as  it  withdraws  itself  backwards  for  a  dis- 
tance of  about  three  inches,  thus  placing  itself  beyond  the  reach  of  any  bird  or  other 
enemy  outside  of  the  tree,  should  its  retreat  be  discovered ;  and  it  here  incloses  itself 
in  a  cocoon  which  it  spins  of  silk,  of  a  long  oval  form,  having  the  end  towards  the 
outer  opening  much  thinner  and  its  threads  more  loosely  woven.  In  this  cocoon  it 
throws  off  its  larva  skin  and  then  appears  in  its  nymph  or  pupa  form. 

The  pupa  is  an  inch  and  three-quarters  long  and  half  an  inch  thick,  of  a  dull  chest- 
nut color,  the  rings  of  its  abdomen  paler,  and  on  the  back  near  the  anterior  edge  of 
each  ring  is  a  row  of  angular  teeth,  resembling  those  of  a  saw,  of  a  dark  brown  color 
and  all  of  them  inclining  backward,  these  rows  of  teeth  extending  downwards  upon 
each  side  below  the  breathing  pores  or  about  two-thirds  of  the  distance  around  the 
body.  On  the  middle  of  each  ring  is  also  a  much  shorter  row  of  little  tubercular  points. 
Finally,  upon  the  under  side  of  the  last  segment  are  about  four  stouter  conical  teeth, 
the  tips  of  which  are  drawn  out  into  sharp  points  which  are  curved  forward,  so  that 
when  this  last  segment,  which  is  tapering  and  smaller  than  the  others,  is  bent  down- 
wards these  curved  points  will  catch  and  hold  the  body  from  moving  forward. 

The  pupa  lies  perfectly  dormant  in  its  cocoon  probably  a  fortnight  or  longer.  It 
then  awakes  from  its  slumbers  and  begins  to  writhe  and  bend  itself  from  side  to  side. 
By  this  motion  the  rows  of  little  teeth  upon  the  rings  of  its  abdomen,  which  incline 
backward  as  above  described,  catch  in  the  threads  of  the  cocoon,  first  upon  one  side 
and  then  upon  the  other,  and  thus  move  the  body  forward,  whereby  its  head  presses 
upon  the  loosely  woven  end  of  the  cocoon,  more  and  more  firmly,  until  it  forces  its 
way  through  it,  and  the  pupa  works  itself  forward  out  of  its  cocoon.  And  the  same 
writhing  motion  being  continued,  the  teeth  now  catch  in  the  threads  with  which  the 
sides  of  the  hole  are  lined,  and  thus,  though  destitute  of  feet,  the  pupa  moves  itself 
along  till  it  reaches  and  breaks  through  the  thin  scale  of  bark  which  hitherto  has 
closed  the  mouth  of  its  burrow,  and  pushes  itself  onward  till  about  three-fourths  of  its 
length  protrude  from  the  tree,  when  by  curving  the  tip  of  its  body  downward  the 
four  little  hooks  thereon  catch  in  some  of  the  threads  and  hold  it  from  advancing 
further  and  falling  to  the  ground.  By  so  much  motion  of  the  pupa  the  connections 
of  the  inclosed  insect  with  its  shell  become  sundered  and  the  sutures  of  the  shell  are 
probably  cracked  open,  so  that  the  moth  readily  presses  them  apart  and  crawls  out 
therefrom,  leaving  the  empty  and  now  lifeless  shell  projecting  out  from  the  mouth  of 
the  hole,  with  a  small  mass  of  worm-dust  surrounding  it. 

The  male  moth  is  of  a  gray  color  from  white  scales  intermixed  with  black  ones.  The 
head  is  furnished  upon  the  crown,  or  vertex,  with  longer  or  hair-like  scales.  The 
antennae  are  tapering  and  many-jointed,  their  basal  joint  thickest  and  covered  with 
black  and  gray  scales,  the  remaining  joints  being  naked,  shining,  coal-black,  each 
joint  bearing  two  branches  on  its  front  side,  forming  two  rows  of  coarse  teeth  like 
those  of  a  comb,  the  teeth  being  six  or  more  times  as  long  as  thick,  and  all  of  the  same 
length  except  at  the  base  and  tip,  where  they  become  shorter,  all  of  them  ciliated  with 
fine  hairs.  The  feelers  are  appressed  to  the  face  and  reach  as  high  as  to  the  middle 
of  the  eyes,  and  are  cylindric,  clothed  with  short  appressed  scales,  the  separation  of 
the  terminal  joint  being  slightly  perceptible.  The  thorax  has  the  shoulder-covers 
black,  forming  a  stripe  of  this  color  along  each  side,  which  anteriorly  curves  down- 
wards and  is  continued  backward  upon  the  upper  side  of  the  breast.  Its  base  is 
clothed  with  larger  scales,  forming  tufts  upon  each  side.  The  abdomen  is  conic  and 
equals  the  tips  of  the  wings  in  its  length,  and  is  but  slightly  covered  with  scales  except 
along  each  side,  where  they  form  a  broad  stripe,  the  under  side  being  ertirely  de- 
nuded; it  is  black  and  shining,  with  the  sutures  dull  yellowish.  At  its  tip  are  three 
appendages,  longer  than  the  last  rings  of  the  abdomen.  The  two  lower  ones  are  broad, 
thick,  flattened  processes  of  a  dull  brownish  yellow  color,  with  their  tips  rounded  and 
slightly  bent  inwards  towards  each  other.  The  upper  one  is  a  slender,  black,  shining 
hook  or  claw  of  the  same  length,  its  tip  sharp-pointed  and  curved  downward.     Above 


tiles**  appendages  and  hiding  them  from  view  is  a  brush  of  black  hairs,  forming  a  con- 
ical tuft  at  th«-  end  of  tin-  abdomen,  blunt  at  its  apex.  The  h-tjs  are  more  or  less 
denuded  of  stales,  blaok  ind  shining,  with  the  hind  shanks  thicker  toward  their  tips 
and  with  two  pairs  of  spurs,  the  forward  shanks  having  only  a  tingle  spine,  which  is 
placed  on  t  he  middle  of  their  inner  sides,  the  same  as  in  ot  her  mot  hs  :  and  the  feet  are 

oomprested  and  five-jointed,  with  the  basal  joint  longest  and  the  following  ones  suc- 
!y  shorter.  The  /wi  toimfi  are  blaok,  with  groups  of  whitish  scales  forming 
gray  -pots  of  clouds  which  are  netted  with  black  lines,  varying  greatly  in  different 
individuals.  Often  a  transverse  gray  spot  is  situated  toward-  the  base  and  another 
on  the  anal  angle,  the  outer  and  hind  margins  being  gray  alternated  with  black.  The 
hind  wiiH/.i  are  black,  with  their  posterior  half  of  a  rich  marigold  yellow  color  bordered 
with  a  black  line  upon  the  hind  margin,  the  yellow  color  being  irregularly  notched 
on  its  anterior  3ide  and  narrowed  to  the  inner  angle,  and  not  extended  to  tbe  outer 
angle,  the  two  outer  cells  being  black.  Tbe  outer  or  anterior  margin,  except  at  its 
base  and  tip,  is  usually  gray  alternated  with  transverse  black  streaks  and  blotches, 
and  iuside  of  this  is  a  large  ash-gray  spot  occupying  the  outer  anterior  part  of  the 
disk.     The  under  sides  of  both  wings  are  similar  to  their  upper  surface. 

The  ft  male  would  not  be  supposed  to  pertain  to  the  same  species  with  the  male,  her 
size  is  so  much  larger,  her  colors  so  much  paler  gray,  and  her  hind  wings  being  wholly 
destitute  of  the  bright  yellow  coloring  which  forms  so  conspicuous  a  mark  in  the 
other  sex.  The  branches  of  her  antenme  are  also  shorter,  being  but  about  four  times 
as  long  as  thick.  The  ground  color  of  her  fore  wings  is  gray,  variously  netted  with 
black  lines  dividing  the  gray  in  places  into  small  roundish  spots  and  into  rings  hav- 
ing black  centers.  The  black  color  usually  forms  a  broad  irregular  band  across  the 
middle  of  the  wings  parallel  with  the  hind  margin,  and  another  between  thisand  the 
hind  edge,  chiefly  on  the  outer  half  of  the  wing,  the  hind  edge  and  fringe  being  whitish 
alternated  with  black  spots  placed  on  the  tips  of  the  veins.  The  hind  wings  are  dusky 
gray  and  towards  their  bases  blackish,  their  posterior  half  being  freely  transparent 
and  faintly  netted  with  darker  lines.  The  body  is  densely  coated  with  gray  scales, 
its  under  side  hoary  white;  and  the  legs  are  gray,  with  black  bands  on  the  shanks, 
and  black  feet,  with  gray  rings  at  their  articulations. 

Remedies. — We  have  but  a  single  suggestion  to  make  upon  the  subject  of  remedies 
against  this  truly  formidable  though  fortunately  rare  enemy.  It  is  probable  that  soft 
soap  applied  the  fore  part  of  June  to  the  bodies  of  trees  will  be  equally  efficacious 
against  this  and  other  borers  as  it  is  against  that  of  the  apple  tree.  This  remedy  may 
well  be  resorted  to,  to  protect  the  locusts  and  oaks  which  we  value  as  ornamental 
trees;  and  scarce  and  valuable  as  timber  is  becoming  in  all  the  older  settled  sections 
of  our  country,  I  doubt  not  it  will  be  found  to  be  good  economy  to  bestow  similar 
attention  upon  the  more  valuable  trees  standing  in  our  forests. 

It  should  also  be  observed  that  whenever  a  hole  made  by  a  borer  is  discovered  in 
the  trunk  of  a  tree,  it  should  be  immediately  closed  by  inserting  a  plug  therein,  to 
exclude  the  wet  which  will  otherwise  be  admitted  hereby  to  the  interior  of  the  tree 
and  produce  a  decay  of  the  surrounding  wood. — (Fitch's  Fifth  Report,  pp.  4-10.) 

4.  The  lesser  oak  carpenter  worm. 

Prionoxystus  qnerciperda  (Fitch). 

Order  Lepidoptera  ;  Family  Cossid.e. 

(PI.  ii,  Figs.  4,  5.) 

Auother  and  rather  smaller  Cossid,  but  belonging  to  a  closely  allied 
species,  was  found  by  Mr.  J.  A.  Liutuer  resting  upon  the  trunk  of  au 
oak  tree  in  Schoharie,  X.  Y.  It  probably  ranges  all  over  tbe  Eastern 
States  and  Mississippi  Valley,  since  a  species,  either  this  or  closely  allied, 
is  reported  to  us  by  Mr.  G.  W.  Belfrage  to  inhabit  central  Texas.     Dr. 


Fitch  thinks  it  probable  that  it  bores  into  the  oak.  He  describes  it  as 
a  moth  smaller  in  size  thau  P.  robinicc,  with  thin  and  slight  transparent 
wings,  which  are  crossed  by  numerous  black  lines,  the  outer  margin  only 
of  the  forward  pair  being  opaque  and  of  a  gray  color ;  the  hind  wings 
of  the  male  are  colorless,  with  the  inner  margin  broadly  blackish  and 
the  hind  edge  coal-black. 

Mr.  Lintuer  has  found  the  lar  vTa  burrowing  in  the  black  oak.  The  moth 
appeared  April  29th.    The  male  is  about  half  as  large  as  the  female. 

"This  species  is  smaller  than  rebinice,  the  female  expanding  46mm  or 
47mm,  the  male  about  10mm  less.  The  male  hind  wings  seem  translucent, 
but  on  holding  them  obliquely  in  certain  lights  the  yellow  tint  may  be 
seen  plainly.  This  smaller  and  rarer  species  occurs  also  in  Texas.  It 
is  freer  from  reticulations  and  more  transparent  than  any  other  form." 
(Bailey,  Bull.  No.  3,  Div.  Ent.,  Dept.  Ag.,  55.) 

Larva. — Length  an  inch  and  a  half.  Pale  green,  with  a  darker  green  dorsal  stripe, 
bordered  faintly  with  yellow.  Head  flat,  sub  triangular,  dark  brown  clouded  with 
black.  First  segment  with  two  brown  spots  extending  across  it,  narrowed  laterally, 
and  of  nearly  the  length  of  the  segment  medially,  where  they  unite  to  inclose  on  the 
dorsal  line  an  elongate-elliptical  green  spot.  The  anterior  segments  are  flattened, 
and  broader  than  the  following,  which  gradually  diminish  in  breadth  toward  the 
posterior  end.  The  segments  are  marked  dorsally  with  four  rose-colored  elevated 
points,  the  trapezoidal  spots  of  Guenee;  on  the  10th  and  11th  segments  they  form  a 
quare.  A  similar  spot  is  present  above  each  stigma,  a  smaller  one  below,  and  an- 
other in  front — each  of  these  bearing  a  short  brown  hair.  The  stigmata  are  oval, 
orange-colored,  centered  with  dark  brown.  The  legs  are  tipped  with  chestnut  brown, 
and  the  prologs  armed  with  brown  plantae. — (Lintner,  Ent.  Contributions,  iv,  135.) 

5.  Cossula  magnlfica  Bailey. 
(PI.  ii,  figs.  1-3.) 

An  account  of  this  fine  moth  and  its  transformations  is  published  in 
Papilio  (ii,  93)  by  Dr.  J.  S.  Bailey.  The  larvae  were  found  by  Mr. 
Koebele  boring  in  species  of  oak  and  hickory  near  Tallahassee,  Fla. 
A  single  live-oak  was  observed  standing  in  an  open  field  containing 
many  larvae,  their  debris,  resembling  saw-dust,  being  distributed  over 
the  ground  around  the  roots  of  the  tree  more  than  six  inches  in  depth. 
"  At  the  period  of  pupation  the  larvae,  as  is  customary  with  the  Cossidae, 
takes  its  position  near  the  surface  of  the  bark.  The  tunneling  is  usu- 
ally conducted  near  the  surface,  from  one-quarter  to  one  inch  beneath 
the  bark.  After  the  imagines  emerge  their  pupa  cases  are  left  protrud- 
ing through  the  bark." 

Pupa. — The  long  testaceous  pupa-case  is  provided  with  an  irregular  series  of  five 
tuberculations  on  each  side  of  the  anus.     (Bailey.) 

Moth. — Size  small ;  male  antennae  bipectinate  to  the  tips,  the  inner  series  one-third 
the  length  of  the  outer  pectinations;  hind  tibiae  pilose  ;  wings  broad,  the  front  pair 
rounded  at  the  apices,  costa  with  dark  dots;  fuscous  gray,  smooth,  with  indistinct 
fragmentary  reticulations.  A  light  brown  patch  covers  the  outer  edge ;  before  the 
'patch  is  a  light  gray  subterminal  shade.  Hind  wings  blackish  brown  ;  front  yellow- 
ish; thorax  light  gray ;  abdomen  dark  gray;  expanse  of  wings,  36mm.  (1.44  inches). 


6.   Cossus  reticulatti8  Lintner. 

This  moth  was  described  by  Mr.  J.  A.  Lintner,  from  a  single  female 
in  the  collection  of  Mr.  tfeumogen,  collected  in  Texas,  on  the  Rio  Grande. 
Mrs.  Slosson  has  observed  it  riddling  live  oaks  in  Florida. 

Allied  to  (  .  robinia  in  shape  of  wings  and  markings,  having  the  stronger  scales  and 
reticulated  ornamentation  of  that  species,  in  which  it  differs  from  the  minute  and 
■parse  scales  and  transverse  lines  of  C.  quereiperdm  and  C.  oenteren»i$. 

Primaries  reticulated  with  black  on  a  pale  ash  ground,  the  wings  lighter  than  in  C. 
robiititt,  from  the  absence  of  the  conspicuous  intranervular  black  spots  and  streaks 
which  characterise  that  species,  and  are  well  represented  in  fig.  205,  p.  413,  of  Harris' 
liueott  Injurious  to  Wyttation.  In  this  species,  only  between  the  internal,  submedian 
and  1st  median  venule  (veins  la,  16,  and  2),  at  the  outer  third  of  the  wings,  do  the 
reticulations  coalesce  so  as  almost  to  form  spots.  In  the  terminal  and  subterminal  por- 
tions of  the  wing,  the  small  ash  spots  (sometimes  ocellated  with  a  black  dot  or  line) 
for  the  greater  part  rest  upon  the  veins;  between  2  and  5,  there  are  other  spots  in- 
termediate to  these  venular  ones;  elsewhere,  with  a  few  exceptions,  the  spots  are 
venular,  forming  two  intranervular  rows.  The  costal  region  is  pale  ash,  traversed  by 
black  lines  rather  than  reticulated.  The  median  portion  of  the  wing  is  imperfectly 
reticulated.  The  terminal  margin  and  the  unicolorous  fringe  are  conspicuously 
marked  with  a  black  spot  on  each  vein. 

Secondaries  thinly  clothed  with  fuscous  hairs,  permitting  the  reticulations  of  the 
lower  surface  to  be  seen  in  transparency,  except  between  the  margin  and  costal  nerve, 
where  it  is  seated  in  pale  ash,  as  the  primaries.  Terminal  margin  and  the  pale  fringe, 
black  spotted  as  the  primaries. — (Lintner,  Ent.  Contributions,  iv,  130,  1878.) 

7.  The  toothed- legged  buprestis. 

Chrysobothris  dentipes  Germar. 

Order  Coleoptera:    Family  Buprestid,e. 

Fig.  15.  — Chrysobothris  dentipes:  a,  head,  front  view;  6,  last  male  ventral  segment:  c,  last  female 
ventral  segment;  d,  first  leg  of  male.    After  Horn.    B.  The  same,  after  Smith. 

Eating  a  slender,  winding,  broad,  shallow  burrow  between  the  bark  and  sap-wood 
of  newly  felled  oak  trees;  a  white,  footless  grub,  with  the  fore  part  of  the  body  enor- 
mously large,  circular,  and  flattened,  inclosing  the  small  head  in  front. 

This  singularly  shaped  borer  is  often  found  under  the  bark  of  newly 
felled  oaks,  or  those  which  have  been  prostrate  for  a  longer  time.  We 
have  found  it  in  its  mine  under  the  bark  of  the  red  oak  at  Salem,  Mass., 
early  in  May,  in  company  with  more  numerous  individuals  of  Magdalis 


It  will  be  seen  by  the  form  of  this  singular  borer  that  it  is  adapted  for 
a  life  under  or  next  to  the  bark  of  diseased  trees,  as  it  is  quite  unfitted, 
by  reason  of  the  enormously  swollen  front  rings  of  the  body,  for  boring 
very  far  into  the  living  fresh  wood,  as  is  the  case  with  the  oak-boring  cat- 
erpillar of  Prionoxystus  robinice,  or  the  oak  primer  (Maphidion  villosum). 
With  its  short,  powerful  jaws  it  can  eat  its  way  on  either  side  in  front 
of  it,  after  hatching  from  the  egg,  which  is  probably  laid  by  the  parent 
beetle  in  some  crack  in  the  bark.  Its  head  is  rather  small  and  partly 
sunken  within  the  segment  next  behind  the  head.  This  segment,  des- 
tined to  be  the  prothorax  of  the  beetle,  is  remarkably  broad,  nearly 
three  times  as  much  so  as  the  hinder  segments,  and  fully  as  broad  again 
as  it  is  long,  while  the  surface  above  is  flat  and  more  or  less  rough  or 
pitted  in  the  middle.  With  this  unusual  form  it  can  eat  its  way  in  a 
serpentine  course  under  the  bark,  deriving  its  nourishment  from  the 
sap-wood  next  to  the  bark.  Owing  to  the  form  of  its  body  in  front, 
the  burrow  is  shallow  and  broad,  in  transverse  outline  oval  cylindrical. 
The  body  of  this  as  well  as  most  other  borers  is  provided  with  fine, 
delicate,  scattered  hairs,  projecting  on  each  side  of  each  segment. 
Judging  by  analogy,  these  hairs  are  probably  provided  each  with  a  fine 
nerve  (though  this  remains  to  be  proved),  and  probably  are  endowed 
with  a  delicate  sense  of  touch,  useful  to  the  insect  as  it  moves  to  and 
fro  in  its  gallery.  The  Buprestid  larvae  are  blind,  without  simple  eyes, 
since  living  as  they  do  in  total  darkness  and  never  coming  to  the  light 
they  do  not  need  even  the  simple  eyes  present  in  many  other  larvae, 
and  which  are  probably  chiefly  of  use  in  enabling  the  insect  tp  distin- 
tinguish  light  from  darkness. 

The  larvae  of  the  Buprestidce  and  the  breeding  habits  of  the  beetles 
have  not  as  yet  been  carefully  studied  in  America,  and  for  any  exact 
knowledge  we  have  to  go  to  French  and  German  authors. 

According  to  Perris,  the  Buprestids  couple  in  the  usual  manner,  the 
male  mounting  ui>on  the  back  of  the  female,  the  act  of  copulation  not 
being  of  long  duration. 

The  form  of  the  eggs  and  their  size  in  our  species  are  unknown,  or 
have  not  been  stated  in  print.  It  is  most  probable  that  the  female  lays 
them  in  the  bottom  of  cracks  in  the  bark,  or  under  the  partly  loosened 
bark  at  least,  where  the  larva  upon  hatching  may  find  itself  next  to  or  im- 
mediately in  contact  with  the  bast  or  the  sap-wood,  which  probably  forms 
the  greater  part  of  its  food,  though  Ratzeburg  has  found  that  the  "  frass" 
or  excrement  is  colored  by  the  bark,  which  indicates  that  the  larvae  feed 
both  on  the  bast  and  bark.  As  to  the  number  of  eggs  laid  by  the  female 
we  have  no  information.  The  eggs  are  deposited  in  fissures  or  cracks 
by  means  of  the  extensile  end  of  the  body.  As  Westwood  states,  "The 
abdomen  appears  to  be  composed  of  only  five  segments ;  the  remainder 
are,  however,  internal,  and  constitute  in  the  female  a  retractile,  corneous, 
conical  plate,  employed  for  depositing  the  eggs  in  the  chinks  of  the  bark 
of  trees  within  which  the  larvae  feed."     Perris,  however,  says  that  "the 


eggs  are  deposited  in  the  interior  of  the  bark,  the  outer  layers  of  which 
the  ovipositor  of  the  female  penetrates." 

It  has  been  claimed  by  Ratzeburg  and  also  by  Reifsig*  that  the 
European  larva?  of  Buprestis  and  the  numerous  allied  genera,  such  as 
Chrwsobothris,  Chalcophora,  etc.,  attain  their  full  size  in  two  years  ;  but 
according  to  Perris  the  time  required  for  their  transformations  is  but  a 
single  year,  as  may  be  seen  by  the  extracts  from  his  work  further  on. 

As  regards  the  habits  of  the  larvae  we  have  no  direct  observations  on 
the  young  of  this  family  in  this  country,  though  much  needed  in  con- 
nection with  the  use  of  remedial  measures. 

Mr.  E.  Perris,  in  his  invaluable  work,  entitled  "  Insectesdu  Pin  mari* 
time,"  says  of  the  larva  of  the  European  Ancylocheira  flavomaculata : 

The  larva  of  the  A.  flavomaculata  lives  in  the  wood  of  old  pines  recently  dead,  and 
especially  in  the  larger  branches  and  the  large  twigs  (pieux).  It  is,  indeed,  under  these 
two  last  conditions  that  they  oftenest  occur.  It  does  not  stop  in  the  bark,  because  it 
is  in  the  interior  of  the  bark  that  the  female  lays  its  eggs,  by  means  of  its  oviduct, 
and  after  its  birth  it  plunges  into  the  wood  to  the  depth  of  about  a  centimeter  [nearly 
two-fifths  of  an  inch].  It  follows  the  longitudinal  fibers  of  the  sap-wood  while  mak- 
ing a  gallery  elliptical  in  section,  which  it  leaves  behind  it  completely  filled  and  packed 
with  excrement  and  detritus.  When  the  time  of  its  metamorphosis  approaches  it 
goes  towards  the  surface  of  the  sap-wood,  perforates  it  to  the  bark,  sometimes  makes 
a  small  incision  into  the  latter,  stops  up  the  gallery  with  a  plug  made  entirely  of 
small,  compacted  chips ;  then  it  retires  backward  a  little  into  a  cell  scooped  out  in 
the  wood,  and  this  is  where  it  transforms  into  a  pupa. 

The  following  extract  from  Perris  refers  to  the  habits  of  Chrysobothru 
solieri,  which  also  lives  in  the  maritime  pine  in  France.  The  habits  of 
our  G.  dentipes  of  the  oak,  and  G.  femorata  of  the  oak  and  different  fruit 
trees,  and  G.  harrisii  of  the  white  pine  are  probably  quite  similar. 

According  to  my  observations  the  Chrysobothris  only  lays  its  eggs  on  the  trunks  of 
pines  from  five  to  fifteen  centimeters  in  diameter  at  the  base,  and  on  the  branches  of 
old  trees.  I  have  never  found  it  on  an  old  trunk,  and  when  a  large  prostrate  pine  is 
deprived  of  its  branches  it  is  on  them  that  it  lives,  and  not  on  the  trunk.  I  have 
already  said  that  the  larva  lives  at  first  under  the  bark;  it  there  busies  itself,  some- 
times attacking  very  plainly  the  sap-wood,  sometimes  boring  a  sinuous  gallery,  which 
it  leaves  behind  it  rilled  with  white  chips  and  excrements  of  a  brownish  red;  but  at 
the  approach  of  winter  it  burrows  into  the  wood,  where  it  gouges  out  a  gallery  ellip- 
tical iu  section,  the  dimensions  of  which  increase  as  its  body  grows  larger.  When 
the  moment  of  transformation  has  arrived  it  returns  into  its  gallery,  and  undergoes 
its  metamorphosis  sometimes  more  than  two  centimeters  from  the  surface,  because  I 
have  found  some  pupa?  and  perfect  insects  at  this  depth. 

Perris  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  though  the  Buprestid  beetles 
stand  quite  high  in  the  Coleopterous  series,  yet  their  larva1  have  an 
organization  inferior  to  that  of  all  other  Coleopterous  larvae  known. 
Thus,  they  have  neither  feet  nor  eyes,  and  there  are  no  other  Coleopte- 
rous larva?  which,  as  iu  the  Buprestids,  have  very  rudimentary  labial 
palpi,  and  which  consist  of  less  than  two  joints. 

•Ratzeburg's  Die  Waldverderbuiss,  etc.,  ii,  p.  360. 


The  burrows  of  the  Buprestid  larvae  may  nearly  always  be  distin- 
guished, says  Perris,  by  their  tortuous  course,  aud  by  the  fact  that  the 
excrement  and  detritus,  instead  of  being  accumulated  in  the  gallery 
without  order,  are  there  disposed  in  small  layers  forming  concentric  arcs, 
whose  opening  is  turned  away  from  the  larvae,  and  of  a  regularity  not 
less  remarkable  than  characteristic. 

This  symmetrical  arrangement  has  as  its  primary  cause  the  dimensions  of  the  gal- 
lery, which  are  out  of  proportion  with  the  abdomen  of  the  larva.  The  latter,  because 
of  the  size  of  the  anterior  portion  of  its  body,  is  obliged  to  give  to  its  gallery  a  size 
sufficient  for  the  posterior  part  to  execute  freely  movements  of  advance  and  retreat, 
which  have  as  their  natural  result  the  disposition  en  arc  of  the  rejected  material  be- 
hind. On  the  other  hand,  the  larva,  in  consequence  of  the  dimensions  of  its  gallery, 
in  order  to  have  points  of  support  is  obliged  to  bend  the  posterior  part  of  the  body 
on  itself.  It  is,  indeed,  ordinarily  found  in  this  attitude,  which  allows  it  to  press 
against  the  walls,  so  as  to  push  itself  ahead ;  but  in  this  condition  the  abdomen  forms 
an  arc  which,  propping  itself  from  the  convex  side  on  the  detritus,  causes  the  concav- 
ity of  the  successive  beds.     *     *     * 

We  have  seen  that  some  Buprestid  larvae  undergo  their  metamorphoses  in  the  inte- 
rior of  the  bark,  others  in  the  thickness  of  the  wood.  It  is,  moreover,  in  this  that  the 
wisdom  of  nature  is  revealed,  for  it  is  not  capriciously  and  without  motive  that  things 
happen  as  I  have  described.  We  know,  indeed,  that  if  those  larvae  which  do  not  at- 
tack the  young  trees,  as  those  of  Ancylocheira  8-guttata,  of  Chysobothris  solieri,  and  of 
Anthaxia  morio,  and  of  several  species  of  Agrilus,  should  live  under  the  bark  they 
would  not  be  sufficiently  protected,  because  the  bark  is  not  thick  enough  and  would 
easily  separate  from  the  wood.  When,  however,  on  the  contrary,  they  live  under  the 
hard  and  thick  bark  of  old  trees,  as  Melanophila  tarda,  Chrysobothris  affinis,  Agrilus 
biguttatus,  and  4-guttatus,  and  others,  they  do  not  hesitate  to  take  refuge  in  the  bark, 
because  they  are  there  well  sheltered,  and  because  they  save  the  beetle  from  making 
a  long  and  difficult  journey  in  order  to  make  its  exit.     *     *     * 

What  is  the  duration  of  the  life  of  the  larvae  of  the  Buprestidwl  Ratzeburg  is 
inclined  to  believe  that  it  is  two  years.  M.  Levaillaut,  whose  observations  are  repro- 
duced by  M.  Lucas  in  his  notice  of  Chalcophora,  is  also  disposed  to  think  that  those 
of  this  insect  pass  two  years  in  the  wood.  The  reason  which  he  gives,  and  which  is 
drawn  from  the  size  of  the  larvae  found  from  December  to  August,  does  not  seem  to 
me  conclusive,  because  the  female  of  Chalcophora  is  capable  of  laying  eggs  during 
almost  the  entire  year.  As  to  M.  Ratzeburg,  he  has  not,  apparently,  made  careful 
observations  in  this  respect. 

As  to  myself,  numerous  facts  authorize  me  to  say  that,  in  general,  these  larvae  only' 
live  one  year.  For  example,  some  pines,  poplars,  and  willows  which  I  have  cut  down 
in  the  springtime,  with  the  design  of  obtaining  Buprestids,  have  afforded  me  often 
very  numerous  perfect  insects  in  May  and  June  of  the  year  following. 

Some  logs  of  oak,  cut  in  January,  1847,  and  which  lay  during  a  whole  year  in  the 
open  air,  furnished  me  in  June  and  July,  1848,  more  than  three  hundred  Chrysobothris 
affinis.  The  trunks  of  some  large,  very  rigorous  pines,  cut  down  at  the  beginning  of 
one  year,  contained  pupae  of  Ancylocheira  in  the  following  May.  Finally,  as  regards 
all  the  species  that  I  have  here  described,  and  for  a  number  of  others,  I  have,  from 
my  own  experience,  the  certainty  that  the  larvae  live  only  one  year. 

I  admit  that,  without  doubt,  among  these  larvae  there  are  some  which,  not  placed  in 
conditions  sufficiently  favorable  to  complete  during  this  period  all  the  phases  of  their 
existence,  from  one  cause  or  another,  may  be  retarded  some  months,  for  a  year  even. 
I  moreover  accept  the  more  willingly  this  fact,  because  I  have  had  good  occasions  for 
^  observing  this  in  larvae  which  I  have  raised  in  my  cabinet ;  but  this  is  the  exception,, 
and  the  rule  is  that  a  single  year  suffices,  in  our  country,  for  the  development  of  the 
larvae  of  the  Buprestidae. 


The  Buprestids  in  the  perfect  state  love  the  daylight  and  sunshine.  Before  storms, 
whet]  tht;  air  iscalm  ami  heavy  and  thesun  is  hot,  th»-y  has.-  an  extraordinary  activity; 
and  when  t In*  weather  gradually  becomes  cloudy  and  the  wind  rises  they  disappear 
from  our  .sight.  We  know  bat  little  as  to  the  nature  of  their  food.  Chalcophora  ma- 
Hana  devours  the  young  shoots  of  pines,  Antkaxia  morio  and  ohevrierii  eat,  the  first 
the  petals  of  buttercups,  the  second  those  of  Ct88U$  dljl»$oidet.  Other  Anthaxke 
Also,  M  well  as  Trachys,  freipient  different  llowers.  Aphanixtivux  emargimitux  occurs 
on  rashes  (joncs),  and  I  have  sometimes  taken  Acmaodera  taniata  on  the  flowers  of 
carrots.  All  these  facts  lead  me  to  think  that  the  BuprestidS  KM  phytophagous; 
hut  it  appears  thai  certain  species  are,  accidentally  at  least,  carnivorous.  This  ap- 
pears from  a  communication  made  by  M.Leon  Fairmaire  to  the  Socidtd  Entom- 
ologique,  in  its  session  of  January  10,  1849,  relative  to  the  aabjeot  of  Chrysobolhrin 

Regarding  our  oak-borer  (C.  dentipes),  Harris  states  that  it  completes 
its  transformations  and  comes  out  of  the  trees  between  the  end  of  May 
and  the  first  of  July.  This  applies  to  Maine  and  Massachusetts.  In 
New  York,  according  to  Dr.  Fitch,  the  beetles  are  "often  found  bask- 
ing in  the  sunshine  on  the  bark  of  the  trees  in  June  and  July." 

The  beetle. — This  insect  is  so  named  from  the  little  tooth  on  the  under  side  of  the 
thick  forelegs.  It  is  oblong,  oval,  and  flattened,  of  a  bronzed  brownish  or  purplish- 
black  color  above,  copper- colored  beneath,  and  rough-like  shagreen,  with  numerous 
punctures;  the  thorax  is  not  so  wide  as  the  hinder  part  of  the  body ;  its  hinder  mar- 
gin is  hollowed  on  both  sides  to  receive  the  rounded  base  of  each  wing-cover,  and 
there  are  two  smooth  elevated  lines  on  the  middle ;  on  each  wing-cover  there  are 
three  irregular,  smooth,  elevated  lines,  which  are  divided  and  interrupted  by  large, 
thickly  punctured,  impressed  spots,  two  of  which  are  oblique:  the  tips  are  rounded. 
Length  from  £  to  ^  of  an  inch.     (Harris.) 

7.  The  flat-headed  borer. 

Chrysobothrisfemorata  Fabricius. 

Order  Coleoptera;  Family  Buprestid^e. 

Boring  under  the  bark  and  in  the  sap-wood  of  the  white  oak,  and  in  the  Gulf  States, 
the  pin  oak  ;  a  pale-yellow  flat-headed  grub,  closely  resembling  the  preceding  species. 

This  pernicious  borer  of  the  apple  tree,  as  stated  both  by  Harris  and 
Fitch,  originally  infested  the  white  oak,  but  since  the  settlement  of  the 

country  has  abounded  in  the  apple  and 
sometimes  in  the  peach,  but  may  still  be 
found  to  injure  the  white  oak.  Riley  has 
also  found  it  in  the  soft  maple  and  weep- 
ing willow.  Riley  has  reared  this  beetle 
from  the  oak,  apple,  mountain  ash,  box 
elder,  peach,  and  pear,  and  has  found  the 
larva  in  the  mountain  ash,  linden,  beech, 
cherry,  and  peach  (7th  Rt.  Ins.  Mo.,  72). 
Fig.  18  will  fairly  represent  the  "mine" 
or  gallery  made  under  the  bark  of  a  stump 
of  the  white  oak,  as  it  occurred  at  Prov- 
idence, R.  I.  The  worm  soon  after  hatch- 
ing made  the  mine  as  is  seen  on  the  right  of 


16.— Chryaobothria   femorata 
a.  bead  ;  b,  last  ventral  m 

male;  e,  last  ventral  segment  of 
female;  '/.   tiist    leg   oi    male.— 

Alter  Horn. 



the  figure,  where  after  a  sinuous  course  it  opens  into  a  broad,  shallow 
cell,  and  then  after  pursuing  an  irregular  direction  dilates  on  the  left 
into  a  broad,  shallow  cell  two-thirds  of  an  inch  wide ;  the  oval,  black 
spot  in  the  upper  corner  representing  the  hole  made  by  the  larva  for 
the  exit  of  the  beetle.  In  this  hole  the  beetle  was  found.  The  large 
cell  is  for  the  repose  of  the  pupa. 

At  Houston,  Tex.,  I  found  the  larva  and  pupa  in  abundance,  April 
2,  1881,  under  the  bark  of  large  pin  oak  stumps  and  of  dead  trees. 
The  burrows  were  like  those  represented  in  Fig.  18,  being  irregular 
winding,  shallow  burrows,  not  nearly  so  definite  in  outline  as  those 
made  by  longicorn  borers.  The  mine  is  about 
|  inch  wide,  and  terminates  in  a  broad,  irreg- 
ular, oval  cell  1J  inches  long  and  J  to  §  inch 
wide.  In  this  cell  the  pupa  spends  the  winter 
and  early  spring.  One  end  of  this  cell  lies 
toward  the  outer  side  of  the  bark  so  that  even 
if  there  is  not  a  clearly  defined  oval  opening, 
as  in  Fig.  18,  the  beetle  on  emerging  from  the 
pupa  state  can  with  little  difficulty  extricate 
itself  from  its  cell  and  make  its  way  out  of  doors 
by  pushing  aside  a  thin  barrier  of  bark.  In 
the  case  of  one  in  the  pin  oak  there  was  a  Fl^.  n -Transformation  of 
quite  irregular,  oval  cell  built  up  by  the  larva  S^^J.f^J^SS 
between  the  wood  and  the  bark,  the  partition  mento^ttii  * A&rRiiSy! 
consisting  of  a  composition  of  firm  bark  dust, 

thus  forming  a  rude  cocoon.  The  insect  occurred  at  Providence  in 
the  larva,  pupa,  and  beetle  states  May  20,  though  the  larvae  were  the 
most  abundant. 

Harris  says  of  it  from  his  observations  in  eastern  Massachusetts  : 

Its  time  of  appearance  is  from  the  end  of  May  to  the  middle  of  July,  during  which 
it  may  often  be  seen,  in  the  middle  of  the  day,  resting  upon  or  flying  round  the  trunks 
of  white-oak  trees  and  recently-cut  timber  of  the  same  kind  of  wood.  I  have  re- 
peatedly taken  it  upon  and  under  the  bark  of  peach  trees  also.  The  grubs  or  larvae 
bore  into  the  trunks  of  these  trees. 

Mr.  Ricksecker  remarks  that  on  the  Pacific  coast  it  "  attacks  young 
fruit  trees  that  have  been  scorched  by  the  sun,  but  its  natural  food  is 
the  oak,  for  I  have  seen  dozens  of  them  in  the  branches  of  a  small  live 
oak  that  had  been  cut  down  less  than  an  hour."    (Eut.  Amer.,  i,  97.) 

The  following  extracts  from  Dr.  Fitch's  first  report  will  further  serve 
•to  characterize  the  habits  and  appearance  of  this  formidable  pest  of  our 
most  valuable  forest,  shade,  and  fruit  trees.  It  will  appear  that  Dr. 
Fitch  has  been  the  first  to  discover  an  ichneumon  parasite  in  the  larva 
of  this  beetle,  no  European  Buprestid  beetle  being,  so  far  as  we  know, 
infested  by  internal  parasites: 

Another  insect,  which  has  not  heretofore  been  noticed  in  our  country  as  a  borer  in 
the  apple  tree,  pertains  to  the  family  Buprestidce,  or  the  brilliant  snapping  beetles. 
5  ENT 5 


Mr.  P.  Barry,  of  the  Mount  Hope  nurseries,  Rochester,  has  forwarded  to  us  sections 
of  the  body  of  some  young  apple  trees,  which  were  B80t  to  him  from  a  correspondent 
in  Hillsborough,  in  southern  Ohio,  who  states  that  in  that  vicinity  the  borer,  which 
ih  contained  in  the  specimens  sent,  is  doing  great  damage  to  the  apple  trees,  and  that 
he  has  had  peach  trees  also  killed  by  this  same  worm.  From  au  examination  of  these 
specimens,  it  appears  that  this  insect  is  quite  similar  to  the  common  apple-tree  borer 
in  its  habits.  The  parent  insect  deposits  its  eggs  ou  the  bark,  from  which  a  worm 
hatches,  which  passes  through  the  bark  and  during  the  first  periodsof  its  life  consumes 
the  soft  sap-wood  immediately  under  the  bark.  But  when  the  worm  approaches  ma- 
turity and  has  become  stronger  and  more  robust,  it  gnaws  into  the  more  solid  heart- 
wood,  forming  a  flatfish,  and  not  a  cylindrical  hole  such  as  is  formed  by  most  other 
bonis,  the  bniTOW  which  it  excavates  being  twice  as:  broad  as  it  is  high,  the  height 
measuring  t  e  tenth  of  an  inch  or  slightly  over.  It  is  the  latter  part  of  summer  when 
these  worms  thus  sink  themselves  into  the  solid  heart- wood  of  the  tree,  their  burrow 
extending  upwards  from  the  spot  under  the  bark  where  they  had  previously  dwelt. 
On  laying  open  one  of  these  burrows  I  find  it  is  more  than  an  inch  in  length,  and  all 
its  lower  part  is  tilled  and  blocked  up  with  the  fine  sawdust-like  castings  of  the  worm. 
Thus,  when  the  worm  is  destined  to  lay  torpid  and  inactive  during  the  long  months 
of  winter,  it  has  the  forethought,  so  to  speak,  to  place  itself  in  a  safe  and  secure  re- 
treat, withiu  the  solid  wood  of  the  tree,  with  the  hole  leading  to  its  cell  plugged  up 
so  as  effectually  to  prevent  any  enemy  from  gaining  admission  to  it. 

Fig.  18.— Mine  or  burrow  made  by  the  apnle  flat-headed  buret  (C.  femorata)  in  the  white  oak,  nat. 

size.  — Packard  del. 

Still,  this  worm  is  not  able  to  secure  itself  entirely  from  those  parasitic  insects 
which  are  the  destroyers  of  so  many  other  species  of  its  race,  and  which,  as  is  cur- 
rently remarked,  appear  to  have  been  created  for  the  express  purpose  of  preying 
upon  those  species,  in  order  to  prevent  their  becoming  excessively  multiplied.  We 
should  expect  that  this  and  other  borers,  lying  as  they  do  beneath  the  bark  or 
within  the  wood  of  trees,  were  so  securely  shielded  that  it  would  be  impossible 
for  any  insect  enemy  to  discover  and  gain  access  to  them,  to  molest  or  destroy 
them.  But  among  the  specimens  sent  me  by  Mr.  Barry  is  one  where  the  worm  has 
been  entirely  devoured,  nothing  but  its  shriveled  skin  remaining,  within  and  upon 


which  are  several  minute  maggots  or  footless  little  grubs,  soft,  dull  white,  shining,  of 
a  long  egg  shaped  form,  pointed  at  the  tip  and  blunt  in  front,  their  bodies  divided  into 
segments  by  very  fine  transverse  impressed  lines  or  sutures.  They  are  about  one- tenth 
of  an  inch  long  and  0.035  broad  at  the  widest  part.  These  are  evidently  the  larvae 
of  some  small  Hymenopterous  or  bee-like  insect,  pertaining,  there  can  be  little  doubt, 
to  the  family  Chalcididse,  the  female  of  which  has  the  instinct  to  discover  these 
borers,  probably  in  the  earlier  periods  of  their  life  when  they  are  lying  directly  be- 
neath the  bark,  and  piercing  through  the  bark  with  her  ovipositor,  and  puncturing 
the  skin  of  the  borer,  drops  her  eggs  therein,  which  subsequently  hatch  and  subsist 
upon  the  borer,  eventually  destroying  it.  These  minute  larvae  were  forwarded  to  me 
under  the  supposition  that  they  were  injurious  to  the  apple  tree,  whereas,  by  destroy- 
ing these  pernicious  borers,  it  is  evident  they  must  be  regarded  as  our  best  friends. 
This  fact  illustrates  how  important  it  is  for  us  to  be  acquainted  with  our  insects  in 
the  different  stages  of  their  lives,  that  we  may  be  able  to  discriminate  friends  from 
foes,  and  know  which  to  destroy  and  which  to  cherish.     (Fitch.) 

Larva.— Protborax  very  broad,  being  broader  and  flatter  and  the  abdominal  seg- 
ments smaller  in  proportion  than  any  other  borer  of  this  family  known  to  us.  Head 
retracted  within  the  prothorax.  The  disk  finely  shagreeued  with  raised  dots.  A 
narrow  inverted  V-shaped  smooth  impressed  line  in  the  middle  of  the  disk,  the  apex 
becoming  prolonged  towards  but  finally  becoming  obsolete  at  the  front  edge  of  the 
disk  ;  the  arms  of  the  V  behind  not  reaching  very  near  the  posterior  edge  of  the  disk. 
Beneath,  is  a  similar  roughened  disk,  but  more  regularly  rounded-oval  than  above, 
and  with  a  single  straight  median  swollen  impressed  line,  which  is  a  little  over 
one-half  as  long  as  the  disk,  but  which  reaches  a  little  nearer  the  front  than  the  hind 

Second  thoracic  (mesothoracic)  segment  very  short,  considerably  shorter  and  wider 
than  the  third,  with  an  oval,  slightly  rough,  area  on  each  side  of  the  median  line,  the 
similar  area  on  the  third  thoracic  segment  being  larger  and  united  over  the  median 

The  ten  abdominal  segments  of  uniform  width,  being  a  little  shorter  than  broad, 
except  the  small  tenth  segment,  which  is  about  two-thirds  as  wide  as  the  ninth.  A 
pair  of  irregular,  rather  long  patches  on  each  abdominal  segment  above,  and  a  pair 
of  curvilinear  impressed  lines  beneath. 

One  pair  of  mesothoracic  and  eight  pairs  of  abdominal  spiracles. 
Head  a 'little  narrower  than  the  thoracic  disk.  Clypeus  corneous,  square  in  front- 
very  short  and  broad.  Labrum  square,  a  little  longer  than  wide,  front  edge  mode* 
rately  rounded,  densely  hirsute.  Antennae  3-jointed;  first  joint  short,  membranous, 
second  considerably  narrower,  third  minute,  rounded  at  tip,  considerably  slenderer 
than  second.  Mandibles  entirely  black.  Maxillary  lobe  short,  projecting  slightly  be-  ' 
yondthe  edge  of  labium.  Maxillary  palpus  2-jointed,  second  joint  not  so  long  as  the 
first  is  wide,  one-third  as  thick,  and  extending  a  little  beyond  the  maxillary  lobe. 
Labium  entire,  the  front  edge  not  being  excavated. 

Length,  422mm  ;  breadth  of  prothoracic  segment,  7mm  ;  length,  4mm;  width  of  sixth 
abdominal  segment,  3mm. 

Pupa.  Body  flattened,  and  of  the  general  shape  of  the  imago.  The  antennae  seen 
from  above  extend  to  a  little  behind  the  outer  hinder  angle  of  the  prothorax.  The 
elytra  reach  to  the  middle  of  the  fourth  abdominal  segment.  The  wiugs  extend  as  far 
as  the  hinder  edge  of  the  same  segment.  The  third  pair  of  tarsi  reach  to  near  the 
middle  of  the  sixth  abdominal  segment.  Six  pairs  of  abdominal  spiracles.  Length, 
15m,n  ;  breadth,  7mm. 

In  transforming,  the  eyes,  the  front  of  the  head,  the  prothorax,  the  femora,  and 
tibiae  and  portions  of  the  sternum  and  under  side  of  the  abdominal  segments  turn 
dark  first. 

The  foregoing  descriptions  have  been  drawn  up  from  specimens  ob- 
tained by  us  in  Texas  and  in  Rhode  Island. 


The  beetle. — Like  other  species  of  its  family,  the  thick-legged  Buprestis  is  variahle 
in  rise,  measuring  from  four  to  five  tenths  of  an  inch  in  length  and  about  two-thirds 
in  width.  It  is  of  a  black  or  grei  nish-black  color,  polished  and  shining,  with  the 
■nrfmoc  rongfa  and  uneven.  The  bend,  and  lometimee  the  thorax,  and  the  depressed 
portions  of  the  elytra  are  of  a  dull  coppery  color.  The  head  is  sunk  into  the  thorax 
to  the  eyes,  li  densely  pnnctared,  and  Is  clothed  in  front  with  line  white  hairs,  which 
are  directed  downwards.  Upon  the  middle  of  the  top  of  the  head  is  a  smooth  raised 
black  line  with  a  narrow  Impressed  line  through  its  middle,  a  mark  which  serves  to 
distinguish  this  from  some  of  the  other  species  which  are  closely  related  to  it.  The 
thorax  is  much  more  broad  than  long,  and  is  widest  forward  of  the  middle.  Its  sur- 
face is  covered  with  dense,  coarsish  punctures,  which  run  into  each  other  in  a  some- 
what transverse  direction.  It  is  also  somewhat  uneven,  with  slight  elevations  and 
hollows,  but  has  not  two  smooth  raised  lines  on  its  middle  and  anterior  part,  which 
are  met  with  in  another  species  very  similar  to  this,  the  tooth-legged  snapping- 
beetle  (Chryaobotktii  dentipes  Qermta).  The  elytra  or  wing-covers  present  a  much 
more  rough  and  unequal  surface  than  any  other  part  of  the  insect.  Three  smooth  and 
polished  raised  lines  extend  lengthwise  of  each  wing-cover,  and  the  intervals  between 
them  are  in  places  occupied  by  smaller  raised  lines,  which  form  a  kind  of  net-work, 
and  two  impressed  transverse  spots  may  also  be  discerned,  more  or  less  distinctly, 
dividing  each  wing-cover  into  three  nearly  equal  portions.  These  spots  reach  from 
the  iuner  one  of  the  three  raised  lines  nearly  to  the  outer  margin,  crossing  the  two 
other  raised  lines  and  interrupting  them  more  or  less.  They  are  commonly  of  a 
cupreous  tinge,  and  densely  punctured,  but  are  smoother  than  the  other  portions  of 
the  surface.  A  smaller  and  more  deeply  impressed  spot  may  commonly  be  found  in 
the  space  next  to  the  suture  and  forward  of  the  anterior  spot,  of  which  it  is,  as  it  were, 
a  continuation.  The  wing-covers  are  rounded  at  their  tips,  so  as  to  present  a  slight 
notch  at  the  suture  when  they  are  closed,  and  the  outer  margin  towards  the  tip  has 
several  very  minute  projecting  teeth.  When  the  wing-covers  are  parted  the  back 
is  discovered  to  be  of  a  brilliant  bluish-green  color  and  thickly  punctured,  with  a 
row  of  large  impressed  spots  along  the  middle,  one  on  each  segment,  and  half  way 
between  these  and  the  outer  margin  is  another  row  of  smaller  impressed  dots,  having 
their  centers  black.  The  underside  of  the  body  and  the  legs  are  brilliant  coppery, 
the  feet  being  deep  shining  green,  their  last  joint  and  the  hooks  at  its  end  black. 
Here  also  the  surface  is  everywhere  thickly  punctured,  the  punctures  on  the  venter  or 
hind  part  of  the  body  opening  backwards.  The  last  segment  has  an  elevated  line  in 
the  middle  at  its  base,  and  its  apex  is  cut  off  by  a  straight  line,  in  the  middle  of  which 
is  commonly  a  small  projecting  tooth.  The  anterior  thighs  are  remarkably  large, 
from  which  circumstance  this  species  has  received  its  name,  and  they  have  an  angu- 
lar projection  on  their  inner  sides,  beyond  the  middle.  The  tibia,1,  or  shanks,  of  these 
legs  are  slightly  curved.     (Fitch.) 

Remedies. — Under  this  bead  we  extract  the  following  suggestions 
from  Fitch : 

The  remedies  for  destroying  this  borer  must  necessarily  be  much  the  same  with 
those  already  stated  for  the  common  borer  or  striped  Saperda.  They  consist  essen- 
tially of  three  measures:  First,  coating  or  impregnating  the  bark  with  some  sub- 
stance repulsive  to  the  insect;  second,  destroying  the  beetle  by  hand-picking;  and, 
third,  destroying  the  larva  by  cutting  into  and  extracting  it  from  its  burrow. 

As  it  is  during  the  month  of  June  and  forepart  of  July  that  the  beetle  frequents 
the  trees  for  the  purpose  of  depositing  its  eggs  in  the  bark,  it  is  probable  that  white- 
washing the  trunk  and  large  limbs  or  rubbiug  them  over  with  soft  soap  early  in 
June  will  secure  them  from  molestation  from  this  enemy.  And  in  districts  where  this 
borer  is  known  to  infest  the  apple  trees  the  trees  should  be  repeatedly  inspected  dur- 
ing this  part  of  the  year,  and  any  of  these  beetles  that  are  found  upon  them  should 
be  captured  and  destroyed.     It  is  at  midday  of  warm,  sunshiny  days  that  the  search 



for  them  will  be  most  successful,  as  they  are  then  most  active  and  show  themselves 
abroad.  The  larvae,  when  young,  appear  to  have  the  same  habit  with  most  other 
borers,  of  keeping  their  burrow  clean  by  throwing  their  castings  out  of  it  through  a 
small  orifice  in  the  bark.  They  can,  therefore,  be  discovered  probably  by  the  new 
sawdust-like  powder  which  will  be  found  adhering  to  the  outer  surface  of  the  bark. 
In  August  or  September,  while  the  worms  are  yet  young  and  before  they  have  pen- 
etrated the  heart- wood,  the  trees  should  be  carefully  examined  for  these  worms. 
Wherever,  from  any  particles  of  the  sawdust-like  powder  appearing  externally  upon 
the  bark,  one  of  these  worms  is  suspected,  it  will  be  easy,  at  least  in  young  trees, 
where  the  bark  is  thin  and  smooth,  to  ascertain  by  puncturing  it  with  a  stiff  pin 
whether  there  is  any  hollow  cavity  beneath,  and  if  one  is  discovered,  the  bark  should 
be  cut  away  with  a  knife  until  the  worm  is  found  and  destroyed.  After  it  has  pen- 
etrated the  solid  wood  it  ceases  to  eject  its  castings,  and,  consequently,  we  are  then 
left  without  any  clew  by  which  to  discover  it.  Hence  the  importance  of  searching 
for  it  seasonably. 

The  following  ichneumon  parasites  are  said  by  Riley  to  keep  the 
numbers  of  the  larvae  in  check,  besides  a  chalcid  fly :  Bracon  charus 
Riley  and  Gryptus  or  Labena  grallator  Say. 

8.    The  green-headed  chrysobothris. 

Chry8obothri8  chlorocephala  (Gory). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Buprestid^e. 

Probably  boring  under  the  bark  of  the  white-oak,  with  habits  similar  to  those  of 
other  fiat-headed  borers  of  the  oak ;  a  Buprestid  beetle. 

9.    The  northern  brenthian. 

Eupsalis  minuta  (Drury). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Brenthid,e. 

Boring  into  the  solid  wood  of  the  white  oak,  forming  a  cylin- 
drical passage,  a  slender  grub  £  inch  long  and  not  quite  0.05  inch 
thick,  changing  to  a  weevil  with  a  large,  very  thick  snout. 

The  habits  and  transformations  of  this  beetle  were 
first  described  by  Dr.  Riley,  the  original  account  given  ^thi^cM^ 
by  Dr.  Harris  proving  erroneous,  his  larva  being  that  of 
a  Tenebrionid  beetle,  as  stated  by  Riley.  This  interest- 
ing weevil  may  be  found  on  the  trunk  and  under  the  bark  of  the  white 
oak  in  June  and  July  in  New  England,  or  in  May  and  June  in  New 
York  and  Missouri,  having  then  assumed  the  imago  or  beetle  con- 
dition. Riley  states  that  it  is  equally  common  on  the  black,  red,  and 
post  oaks ;  that  it  bores  in  all  directions  through  the  heart- wood,  and 
is  found  most  commonly  in  stumps  or  in  felled  trees  the  year  after 
they  are  cut. 

The  beetle  differs  from  other  weevils  in  that  the  snout  projects  straight 
out  in  front,  not  being  curved  downwards  as  in  weevils  in  general.  *  In 
the  male  the  snout  is  much  broader  and  flatter  than  in  the  female,  but 

cephala.— Smith, 

Pig.  20.— Northern  Brenthiiin;  a,  lai-va;  b,  pu- 
pa; c,  beetle,  female  ;  d,  head  of  male;  e,  4th 
antfcimal  joint;  /,  leg;  gl,  parts  of  larval 
head. — Alter  Riley. 


varies  considerably,  especially  in  .the  males,  both  in  length  and  breadth. 
It  is  of  a  mahogany  brown,  the  thorax  .smooth  and  highly  polished,  and 

the  wing-covers  strongly  furrowed, 
shaded  with  deeper  brown,  and 
marked  with  narrow  tawny-yellow 
spots.  It  is  from  one-fourth  to  a  little 
over  one-half  an  inch  in  length.  The 
males  are,  contrary  to  the  general 
rule  in  insects,  almost  invariably  the 
larger.  The  males  of  the  Brenthiaus 
are  known  to  fight  desperately  for  the 
female,  and,  as  has  been  remarked  by 
Mr.  A.  R.  Wallace,*  it  is  interesting, 
"  as  bearing  on  the  question  of  sexual 
selection,  that  in  this  case,  as  in  the 
stag  beetles,  when  the  males  fight  to- 
gether, they  should  be  not  only  better  armed,  but  also  much  larger 
than  the  females."    (Riley.) 

According  to  Riley,  in  Missouri  the  eggs  are  deposited  during  the 
months  of  May  and  June.  The  female  bores  a  cylindrical  hole  in  the 
bark  with  her  slender  snout  and  pushes  an  egg  to  the  bottom  of  the 

"  It  requires  about  a  day  to  make  a  puncture  and  deposit  the  egg. 
During  the  time  the  puncture  is  being  made  the  male  stands  guard, 
occasionally  assisting  the  female  in  extracting  her  beak ;  this  he  does 
by  stationing  himself  at  a  right  angle  with  her  body,  and  by  pressing 
his  heavy  prosteruum  against  the  tip  of  her  abdomen ;  her  stout  fore- 
legs serving  as  a  fulcrum  and  her  long  body  as  a  lever.  When  the 
beak  is  extracted,  the  female  uses  her  antennae  for  freeing  the  pincers 
or  jaws  of  bits  of  wood  or  dust,  the  antennae  being  furnished  with  stiff 
hairs  and  forming  an  excellent  brush.  Should  a  strange  male  ap- 
proach, a  heavy  contest  at  once  ensues,  and  continues  until  one  or  the 
other  is  thrown  from  the  tree.  The  successful  party  then  takes  his  sta- 
tion as  guard."    (W.  R.  Howard,  in  Riley's  Sixth  Report.) 

Riley  thinks  that  the  larva  lives  but  a  single  year,  although  larvae  of 
different  sizes  occur  in  midwinter  with  the  beetles. 

The  larva. — Length,  0.55-0.75  inch  ;  di;«meter  in  middle  of  body,  0.05  inch.  Body 
almost  straight,  cylindrical,  12-jointed,  with  a  few  faint  hairs  only  on  prothorax  and 
around  anus;  thoracic  joints  short,  bent  a  little  forward,  swollen  and  broadly  and 
deeply  wrinkled,  with  two  especially  prominent  swellings  on  top  of  joints  2  and  3, 
converging  towards  head,  and  having  each  a  granulated  rufous  spot ;  the  other  joints 
with  about  three  dorsal  transverse  wrinkles ;  joints  5-9  subequal,  as  long  as  1-3  to- 
gether, twice  as  long  as  4  ;  10-12  diminishing  in  length,  slightly  swollen,  the  anus 

"The Malay  Archipelago,  p.  482.  The  line  by  the  side  of  the  insect  in  this  and 
other  cuts  indicates  the  length  of  the  insect,  most  of  the  sketches  being  enlarged 


retracted ;  6  very  small  3-jointed  thoracic  legs,  the  terminal  joint  being  a  mere  bristle ; 
stigmata  quite  distinct  and  brown,  the  first  pair  much  the  largest,  between  the  fold 
of  joints  2  and  3 ;  the  others  on  anterior  fifth  of  joints  4-11,  the  last  pair  more  dorsal 
than  the  rest.  Head  pale  yellow,  darker  around  mouth;  rounded,  more  or  less  bent 
over  the  breast,  with  sparse,  stiff,  pale  hairs  springing  from  elevated  points ;  ocelli, 
none ;  antennse  not  visible,  unless  a  dusky  prominence  lying  close  between  mandibles 
and  maxillfB  be  called  such  ;  labium  small,  with  two  depressions  and  other  inequali- 
ties, the  margins  slightly  angular,  allowing  the  jaws  to  closely  fit  around  it;  jaws 
stout,  triangular,  the  inner  margin  produced  at  middle  into  a  larger  and  smaller  tooth, 
and  with  a  slight  excavation  near  tip  ;  maxilla?  long,  with  but  a  short,  horny  cardinal 
piece ;  the  palpi  apparently  2-jointed  and  with  difficulty  resolved,  on  account  of  three 
or  four  other  prominences  around  them  ;  garnished  on  the  inside  with  a  close  row  of 
stiff  hairs  and  on  the  outside  with  two  stouter  hairs;  labium  large,  oboval,  the  palpi 
placed  in  front  and  2-jointed. 

Pupa. — Average  length  0.40  inch,  with  the  antennae  curled  back  over  the  thorax, 
the  seven  or  eight  terminal  joints  each  with  a  more  or  less  distinct,  forwardly-directed, 
brown  thorn  ;  the  snout  lying  on  the  breast  and  varying  according  to  sex ;  abdominal 
joints  with  a  more  or  less  distinct  row  of  small  thorns  on  the  posterior  dorsal  edge, 
the  last  joint  with  a  more  prominent  thorn  directed  backwards  in  a  line  with  the 
body.     (Riley.) 

10.  The  gray-sided  oak  weevil. 

Pandeletius  hilaris  (Herbst). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Curculionid^:. 

Making  a  smaller  burrow  than  that  of  the  Northern  Brenthian,  a  worm  like  that  of 
the  plum  weevil  and  changing  to  a  gray  weevil,  found  on  the  leaves 
from  May  to  September. 

Beyond  the  fact  stated  by  Harris  that  the  larva  lives 
in  the  trunks  of  white  oaks,  on  which  the  beetles  occur 
from  late  in  May  to  September,  we  know  nothing  of  this     T 

The  beetle. — A  little  pale-brown  beetle,  variegated  with  gray  upon 
the  sides.     Its  snout  is  short,  broad,  and  slightly  furrowed  in  the 
middle;    there  are  three  blackish  stripes  on  the  thorax,  between     Fig.  21.— Pandele- 
which  are  two  of  a  light-gray  color  ;  the  wing-covers  have  a  broad         Smith,  del. 
stripe  of  light  gray  on  the  outer  side,  edged  within  by  a  slender 
blackish  line,  and  sending  two  short  oblique  branches  almost  across  each  wing-cover ; 
and  the  fore  legs  are  larger  than  the  others.     Length  from  one-eighth  to  one-fifth  of 
an  inch.     (Harris.) 

11.  The  quercitron  bark-borer. 

Graphisurus  fasciatus  (De  Geer). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  CERAMBYCiDiE. 

Feeding  upon  and  destroyiug  the  quercitron  bark  of  newly-felled  trees,  forming 
large  tracks  filled  with  worm-dust,  a  white,  footless  grub  about  0.60  inch  long,  and 
with  a  transverse  oval  tawny-yellow  spot  on  the  middle  of  each  wing  above  and  be- 
low;  in  June  transforming  to  a  long-horned  beetle  about  one-half  an  inch  long,  of 
an  ash-gray  color  sprinkled  with  blackish  spots  and  punctures,  and  back  of  the  mid- 
dle of  its  wing-covers  an  irregular  oblique  black  band;  the  female  with  a  straight 
awl-like  ovipositor  nearly  one-quarter  of  an  inch  in  length.     (Fitch.) 


Fig.  22 

tn*,  female 

Graphiguni8    fascia- 
Smith,  del. 

Prof.  Riley  found  this  insect  boring  in  the  wood  of  a  rotten  oak- 
st inn p  in  May,  1872,  at  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

The  bark  called  quercitron,  of  the  Quercus 
Hnctoria,  is  highly  valued  as  a  dye,  and  is  much 
worm-eaten  by  this  insect. 

The  parent  of  the  worm  differs  remarkably  from  all  the 
other  beetles  of  this  group  in  that  the  female  is  furnished 
with  a  straight  awl-like  ovipositor  nearly  a  quarter  of  an 
inch  in  length,  projecting  horizontally  backwards  from 
the  end  of  her  body.  The  importance  of  this  implement 
becomes  manifest  when  we  observe  the  thickness  of  the 
bark  of  the  black  oak,  with  its  outer  layers  so  dry  and 
hard  that  they  form,  as  it  were,  a  coat  of  mail,  protecting 
the  trunk  of  the  tree  against  the  attacks  of  its  enemies. 
Equipped  as  she  is,  however,  the  female  of  this  beetle  is 
able  to  perforate  this  hard  outer  bark  and  sink  her  eggs 
through  it,  placing  them  where  her  young  will  find  them- 
selves surrounded  with  their  appropriate  food.  The 
worms  from  these  eggs  mine  their  burrows  mostly  length- 
wise of  the  grain  or  fibers  of  the  bark,  and  the  channels 
which  they  excavate  are  so  numerous  and  so  filled  with 
worm-dust  of  the  same  color  with  the  bark  that  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  trace  them.  The  eggs  are  deposited  the  latter  part  of  June,  and  the  worms 
grow  to  their  full  size  by  the  close  of  the  season,  and  will  be  found  during  the  winter 
and  spring,  lying  in  the  inner  layers  of  the  bark,  in  a  small  oval  flattened  cavity 
about  an  inch  in  length,  which  is  usually  at  the  larger  end  of  the  track  they  have 

The  larva  is  divided  by  transverse  constrictions  into  twelve  rings,  the  last  one 
being  double.  The  head  is  small  and  retracted  more  or  less  into  the  neck,  its  base 
white  and  shining,  and  its  anterior  part  deep  tawny  yellow,  and  along  each  side  black. 
The  neck  or  first  ring  is  much  longer  as  well  as  thicker  than  any  of  the  others,  the 
two  rings  next  to  it  being  shortest.  From  the  neck  the  body  of  the  worm  is  slightly 
tapered  backwards  to  the  middle,  from  whence  it  has  nearly  the  same  diameter  to  the 
tip,  where  it  is  bluntly  rounded.  Upon  the  upper  side  of  the  neck,  occupying  the 
basal  half  of  this  ring,  is  a  large  transverse  tawny-jellowspot,  rounded  upon  its  for- 
ward side ;  but  no  corresponding  spot  appears  on  the  under  side  of  this  ring.  On  the 
middle  of  all  the  other  rings,  except  the  two  last,  both  above  and  below,  is  an  ele- 
vated, rough,  transverse,  oval  spot  of  a  tawny-yellow  color. 

The  beetle,  like  other  species  of  the  family  to  which  it  pertains,  varies  greatly  in 
its  size,  specimens  before  me  being  of  all  lengths,  from  0.35  to  0.58.  It  is  of  an  ash- 
gray  color  from  short  incumbent  hairs  or  scales,  which  have  a  faint  tinge  of  tawny 
yellow  except  along  the  suture  of  the  wing-covers.  It  is  also  bearded  with  fine  erect 
blackish  hairs  which  arise  from  coarsish  black  punctures  which  are  sprinkled  over 
the  thorax  and  wing-covers,  several  of  which  punctures  are  in  the  centre  of  small 
black  dots,  which  in  places  are  confluent  into  small  irregular  spots.  The  head  is  of 
the  same  width  as  the  auterior  end  of  the  thorax,  and  has  a  deep  narrow  furrow  along 
its  middle  its  whole  length,  and  on  the  crown  is  an  oval  blackish  spot  on  each  side  of 
this  furrow.  The  face  is  dark  gray,  and  the  antennae  are  black  with  an  ash-gray  band 
occupying  the  basal  half  of  each  of  the  joints.  The  thorax  is  narrower  than  the 
wing-covers,  more  broad  than  long,  and  thickest  across  its  middle.  Upon  each  side 
slightly  back  of  the  middle  is  an  angular  projection  or  short  broad  spine,  blunt  at  its 
tip.  On  the  middle  of  the  back,  between  the  centre  and  the  base,  is  a  short  im- 
pressed line,  and  on  each  side  of  this,  extending  the  whole  length  of  the  thorax,  is  a 
wavy  blackish  stripe,  which  is  suddenly  widened  towards  its  hind  end,  and  is  some- 


times  interrupted  in  its  middle.  Often,  also,  there  is  a  blackish  spot  between  the 
anterior  ends  of  these  stripes,  extending  from  the  centre  of  the  thorax  to  its  forward 
end.  The  scutel  is  ash-gray  in  its  middle  and  black  upon  each  side.  The  wing-cov- 
ers almost  always  show  a  large  oblique  and  irregular  triangular  spot  of  black  on  their 
outer  side  forward  of  the  middle,  and  always  behind  the  middle  isau  irregular  black 
obliqueband,  which  seldom  reaches  to  the  suture,  and  which  has  a  notch  in  the  mid- 
dle of  its  anterior  side,  and  opposite  to  this  on  its  hind  side  a  large  angular  projection 
extending  backward.  Immediately  back  of  this  band  is  an  irregular  spot  of  a 
paler  black  color,  which  is  sometimes  confluent  with  the  band;  and  there  is  also  a 
small  blackish  spot  on  the  outer  side  of  the  tips.  The  tips  are  cut  off,  sometimes 
transversely  in  a  straight  line,  but  usually  concavely,  and  sometimes  presenting  a 
slight  tooth-like  projection  on  each  side.  The  legs  are  ash-gray,  the  thighs  with  two 
black  spots  on  their  upper  side,  and  the  shanks  with  a  black  band  at  their  base  and 
another  at  their  tip,  these  bands  being  more  broad  on  the  hind  pair. 

On  elevating  the  loose  bark  of  fallen  trees  the  forepart  of  June,  these  insects  will 
be  found  therein,  lying  in  the  cavities  already  mentioned,  some  of  them  being  still  in 
their  pupa  state,  while  others  are  changed  to  their  perfect  form,  ready  with  the  stout 
jaws  and  sharp  teeth  with  which  they  are  furnished  to  gnaw  their  way  through  the 
bark  and  come  abroad. 

This  species  occurs  throughout  the  United  States  and  Canada.  Different  specimens 
of  it,  however,  vary  greatly  in  their  aspect.  Even  when  newly  born,  among  the  in- 
dividuals in  the  bark  of  the  same  tree,  considerable  diversities  in  size  and  markings 
may  be  noticed.  And  the  beetles  found  in  this  situation  have  their  colors  so  much 
brighter  and  their  spots  and  bands  so  much  more  distinct  and  clearly  defined  that  I 
supposed  them  to  be  a  different  species  from  fasciatus  for  several  years  and  until  spec- 
imens came  to  hand  showing  a  gradual  transition  from  these  to  the  older  individuals 
which  we  usually  capture. abroad,  and  meet  with  preserved  in  cabinets,  in  which  the 
colors  have  become  faded  and  dim  and  the  marks  obscure  and  partially  obliterated. 
In  the  shape  of  some  of  its  parts,  also,  different  specimens  are  liable  to  vary.    (Fitch.) 

12.  The  oak  liopus. 

Liopus  querci  Fitch. 

Order  Coleoptera;   Family  Cerambycid^;. 

Probably  boring  in  the  red  and  white  oak,  the  beetle  occurring  on  the  leaves  early 
in  July. 

A  very  small,  long-horned  beetle,  which  I  am  unable  to  refer  to  any 
of  the  described  species,  I  am  assured  lives  at  the  expense  of  the  red 
and  white  oak,  from  meeting  with  it  upon  those  trees  standing  apart 
from  others  in  fields.  As  the  larvae  of  kindred  species  burrow  in  the 
bark  of  trees,  this  will  probably  be  found  in  the  same  situation  in  oaks. 
The  beetle  is  met  with  upon  the  leaves  of  these  trees  early  in  July.  It 
is  very  closely  related  to  the  Facetious  Liopus.    (Fitch.) 

The  beetle. — It  isO.20  inch  long,  and  black,  with  ash-gray  wing-covers,  which  are  punc- 
tured and  marked  with  a  large  black  spot  on  the  base  of  their  suture  in  the  form  of  a 
cross,  and  a  broad  black  band  slightly  back  of  their  middle,  which  is  angulated,  some- 
what resembling  an  inverted  letter  W,  this  band  often  having  a  small  ash-gray  spot 
placed  in  it  near  its  outer  ends.  Forward  of  this  band  are  two  black  dots  or  short  lines 
on  each  wing-cover,  and  sometimes  a  third  dot  back  of  it.  There  is  also  a  dusky  spot, 
'usually  on  the  tips  of  the  wing  covers,  and  their  deflected  outer  margin  is  black.  The' 
wing-covers  are  rounded  at  their  tips.  The  thorax  sometimes  shows  three  faint  gray 
stripes  above.     It  is  narrowed  anteriorly,  and  on  each  side  slightly  forward  of  the 



base  is  a  short,  broad,  sharp-pointed  spine,  from  the  tip  of  which,  forward,  the  sides 
are  straight.  The  long,  thread-like  antenna-  are  dull  yellow,  with  a  slight  duskiness 
at  tin- end  of  each  joint.  The  legs  are  blackish,  with  the  bases  of  the  thighs,  and 
frequently  of  the  shauks  also,  pale  dull  yellow,  the  hind  thighs  being  less  thickened 
towards  their  tips  thau  the  four  forward  ones      |  Fitch.) 


Arhopaht8  fulminant  (Fabr.). 
Order  Coleoptera;   Family  Cekambycid^. 

Excavating  a  burrow  in  the  soft  sap-wood,  about  three  inches  long  and  0.20  iuch 
in  diameter,  a  worm  like  the  apple-tree  borer,  which  changes  to  a  long-horned  beetle. 

This  beetle  is  said  by  Fitch  to  infest  the  oak,  excavating  a  burrow  in 
the  soft  sap-wood  about  three  inches  long  and  0.20  inch  in  diameter, 
this  burrow  having  the  shape  of  a  much  bent  bow  or  a  letter  U.  It 
changes  to  a  pupa  in  the  same  cell,  the  beetle  appearing  in  July.  We 
have  also  found  that  it  bores  in  the  chestnut,  and  for  a  description  and 
figure  of  the  beetle  would  refer  the  reader  to  the  account  of  insects  in- 
festing the  chestnut. 

14.   The  white-oak  piiymatodes. 

Phymatodes  variabilis  (Lien.). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;    Family  Cerambycid^e. 

Boring  the  trunk  and  branches  of  the  white  oak,  a  narrow  longicorn  larva,  chang- 
ing to  a  reddish-yellow  thick-bodied  longicorn  beetle,  more  or  less  marked  with  blue. 

Several  specimens  of  this  beetle  were  taken  by  Mr.  Alfred  Poor  from 
a  white-oak  stick,  Juue  20.  It  was  collected  on  a  pile  of  oak  cord  wood, 
May  30,  by  Mr.  Oalder;  and  I  have  a  specimen  of  it  from  Salt  Lake 
City,  Utah,  identified  by  Dr.  Horn.  It  is  undoubtedly  closely  similar 
in  its  habits  and  in  the  form  of  the  larva  to  the  grape  Phymatodes  fig- 
ured in  our  first  report  on  the  injurious  insects  of  Massachusetts,  and  is 

one  of  our  more  common  species  of  the  genus. 

Beetle.— It  is  closely  allied  to  P.  amevnus,  but  is  larger 
and  less  coarsely  punctured,  while  the  antennae  are 
more  reddish;  the  scutellum  is  concolorous  with  the 
wing-covers.  The  body,  legs  (except  the  femora,  which 
are  blackish  in  the  middle),  and  antennae  are  reddish, 
the  tips  of  the  joints  of  the  latter  dark,  and  on  the 
back  of  the  prothorax  are  two  black  spots,  ofteu  con- 
fluent. The  head  is  black.  The  wing-covers  are  Prus- 
sian blue,  smooth,  fiuely  punctured,  with  rather  thick, 
fine,  black  hairs,  bent  downwards.  Specimens  recently 
changed  from  the  pupa  state  are  brown,  and  the  species 
is  exposed  to  considerable  variation,  as  its  name  indi- 
cates. The  male  is  just  half  an  inch  long,  the  female 
.60  inch. 

The  foregoiug  description  is  taken  from  our  second  report  on  the  in- 
jurious insects  of  Massachusetts.    The  pupa  of  this  beetle  was  also 

Fig.  23.— Phrmatodes  variabilis  — 
Smith,  del. 



found  at  Providence,  May  30,  1862,  by  Mr.  George  Hunt,  under  the  bark 
of  the  oak  (not  the  white  oak);  the  beetle  appeared  June  8.  We  add 
the  following  description  of  the  larva  of  a  closely  allied  species,  P. 
amcenus,  Fig.  24,  which  injures  the  trunk  of  the  grape: 

The  larva  of  the  Grape  Phymatodes. — Several  years  ago  I  received  from  Dr.  S'liraer,  of 
Illinois,  specimens  of  the  larva,  pupa,  and  adult  of  this  pretty  insect  (Callidium  ameenum 
of  Say),  which  is  not  uncommon  in  our  own  State.  So  much  alike  are  all  the  borers 
of  this  family  of  long-horned  beetles  that  long  and  prolix  descriptions  and  carefully 
drawn  figures  of  the  mouth  parts  (wherein  most  of  the  differences  lie)  are  absolutely 
necessary  for  their  identification. 

The  larva  (Fig.  24,  b,  head  seen  from  above;  c,  seen  from  beneath)  has  a  small  head, 
which  is  a  little  mor>;  than  half  as  wide  as  the  prothoracic  segment.     This  latter,  be- 

Fig.  24.— Grape  Phymatodes:  a,  larva,  b,  upper  side;  c,  under  side,  of 
head  of  larva  much  enlarged.— From  Packard. 

ing  the  segment  immediately  succeeding  the  head,  is  half  as  long  as  broad,  with  a 
distinct  median  suture  and  four  chitinous  patches;  the  two  middle  ones  transverse 
and  irregularly  oblong,  being  about  twice  as  broad  as  long,  the  outer  spots  being  lon- 
gitudinal to  the  segment,  and  oblong  in  form,  or  about  twice  as  loug  as  broad.  The 
three  segments  succeeding  are  of  nearly  equal  length  and  width,  being  about  half  as 
long  as  the  prothoracic  segment,  and  not  much  narrower.  The  body  decreases  in 
width  towards  the  posterior  half,  winch  is  of  equal  width  throughout,  the  end  sud- 
denly rounding  off;  the  terminal  three  segments  are  indicated  by  very  slightly- 
marked  sutures,  and  together  form  a  straight  cylindrical  portion  nearly  as  long  as  the 
three  segments  in  advance  of  it  taken  collectively.  The  body  is  slightly  hairy,  with, 
a  few  fine,  pale  hairs  on  the  top  of  the  segment  next  behind  the  head.  The  basal 
portion  of  the  head  (epicranium)  is  broad  and  smooth,  with  a  few  hairs  on  the  edge. 
The  eyes  are  two  small  black  dots,  each  situated  a  little  behind  the  base  of  the  an- 
tennae, and  in  a  line  with  them.  The  frontal  piece  (clypeus)  is  very  small,  about 
three  times  as  broad  as  loug,  while  the  miuute  upper  lip  (labrum)  is  two-thirds  as 
long  as  broad ;  they  together  form  a  somewhat  triangular  portion  resting  on  the 
inner  edge  of  the  mandibles,  which  are  broad  and  short,  the  ends  broad  and  square, 
and  blackish  in  color.  The  antennae  are  not  quite  so  large  or  as  long  as  the  maxil- 
lary palpi ;  they  are  four-jointed,  the  first  joint  being  thick,  the  second  joint  a  third 
shorter  than  the  third,  while  the  fourth  joint  is  filiform  and  about  as  long  as  the 
second  joint.  The  under  side  of  the  head  is  chitinous,  with  a  mesial  snbtriangular 
fleshy  area.  The  chin  (mentum)  is  square,  not  much  longer  than  broad.  The  under 
lip  (labium)  is  one-half  as  loug  as  broad.  The  labial  palpi  are  three-jointed,  the 
basal  joint  being  one-half  as  long  as  the  second  ;  the  third  joint  is  minute,  short,  and 
'  hairy.  The  maxillary  palpi  are  four-jointed,  the  first  joint  being  twice  as  thick  as 
the  third,  the  second  and  third  are  of  nearly  equal  length,  while  the  fourth  is  slender 
and  nearly  as  long  as  the  second  or  third.     The  maxillary  lobe  is  large  and  broad, 


reaching  out  to  tho  labial  palpi  and  as  far  as  the  end  of  third  joint  of  the  maxillary 
palpi :  there  are  a  few  hairs  on  the  end  of  it. 

On  the  upper  aide  of  the  segments  behind  the  prothoracic  is  a  faint,  transverse  im- 
pressed line,  with  two  or  three  short  creases  radiating  from  each  end.     On  the  eighth 
ninth,  and   tenth  rings  these  creases  become  much   longer  and  are  parallel  to  the 
median  line  of  the  body,  while  the  transverse  crease  disappears. 

Then'  arc  nine  pairs  of  stigmata,  one  pair  on  the  mesothorax,  the  remainder  on  the 
first  right  abdominal  segments.  There  are  three  pairs  of  rudimentary  thoracic  feet, 
represented  by  very  minute  two-jointed  tubercles,  the  basal  joint  consisting  of  a 
simple  chitinous  ring.  The  under  side  of  the  body  is  more  hairy  than  above.  On 
the  underside  of  the  prothoracic  segment  is  a  pair  of  round,  smooth,  very  slightly 
chitinous  spots,  which  are  succeeded  ou  each  of  the  other  rings  by  a  pair  of  short, 
impressed  oblique  lines. 

It  is  nearly  half  an  inch  (.45)  in  length. 

It  may  be  readily  recognized  by  the  four  chitinous  patches  on  the  prothorax  and 
by  the  very  minute  clypeus  and  labrum.  The  upper  side  of  the  prothorax  is  inclined 
downward  towards  the  head,  but  not  so  much  as  in  Clytus. 

The  pupa.— It  is  white,  with  the  wing-covers  reaching  to  the  end  of  the  second 
abdominal  segment.  The  antennae  are  not  much  curved,  reaching  to  the  end  of  the 
third  abdominal  segment,  and  resting  above  the  legs.  The  prothorax  is  swollen  just 
behind  the  middle  and  is  just  as  long  as  broad.  The  maxillary  palpi  are  long,  reach- 
ing nearly  tc  theend  of  the  coxae.  The  labial  palpi  reach  a  little  beyond  the  middle  of 
the  maxillary  palpi.  The  two  anterior  pairs  of  legs  are  folded  at  right  angles  to  the 
body,  the  third  pair  obliquely.  The  first  pair  of  tarsi  reach  to  the  base  of  the  second 
tarsi ;  the  second  pair  of  tarsi  reach  to  the  coxae  of  the  third  pair  of  legs.  It  is  a 
third  of  an  inch  (.33)  in  length. 

The  beetle.— Ph.  amcenut  has  a  reddish  body,  with  Prussian-blue  wing-covers.  The 
prothorax  is  just  as  long  as  broad,  with  the  sides  moderately  convex,  and  broadest 
just  behind  the  middle.  The  antennae  and  tibiae  are  blackish  brown,  the  tarsi  being 
dull  red,  the  hind  pair  being  darker  than  the  others,  and  the  femora  are  reddish.  The 
prothorax  is  distinctly  punctured,  while  the  elytra  are  very  coarsely  punctured.  The 
scutellum  is  pale  reddish.  It  is  a  quarter  of  an  inch  iu  length.  A  single  specimen 
received  from  Illinois. 

15.  The  white-banded  phymatodes. 

Phymatodes  varius  (Fabricius). 

Order  Coleoptera;  Family  Cerambychxe. 

Several  specimens  of  this  beetle  were  met  with  a  few  years  since,  the 
last  of  May,  on  the  trunk  of  a  black  oak,  in  which,  it  is  probable,  their 
younger  state  had  been  passed.  It  is  closely  re- 
lated to  the  black  varieties  of  P.  varius  Fab.,  but 
is  a  third  smaller,  with  the  white  bands  much 
more  slender,  and  the  surface  of  the  wing-covers 
is  perceptibly  more  rough  than  in  my  specimens 
of  that  insect,  notwithstanding  their  smaller 
size.  Its  thorax  is  densely  punctured,  with  a 
short  smooth  stripe  between  the  center  and  the 
base.  One  of  the  specimens  varies  in  having 
the  posterior  white  band  wholly  wanting. 

fio.  25  —phymatodes  varius-       I  have  found  near  Providence  several  of  these 
pretty  little  beetles,  of  both  sexes,  running  in 



and  out  of  a  pile  of  oak  cord- wood  in  the  forest,  May  30,  under  such 
circumstances  as  convinced  me  they  prey  upon  the  white  oak.  They 
were  identified  by  Dr.  Horn. 

Beetle. — Black,  0.25  in  length  or  slightly  less,  and  about  a  third  as  broad,  somewhat 
flattened,  clothed  with  fine  erect  gray  hairs;  its  wing-covers  with  two  distinct 
slender  white  bands  which  do  not  reach  the  suture,  the  anterior  one  more  slender 
than  the  hind  one  and  curved;  the  antennae  and  slender  portions  of  the  legs  usually 
chestnut  colored. 

16.  The  common  oak  clytus. 

Xylotrechus  colonus  (Fabr.). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Cerambycid^e. 

Larva,  with  details.    Plate  XXII,  Figs.  2,  2a. 

Mining  between  the  bark  and  the  wood  of  the  oak,  up  and  down  the  trunk,  and 
making  a  broad,  shallow,  irregular  groove  about  5mm  wide;  the  larva,  pupa,  and 
beetle  occurring  late  in  May  and  early  in  June. 

I  have  found,  in  company  with  Mr.  Calder,  the  larvae  of  this  pretty 
beetle  in  abundance  mining  under  the  bark  of  a  fallen  (probably  white) 

Fig.  26.— Xylotrechus  colonus ;  a,  pupa;  c,  end  of  body,  enlarged;  the  other  figures  represent  details 
lab,  of  the  larva,  all  enlarged;  a',  antenna;  lb,  labrum;  md,  mandible;  mx,  maxilla  with  the  palpus; 
labium. — Gissler,  del. 

oak,  near  Providence,  May  26;  several  pupae  were  also  found,  one  trans- 
forming to  a  beetle  May  27.  The  mine  extends  up  and  down  the  trunk, 
and  is  of  the  usual  form  of  longicorn  mines,  being  a  broad,  shallow,  ir- 
regularly sinuous  burrow,  and  extending  part  of  the  way  around  the 
trunk,  the  diameter  near  the  end  of  the  burrow  being  5mm.* 

*  Larvae  of  this  insect  were  found  February  25,  188-2,  boring  in  dry  wood  of  white 
oak  at  Washington,  D.  C.  The  color  of  the  larvae  is  pale  yellowish  or  whitish.  A 
yellowish  band  crosses  the  posterior  part  of  the  cervical  shield  and  is  beset*  with 
short,  glistening,  backward-directed  hairs.  The  beetles  commenced  issuing  July  3, 
1882.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 


Mr.  George  Hunt  has  found  the  beetle  uuder  the  bark  of  au  old 
BQgar  maple  tree  in  northern  New  York,  among  the  Adirondacks. 

Lana  —Body  of  the  usual  shape,  near  that  of  Phyinatodes.  Prothorax  less  than 
out -half  as  long  as  wide  :  disk  exactly  one-half  as  long  as  wide  ;  the  disk  is  smooth 
on  the  posterior  half,  irregular  on  the  frontedge,  with  a  hroad,  irregular  median  lobe 
in  front  ;  the  front  edge  of  this  smooth  space  is  often  tinged  with  dark.  In  frout  of 
this  smooth  area  is  a  clear,  pale,  hairy  space,  and  still  beyond  (anteriorly)  are  two 
irregularly  oval  spaces  which  are  hairy  and  irregularly  spotted,  and  often  tinted 
dark.  The  under  side  of  the  prothoraeic  segment  is  quite  hairy,  with  minute  oval 
pat  (lies  among  the  hairs,  and  with  two  conspicuous  small,  dark,  diverging  patches 
on  the  middle  of  the  segment,  but  situated  rather  far  apart.  Mesothoracic  segment  a 
little  narrower  than  the  prothoraeic  and  shorter  than  the  metathoracic  segment,  the 
latter  a  little  shorter  and  but  very  slightly  wider  than  the  mesothoracic  segment. 

Body  contracted  on  the  sixth  abdominal  segment,  which  is  considerably  narrower 
than  the  succeeding  part  of  the  abdomen,  the  seventh  abdominal  segment  being  wider 
than  the  sixth  and  of  the  same  width  as  the  eighth  ;  the  ninth  much  shorter  and  two- 
thirds  as  wide  as  the  eighth.  The  tenth  segment  small,  one-half  as  wide,  but  nearly 
as  long  as  the  ninth.  Abdominal  segments  two  to  seven  with  transversely  oval, 
raised,  smooth  callosities,  those  on  the  sixth  and  seventh  being  round  instead  of 
oval ;  beneath  are  similar  callosities. 

Head  a  little  over  one-half  as  wide  as  the  prothoraeic  segment ;  antennae  three- 
jointed  ;  second  joint  one-half  to  two-thirds  as  long  as  the  first  and  one-half  as 
thick.  Third  minute,  about  one-third  as  long  as  the  second  joint  is  thick.  Maxilla 
with  the  lobe  as  wide  as  the  basal  joint  of  the  palpus  and  reaching  to  the  end  of  the 
second  palpal  joint;  the  maxilary  palpi  four-jointed,  the  second  joint  one-half  as 
wide  as  the  first;  the  third  just  two-thirds  as  wide  as  the  second  ;  the  fourth  as  long 
but  one-half  as  thick  as  the  third. 

Labium  with  the  ligula  small  and  rounded,  not  more  than  one-third  wider  than 
the  basal  joint  of  the  labial  palpus,  the  latter  two-jointed,  the  second  joint  nearly  as 
long  and  about  two-thirds  as  thick  as  the  first.  Mentum  deeply  cleft,  one-half  as 
long  as  the  submentum. 

Labruin  small,  rounded,  not  so  long  as  round;  surface  convex,  with  dense  hairs. 
Mandibles  obtuse,  rounded,  not  toothed. 

Thoracic  spiracles  in  the  middle  of  the  mesothoracic  segment,  with  the  usual  eight 
pairs  of  abdominal  ones.  Length  of  body,  17mm;  width  of  prothoraeic  segment, 
4,5mm  •  length,  2mm  ;  width  of  seventh  abdominal  segment,  3mm. 

Pupa. — Prothorax  well  rounded,  as  in  Clytus  beetles  ;  antennae  sleuder,  curving 
backward  and  reaching  to  tne  distal  end  of  the  middle  femora.  Femora  much  swol- 
len, but  the  legs  beyond  slender,  as  in  the  beetle.  (It  will  not  be  difficult  to  distin- 
guish the  genus,  from  the  peculiar  form  of  the  thorax,  the  swollen  femora,  and  the 
slender  legs  and  antennae.)  Abdomen  short,  end  of  hiud  femora  extending  to  the 
third  segment  from  the  end  of  the  abdomen.     Length,  12  to  13$",m. 

The  end  of  the  body  terminates  in  a  pair  of  incurved  hooks  on  each  side,  the  inner 
pair  a  little  smaller  than  the  outer.  Six  large  recurved  spines  on  the  penultimate 
abdominal  segment,  the  other  ahdominal  segment  with  about  two  irregular  rows  of 
minute  stout  spines  adapted  for  progression. 

Beetle. — Body  rather  long  and  narrow,  not  so  broad  and  thick,  nor  the  prothorax 
so  spherical  as  in  A',  undulatus;  prothorax  with  the  sides  regularly  arcuate,  two  ashen 
spots  on  each  side  in  front  and  behind,  and  a  curvilinear  spot  jnst  behind  the  middle. 
Wing-covers  with  three  broad,  irregular,  waved  pale  bands,  the  first  a  little  in  front 
of  the  middle,  the  second  much  behind  the  middle,  and  the  third  situated  on  the 
tips.  Antenna'  and  legs  dark-brown;  reddish-pitchy  in  immature  specimens.  A 
large,  round  yellow  spot  on  the  side  between  the  middle  and  hind  legs,  succeeded  by 
vertical  linear  spots  on  the  hinder  edge  of  the  abdominal  segments.  Length,  8  to 



"The  markings  are  very  variable,  but  the  yellow,  wavy  line  running  from  the 
suture  and  forming  the  included  mark  seems  to  be  constant  and  peculiar  to  the  species. 

17.    Smodicum  cucujiforme  (Say). 
Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Ceram  BYCiDiE. 

This  insect  bores  in  the  larval  stage  under  the  dry  bark  of  the  live- 
oak  (Florida),  of  the  beech  in  Michigan,  and  of  the  hackberry  in  Texas, 
(E.  A.  Schwarz.) 

18.    The  horn-tailed  borer,  or  pigeon  tremex. 

Tremex  columba  Linn. 

Order  Hymenoptera;  Family  Urocerid.e. 

This  insect  is  known  to  infest  the  oak,  but  oftener  bores  into  the 
maple,  under  which  head  the  insect  will  be  described. 

19.    Mallodon  dasystomus  (Say). 
Order  Coleoptera;   Family  Cerambycidje. 

This  insect  bores  in  the  live-oak,  hackberry,  pecan;  attacking  trees 
in  healthy  condition,  and  often  greatly  injuring  them,  but  preferring 
trees  which  have  already  suffered  from  some  cause.  The  beetle  issues 
from  April  till  August  in  Florida  and  Texas.     (E.  A.  Schwarz.) 

Fig.  27.— Mallodon  dasystomus.    After  Horn. 

Fig.  28.— Typocerus  zebratus.    Smith,  del. 

Beetle. — Mandibles  nearly  horizontal,  prolonged  in  the  male;  sutural  angle  of  elytra 
spiniform  in  both  sexes ;  the  metathoracic  episterna,  with  the  inner  outline  straight; 
the  gense  emarginate.     Length,  30  to  50mm  (1.25  to  2  inches).     (Horn.) 



20.    Ti/pocerua  zebratu-s  Fabr. 

This  pretty  beetle  mines  the  white  oak. 
by  the  accompanying  figure.  The  body- 
is  black- brown,  with  reddish  antenna* 
and  legs,  and  four  yellow  cross-bars  on 
each  wing  cover;  that  on  the  base  much 
curved,  while  the  fourth  is  straight. — 
Length,  12  to  14mm. 

21.  The  oak-hark  weevil. 

Matjdalis  ohjra  (Herbst). 

Order  Coleuptera;  Family  Curculionid^:. 

Boring  under  the  bark  of  the  oak,  probably  after 
it  has  been  loosened  by  the  flat-headed  borers,  a 
curved,  fat,  footless  grub,  with  the  head  freer  from 
the  body  than  in  the  larval  pine  weevil ;  occurring 
in  all  stages  under  the  bark  in  May,  and  possibly 
producing  a  radiating  track,  as  in  Fig.  30;  trans- 
forming into  a  black  weevil,  with  the  surface  of 
the  body  punctured,  the  thorax  with  a  lateral 
sharp  tubercle  on  the  front  edge,  while  the  tarsi 
are  reddish  brown,  with  whitish  hairs. 

Fig.  30  represents  the  mines  possibly 
made  by  this  weevil.*  The  original  speci- 
men of  the  bark  was  taken  from  the  same 

It  may  be  easily  recognized 

Fig.  29.— a,  larva  ;  b,  pupa,  ana  adult  of  the  oak- 
bark  weevil.    After  Eraertou. 

Fig.  30.— Track  made  by  Magdalis  ohjra,  or 
a  longicorn  I     After  Emerton. 

tree,  as  numerous  individuals  of  the  beetle  occurred  in  different  stages 
of  growth  and  no  other  weevils  or  Scolytidre  were  present.  The  beetle 
which  makes  the  burrow  may  have  been  a  weevil  from  the  shape  of  the 
burrow,  which  is  long,  narrow,  and  deep,  being  about  four  inches  long. 
It  will  be  seen  by  reference  to  the  illustration  that  the  parent  beetle  laid 
at  least  seven  eggs  in  an  opening  in  the  bark  ;  when  the  larva±  hatched 

Mr.  P.  H.  Chittenden  writes  that  it  may  be  the  mine  of  another  beetle. 


they  mined  the  bark  and  scored  the  wood  in  directions  radiating  on  one 
side  of  the  place  of  oviposition  ;  in  one  caseamiue  went  directly  across 
the  one  next  to  it.    The  specimen  figured  was  found  at  Salem,  Mass. 

Beetle.— Of  the  form  indicated  by  the  figure  ;  prothorax  square,  augulated  on  each 
side  in  front,  with  a  short  spine  on  each  wing-cover,  with  eleven  well-marked  ridges. 
Color,  dark  brown,  with  paler,  stiff,  short,  hirsuties.  Base  and  tips  of  femora  and  rest 
of  the  legs,  including  the  antennae,  pitchy  reddish.     Length,  6to8mm. 

22.  The  silky  timber-beetle. 
Lymexylon  sericeum  (Harris).  . 
Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Lymexylid^e. 

Boring  small  long  cylindrical  burrows  in  the  wood  of  the  oak,  probably,  and  other 
trees;  a  slender,  odd-looking  worm,  with  six  legs  placed  on  its  breast,  a  prominent 
hump  upon  its  neck,  and  a  leaf-like  fleshy  appendage  at  the  end  of  its  back  ;  chang- 
ing into  a  long,  narrow  chestnut-brown  beetle,  0.50  long,  bearded  with  short,  shining, 
yellowish  hairs,  giving  it  a  silky  luster  ;  its  eyes  large  and  almost  meeting  together 
above  and  below,  and  its  wing-covers  tapering  and  shorter  than  the  body.  See 
Harris's  Treatise,  p.  51.     (Fitch.) 

23.  The  American  timber-beetle. 

Hyleccetus  americanus  (Harris). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Lymexylid^e. 

A  worm  very  similar  to  the  preceding,  but  with  a  straight,  sharp-pointed  horn  at 
the  end  of  its  back  in  place  of  a  leaf-like  appendage  ;  changing  into  a  pale  brownish 
red  beetle,  0.40  long  ;  its  wing-covers,  except  at  their  base  and  its  breast,  black,  its 
eyes  small,  and  a  glassy  dot  on  the  middle  of  its  forehead  resembling  a  small  eyelet. 
(See  Harris's  Treatise,  p.  51.) 

This  and  the  preceding  are  very  rare  insects,  and  their  larvae  have 
never  been  detected,  but  are  inferred  by  Dr.  Harris  to  inhabit  oaks  and 
to  have  the  singular  forms  above  indicated,  from  the  analogy  of  the  per- 
fect insects  to  two  European  species.  Foreign  writers,  I  see,  are  misled 
by  Dr.  Harris's  account  into  supposing  that  it  is  authentically  ascer- 
tained that  our  insects  coincide  in  their  larva  state  with  the  European 
species.     (Fitch.) 

Beetle. — Its  head,  thorax,  abdomen,  and  legs  are  light  brownish  red  ;  the  wing- 
covers,  except  at  the  base,  where  they  are  also  red,  and  the  breast,  between  the  middle 
and  hindmost  legs,  are  black.  Head  not  bowed  down  under  the  prothorax  ;  eyes 
small  and  black ;  on  the  middle  of  the  forehead  is  one  small  reddish  eyelet ;  antennae 
like  those  of  Lymexylon  sericeum,  but  shorter  ;  thorax  nearly  square,  but  wider  than 
long;  and  in  each  wing-cover  are  three  slightly  elevated  ribs.  Length,  10mm  (7% 
inch).     (Harris.) 

Microclytus  gazelhila  (Haldeman). 

This  beetle  has  been  found  in  the  oak  in  early  May  at  Buffalo,  N. 
Y.,  by  Messrs.  Reinecke  and  Zesch.    (Bull.  Brooklyn  Ent.  Soc,  vi,  36.) 
5  ent 6 


24.   Thb  pbeblb  oak  hokkk. 
Goet  (Ubili8  (Leconte). 
Order  Coi.kmi-tkka;    Family  Ckra.MBYCIDjE. 

A  cylindrical  long-horned  beetle,  which  has  recently  been  described 
by  Dr.  Leconte  under  the  above  name,  is  bo  uniformly  found  upon 
white-oak  trees  in  July  and  August  that  I  doubt  not  its  larva  is  a  borer 
in  the  trunks  of  these  trees,  perforating  the  wood,  probably,  in  a  man- 
ner similar  to  that  of  the  marked  pine  borer,  and  the  worm  resembling 
that  in  its  appearance.  This  beetle  is  half  au  inch  long  and  scarcely  a 
third  as  broad,  of  a  black  color,  its  wing-covers  chestnut  red,  its  surface 
having  a  marbled  appearance,  produced  by  short  prostrate  hairs  of  a 
dull  ocher-yellow  color,  except  on  the  anterior  half  of  the  wing-covers, 
where  they  are  gray,  and  are  here  followed  by  a  tawny  brown  spot  des- 
titute of  these  paler  hairs.  (Fitch.)  For  a  figure  aud  further  mention 
the  reader  is  referred  to  Hickory  Insects. 

25.  Goes  t'ujrinm  (De  Geer). 

This  species,  according  to  Adams  Tolmau  (Insect  Life,  i,  343),  kkis 
commonly  taken  on  the  oak  in  Philadelphia."  Mr.  Tolman,  however, 
does  not  specifically  state  that  this  borer  lives  in  the  oak;  but  we  in- 
sert it  under  oak  borers,  as  it  may  yet  be  found  to  infest  the  oak.  It 
is  figured  aud  noticed  under  Hickory  Insects. 

26.  The  brown  prioxi's. 
Orthosoma  brnnneum  (Forster). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;   Family  Cerambycid.e. 

The  larvre  of  this  beetle  have  been  found  in  rotten  oak  and  walnut 
stumps  by  Mr.  George  Hunt,  near  Providence,  but  as  it  is  more  com- 
monly met  with  in  piue  logs  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  account  of  it 
given  under  piue  insects. 

27.  Unknown  longicorn  borer  prom  ax  oak  log. 
(PI.  xxi,  Fig.  :3.) 

Larva. — Body  of  large  size,  gradually  tapering  to  the  penultimate  segment,  with 
three  pairs  of  thoracic  legs  of  moderate  size. 

Head  small  and  much  rounded.  Labium  small  and  unusually  narrow,  well  rounded 
on  the  front  edge.  Antennae  conspicuous,  unusually  long;  second  joint  very  long 
and  slender,  longer  than  the  basal  one  is  thick  ;  third  joint  minute  and  acute  at  tip. 
Labium  very  small,  squarish;  subinentum  and  mentnm  both  rectangular,  broader 
Than  long;  the  ligula  narrow,  much  rounded  in  front:  labial  palpi  three-jointed; 
third  joint  obtuse,  as  long  as  the  second.  Maxillary  lobe  very  broad  and  rather  short, 
not  reaching  beyond  the  end  of  the  second  palpal  joint.  Maxillary  palpi  three-jointed  : 
firs!  joint  very  short  and  broad,  second  one-half  as  thick  as  the  first,  the  third  slender 
and  a  little  longer  than  the  second.     Mandibles  niuch  rounded  and  entire  at  tip. 



The  callosities  on  the  segments,  as  figured  in  the  cut,  are  prominent,  more  or  less 
rounded  tubercles  with  the  surface  divided  irregularly  by  impressed  lines. 

Length,  35mm  ;  width  of  prothoracic  segment,  8min  ;  length,  3mm ;  length  of  a  leg 
with  terminal  claw,  0.4mm  ;  length  from  base  of  labruni  to  posterior  edge  of  meta- 
thoracic  segment,  5,nm;  length  of  first  and  second  abdominal  segment,  each,  2mm; 
length  from  base  of  third  abdominal  segment  to  end  of  body, 28mm ;  width  of  each  of 
segments  2  to  6,  6mm ;  the  seventh  and  eighth  segments  are  slightly  wider. 

Found  in  an  oak  log  at  Providence,  R.  I.,  May  20,  1881. 

Compare  also  pi.  xvii,  Fig.  2;  xix,  Fig.  2;  xx,  Fig.  3. 


28.   The  oak  pruner.  -  . 

Elaphidion  villosum  (Fabr.). 

Order  Coleoptera;   Family  Cerambycid^e. 

Cutting  on0  the  branches  of  the  white  and  black  oak,  which  fall  late  in  summer  to 
the  ground,  containing  the  larva,  which  becomes  a  beetle  in  the  next  midsummer 
and  lays  its  eggs  near  the  axilla  of  a  leaf  stalk  or  small  stem. 

In  walking  under  oak  trees  in  the  autumn  oue's  attention  is  often  di- 
rected to  the  large  number  of  oak  limbs  and  twigs  lying  on  the  ground. 
Upon  examination  they  will  be  found  to  have  been  partially  gnawed  off 


Fig.  31.— Oak  pruner:  a,  larva;  6,  side  view  of  the  same;  c,  pupa. — From  Packard. 

by  worms,  the  wind  having  further  broken  them  off.  This  is  the  work 
of  the  grub  of  the  oak  pruner.  The  insect's  purpose  in  cutting  off  the 
limb,  whether  conscious  or  not  of  any  design  in  the  matter,  is  probably,  as 
Peck  first  suggested,  to  afford  the  insect  a  sufficiently  moist  retreat  to 
live  in  during  the  winter.  He  supposed  that  the  limb  thus  wounded 
wculd  become  too  dry  for  the  maintenance  of  the  soft-bodied  larva, 
hence  it  must  be  felled  to  the  ground,  where  in  the  wet  and  under  the 


snows  of  winter  it  would  remain  sufficiently  moist  for  the  existence  of 
the  insect,  which  completes  its  transformation  within. 

Mr.  0.  A.  Walker  has  brought  us  the  insect  in  its  different  stages  cut 
out  of  oak  branches,  which  occurred  in  abundance  at  Chelsea,  Mass. 
Late  in  August,  1888,  this  borer  was  reported  to  be  especially  abundant 
in  Warwick,  R.  I.,  so  that  the  ground  was  said  to  be  strewn  with  the 
smaller  branches  of  oak  and  locust  trees.  We  arc  indebted  to  Dr.  Fitch 
for  the  most  detailed  information  regarding  this  curious  longicorn  : 

The  severed  limbs  are  usually  but  eighteen  inches  or  two  feet  in  length,  but  Pro- 
fesfiOT  Peek  States  thai  limbs  an  inch  in  thickness  and  live  feet  in  length  are  sometimes 
found.  I  have  seen  a  limb  cut  off  by  this  insect  which  was  ten  feet  in  length  and  an 
inch  and  a  tenth  in  thickness,  and  have  repeatedly  met  with  them  seven  and  eight 
feet  long  and  usually  an  inch,  but  in  one  instance  an  inch  and  a  quarter,  in  thickness. 

The  parent  beetle  seems  aware  that  her  progeny  in  their  infancy  will  be  too  feeble 
to  masticate  the  hard  woody  fibers  of  the  limb.  She,  therefore,  selects  one  of  the 
small  twigs  which  branch  off  from  it,  which  is  not  thicker  than  a  goose  quill,  with  its 
base  composed  of  soft  wood,  the  growth  of  the  last  year,  all  the  remainder  of  the  twig 
being  the  green  succulent  growth  of  the  present  year.  She  places  her  egg  near  the 
tip  of  this  twig,  in  the  angle  where  one  of  the  leaf-stalks  branches  off  from  it.  The 
young  worm  which  hatches  therefrom  sinks  himself  into  the  center  of  the  twig  and 
feeds  upon  the  soft  pulpy  tissue  around  him  until  it  is  all  consumed,  leaving  only  the 
green  outer  bark,  which  is  so  thin  and  tender  that  it  withers  and  dries  up,  and  ere 
long  becomes  broken.  By  the  time  this  green  tender  end  of  the  twig  is  consumed  the 
worm  has  acquired  sufficient  size  and  strength  to  attack  the  more  solid  woody  portion 
forming  its  lower  end.  He  accordingly  eats  his  way  downward  in  the  center  of  the 
twig,  consuming  the  pith,  to  its  base,  and  onward  into  the  main  limb  from  which  this 
twig  grows,  extending  his  burrow  obliquely  downward  to  the  center  of  the  limb,  to  a 
distance  of  half  an  inch  or  an  inch  below  the  point  where  the  lateral  twig  is  given  off. 

The  worm,  being  about  half  grown,  is  now  ready  to  cut  the  limb  asunder.  But  this 
is  a  most  nice  and  critical  operation,  requiring  much  skill  and  calculation  ;  for  the 
limb  must  not  break  and  fall  while  he  is  in  the  act  of  gnawing  it  apart,  or  he  will  be 
crushed  by  being  at  the  point  where  it  bends  and  tears  asunder,  or  will  fall  from  the 
cavity  there  when  it  breaks  open  and  separates.  To  avoid  such  casualties,  therefore, 
he  must  after  severing  it  have  time  to  withdraw  himself  back  into  his  hole  in  the 
limb  and  plug  the  opening  behind  him  before  the  limb  breaks  and  falls.  And  this 
little  creature  accordingly  appears  to  be  so  much  of  a  philosopher  as  to  understand 
the  force  of  the  winds  and  their  action  upon  the  limbs  of  the  tree,  so  that  he  can  bring 
them  into  his  service.  He  accordingly  severs  the  limb  so  far  that  it  will  remain  in 
its  position  until  a  strong  gust  of  wind  strikes  it,  whereupon  it  will  break  off  and  fall. 

But  the  most  astonishing  part  of  this  feat  remains  to  be  noticed.  The  limb  which 
he  cuts  off  is  sometimes  only  a  foot  in  length  aud  is  consequently  quite  light;  some- 
times ten  feet  long,  loaded  with  leaves,  aud  very  heavy.  A  man  by  carefully  inspect- 
ing the  length  of  the  limb,  the  size  of  its  branches,  aud  the  amount  of  foliage  growing 
upon  them  could  judge  how  far  it  should  be  severed  to  insure  its  being  afterwards 
broken  by  the  winds.  But  this  worm  is  imprisoned  in  a  dark  cell  only  an  inch  or  two 
long  in  the  interior  of  the  limb.  How  is  it  possible  for  this  creature,  therefore,  to 
know  the  length  and  weight  of  the  limb  and  how  far  it  should  be  cut  asunder  ?  A  man, 
moreover,  on  cutting  a  number  of  limbs  of  different  leugths  so  far  that  they  will  be 
brokeu  by  the  winds,  will  find  that  he  has  often  miscalculated,  and  that  several  of  the 
limbs  do  not  break  off  as  he  designed  they  should.  This  little  worm,  however,  never 
makes  a  mistake  of  this  kind.  If  the  limb  be  short  it  severs  all  the  woody  fibers, 
leaving  it  hanging  only  by  the  outer  bark.  If  it  be  longer  a  few  of  the  woody  fibers 
on  its  upper  side  are  left  uncut  in  addition  to  the  bark.     If  it  be  very  long  and  heavy 


not  more  than  thre  ^-fourths  of  the  wood  will  be  severed.  The  annexed  figures*  repre- 
seut  the  several  ends  of  limbs  of  different  sizes,  the  coarsely  dotted  parts  of  the  two 
first  indicating  the  ragged  broken  ends  of  the  woody  fibers,  the  remainder  being  the 
smooth  surface  cut  by  the  worms,  and  the  large  black  dot  representing  the  perfora- 
tion leading  up  the  limb  to  where  the  worm  lies.  The  first  of  these  figures  was  taken 
from  the  limb  already  spoken  of  as  ten  feet  in  length,  aud  here  it  will  be  noticed  that 
a  portion  of  the  stouter  wood  towards  the  center  of  the  limb  was  preserved,  as  though 
the  worm  had  beeu  aware  that  the  weaker  sappy  fibers  outside  next  to  the  bark  could 
not  be  relied  upon  for  sustaining  a  limb  of  this  size,  as  they  are  where  the  limb  is 
smaller.  With  such  consummate  skill  and  seemingly  superterrestrial  intelligence  does 
this  philosophical  little  carpenter  vary  his  proceedings  to  meet  the  circumstances  of 
his  situation  in  each  particular  case !  But  by  tracing  the  next  stage  of  his  life  we 
shall  be  able  to  see  how  it  is  that  he  probably  performs  these  feats  which  appear  so 
much  beyond  his  sphere. 

Having  cut  the  limb  asunder  so  far  that  he  supposes  it  will  break  with  the  next 
wind  which  arises,  the  worm  withdraws  himself  into  his  burrow,  aud  that  he  may 
not  be  stunned  and  drop  therefrom  should  the  limb  strike  the  earth  with  violence 
when  it  falls,  he  closes  the  opening  behind  him  by  inserting  therein  a  wad  formed  of 
elastic  fibers  of  wood.  He  now  feeds  at  his  leisure  upon  the  pith  of  the  main  limb, 
hereby  extending  his  burrow  up  this  limb  six  or  twelve  inches  or  more,  until  he  at- 
tains his  full  growth — quietly  awaiting  the  fall  of  the  limb  and  his  descent  therein 
to  the  ground.  It  is  quite  probable  that  he  does  not  always  sever  the  limb  sufficiently, 
in  the  first  instance,  for  it  to  break  and  fall.  Having  cut  it  so  much  as  he  deems 
prudent,  he  withdraws  and  commences  feeding  upon  the  pith  of  the  limb  above  the 
place  where  it  is  partially  severed,  until  a  high  wind  occurs.  If  the  limb  is  not 
hereby  broken,  as  soon  as  the  weather  becomes  calm  he  very  probably  returns  and 
gnaws  off  an  additional  portion  of  the  wood,  repeating  this  act  again  and  again,  it 
may  be,  until  a  wind  comes  which  accomplishes  the  desired  result.  And  this  serves 
to  explain  to  us  why  it  is  that  the  worm  severs  the  limbs  at  such  an  early  period  of 
his  life.  For  the  formidable  undertaking  of  cutting  asunder  such  an  extent  of  hard 
woody  substance,  we  should  expect  he  would  await  till  he  was  almost  grown  and  had 
attained  his  full  strength  and  vigor.  But  by  entering  upon  this  task  when  he  is  but 
half  grown  he  has  ample  opportunity  to  watch  the  result,  and  to  return  and  perfect 
the  work  if  he  discovers  his  first  essay  fails  to  accomplish  the  end  he  has  in  view. 

Thus  the  first  part  of  the  life  of  this  worm  is  passed  in  a  small  twig  branching  off 
from  the  main  limb.  This  is  so  slender  and  delicate  that  on  being  mined  as  it  is  by 
the  worm  and  all  its  green  outer  eud  consumed,  it  dies  and  becomes  so  decayed  and 
brittle  that  it  is  usually  broken  off  when  the  limb  falls,  whereby  it  has. escaped  the 
notice  of  writers  hitherto.  The  remainder  of  his  larva  life  is  passed  in  the  main 
limb,  first  cutting  off  this  limb  sufficiently  for  it  to  break,  with  the  force  of  the  winds, 
and  then  excavating  a  burrow  upwards  in  the  center  of  the  limb,  both  before  and 
after  it  has  fallen  to  the  ground,  feeding  hereon  until  he  has  grown  to  his  full  size. 

It  is  most  frequently  the  limbs  of  the  red  and  the  black  oak  that  I  have  met  with 
severed  by  the  oak  pruner,  though  it  is  not  rare  to  fiud  those  of  the  scarlet  oak  ( Q. 
coccinea)  aud  of  the  white  oak  lopped  off  in  the  same  manner.  Limbs  of  the  beech 
and  chestnut  not  unfrequently  and  those  of  the  birch,  the  apple,  and  probably  of 
other  trees,  are  sometimes  similarly  severed.  Mr.  P.  Weter,  of  Tirade,  Walworth 
County,  Wis.,  informs  me  that  the  peach  in  his  vicinity  suffers  in  a  similar  mau- 
ner,  and  to  such  an  extent  some  years  that  the  severed  limbs,  varying  from  a  few 
inches  to  two  feet  in  length,  are  seen  lyiug  under  almost  every  tree.  We  have  in  our 
country  several  species  of  beetles  very  closely  related  to  the  oak  pruner,  but  no  at- 
tempts have  yet  been  made  to  ascertain  their  mode  of  life.  It  is  very  probable  that 
they  all  have  this  same  habit  of  cutting  off  the  limbs  of  trees,  oue  perhaps  preferring 
the  wood  of  one  kind  of  tree,  another,  another.    This  is  the  more  probable,  smce 

*  The  figures  have  not  been  reproduced. — A.  S.  P. 


there  is  considerable  diversity  in  their  operations,  us  shown  by  ftn  examination  of  the 
fall,  ii  limbs.    Tims  the  scarlet  oak,  instead  of  having  a  hole  bored  in  the  severed  end 

of  its  limbs,  commonly  has  half  the  wood  eaten  aw.iy  on  one  side  of  the  limb  for  the 
length  of  an  inch  or  more,  with  the  cavity  thus  formed  under  the  bark  packed  with 
worm  dust,  and  a  cylindrical  borrow  from  the  upper  end  of  this  cavity  running  up- 
wards in  the  ceuter  of  the  limb,  the  same  as  in  other  cases. 

It  further  appears  that  tin-  female,  when  ready  to  drop  an  egg,  is  not  always  able 
to  And  a  small  twig  with  a  green  succulent  end  Adapted  to  her  wants.  She  then  con- 
signs her  progeny  to  the  bark  of  the  main  limb,  and  the  young  worm  subsists  on  the 
soft  pnlpy  matter  between  the  bark  and  the  wood,  excavating  a  shallow  irregular 
cavity  which  is  packed  with  worm  dust,  till  it  has  acquired  sufficient  strength  to 
gnaw  the  wood,  when  it  cuts  off  the  limb  as  in  other  cases.  It  may,  however,  be  a 
different  species  from  the  common  oak  primer,  which  cradles  its  young  thus  beneath 
the  bark  instead  of  iu  a  lateral  twig.  It  is  usually  in  the  fallen  limbs  of  the  beech, 
though  sometimes  in  those  of  the  oaks  also,  that  I  have  met  with  these  worm  tracks 
under  the  bark. 

The  bark  of  the  beech,  it  will  be  recollected,  is  quite  thin  and  very  brittle,  so  that 
it  will  illy  serve  to  hold  the  limb  in  its  place  if  the  wood  underneath  is  cut  off  in  the 
usual  manner.  And  accordingly  a  remarkable  modification  of  this  operation  will  be 
noticed  iu  the  amputated  limbs  of  this  tree.  The  worm  eats  its  way  down  the  limb 
beneath  the  bark  until  it  has  acquired  sufficient  strength  to  sever  the  woody  fibers. 
It  then  passes  transversely  around  the  limb  beneath  the  bark,  girdling  it  by  cutting 
off  all  the  softer  outer  fibers  and  leaving  the  harder  ones  in  the  middle  of  the  limg 
uncut,  whereby  the  limb  is  sustained  until  the  wind  strikes  it.  How  surprising  that 
these  little  creatures  have  such  intelligence  given  them  as  enables  them  to  vary  their 
operatious  to  such  an  extent,  according  to  the  circumstances  of  their  situation  in  each 
particular  case!  I  should  be  iuclined  to  think  the  beech  primer  a  different  species 
from  that  of  the  oak,  as  it  dwells  beneath  the  bark  instead  of  iu  a  lateral  twig,  and 
cuts  off  the  outer  instead  of  the  inner  wood  of  the  limb ;  but  the  worm  is  identical 
with  that  of  the  oak  iu  its  external  appearance,  and  one  of  these  worms  which  I 
placed  iu  a  cage,  falling  from  its  fractured  burrow  in  the  beech  limb,  forsook  this 
wood  and  commeuced  boring  into  an  oak  limb  lying  beside  it. 

Not  only  the  limbs,  but  small  young  trees,  at  least  of  the  white  oak,  are  sometimes 
felled  by  these  insects;  in  which  cases  the  worm,  instead  of  cutting  the  wood  off 
transversely,  severs  it  in  a  slanting  or  oblique  direction,  as  though  it  were  aware  the 
winds  would  prostrate  a  perpendicular  shoot  more  readily  by  its  being  cut  iu  this 

The  larva  grows  to  a  length  of  0.60,  and  is  then  0.15  thick  across  its  ueck,  where  it 
is  broadest.  It  tapers  slightly  from  its  ueck  backwards,  the  hind  part  of  its  body 
being  nearly  cylindrical.  It  is  a  soft  or  fleshy  grub,  somewhat  shining  and  of  a  white 
color,  often  slightly  tinged  with  yellow,  its  head,  which  is  small  and  retracted  into 
the  neck,  beiug  black  in  front.  It  is  divided,  into  twelve  riugs  by  very  deep,  wide, 
transverse  grooves.  The  neck  or  first  ring  is  much  the  largest,  and  shows  two  very 
pale  tawny  yellow  bands  on  its  upper  side,  the  auterior  one  slightly  broken  asunder  in 
its  middle,  and  on  each  side  beyond  the  ends  of  these  bands  is  a  spot  of  the  same  color. 
The  two  or  three  rings  next  to  the  neck  are  shorter  than  the  others,  and  less  widely 
separated  from  each  other.  A  faint  stripe  of  a  darker  color  may  be  discerned  along 
the  middle  of  the  back,  widely  broken  apart  at  each  of  the  sutures.  The  last  riug  is 
much  narrower  and  more  shining  thau  the  others,  and  is  cut  across  by  a  fine  trans- 
verse line,  dividing  it  iuto  two  parts,  of  which  the  hinder  one  or  tip  is  bearded  with 
small  blackish  hairs,  and  a  few  fiue  hairs  are  perceptible  upon  the  other  rings.  The 
last  two  rings  are  retracted  into  the  ring  which  precedes  them,  at  the  pleasure  of  the 
animal,  whereby  this  ring  becomes  humped  and  swollen  ;  and  it  appears  to  be  chiefly 
by  thus  enlarging  the  end  of  its  body  that  the  worm  holds  and  moves  itself  about  in 
its  cell,  its  feet  being  so  weak  aud  minute  that  they  are  scarcely  perceptible  andean 


be  of  little  service.  It  has  three  pairs  ot  soft,  conical-jointed  feet,  resembling  its  an- 
tennie  in  their  size  and  shape.  The  first  pair  is  placed  on  an  elevated  wrinkle  of  the 
akin  in  the  suture  between  the  first  and  second  segments  of  the  thorax,  more  distant 
from  each  other  than  are  those  of  the  second  and  third  pairs,  which  are  situated  on 
the  middle  of  the  elevation  of  the  second  and  third  segments. 

Some  of  the  worms  enter  their  pupa  state  the  last  of  autumn,  and  others  not  till 
the  following  spring.  Hence  in  examining  the  fallen  limbs  in  the  winter,  a  larva 
may  be  found  in  one,  a  pupa  in  another.  Preparatory  to  entering  its  pupa  state,  the 
larva  places  a  small  wad  of  woody  fibers,  sometimes  intermingled  with  worm-dust, 
below  it,  in  its  burrow,  and  sometimes  another  wad  above  it  if  the  burrow  runs  far 
up  the  limb,  thus  partitioning  off  a  room  one  or  two  inches  in  length  in  which  to  lie 
during  its  pupa  state.  The  shriveled  cast  skin  of  the  larva  will  be  found  at  the  upper 
end  of  this  cell,  after  it  has  changed  to  a  pupa. 

Usually  those  insects  which  undergo  a  complete  metamorphosis  remain  at  rest, 
lying  dormant  and  motionless  during  their  pupa  state.  The  oak  primer,  however,  is 
a  remarkable  exception  to  this.  Whenever  its  cell  is  opened  it  will  be  seen  moving 
from  one  end  of  it  to  the  other  with  quite  as  much  agility  as  it  shows  in  its  larva 
state.  The  sutures  of  its  abdomen  have  the  same  deep  transverse  grooves  as  in  the 
larvae,  admitting  the  same  amount  of  motion  to  this  part  of  its  body  that  it  previously 
had.  And,  lying  on  its  back,  it  uses  the  tip  of  its  abdomen  as  though  it  were  furnished 
with  a  proleg,  the  little  sharp  points  with  which  it  is  covered  being  pressed  against 
the  rough  walls  of  the  cell  and  the  body  pushed  forward  or  drawn  backward  hereby, 
step  after  step,  at  the  will  of  the  animal. 

The  pupa  is  of  much  the  same  size  with  the  larva  and  of  a  yellowish-white  color. 
Its  eyes  are  sometimes  white,  sometimes  blackish-brown.  The  antenna-sheaths  arise 
in  the  notch  upon  the  inner  side  of  the  eyes  and,  passing  directly  across  the  surface 
of  these  organs,  extend  down  along  each  side  of  the  back  above  the  sheath  of  the 
fore  and  middle  pairs  of  legs,  then  curving  inward  they  pass  back  to  the  eye  along 
the  inner  side  of  the  same  legs,  their  ends  being  placed  upon  the  eye  slightly  inside 
of  their  origin.  The  knees  of  the  hind  legs  protrude  far  out  from  under  the  upper 
sides  of  the  wing-sheaths  forward  of  their  tips,  whilst  the  feet  of  these  legs  occupy 
the  space  between  the  tips  of  the  wing-sheaths.  The  back  of  the  abdomen  shows  a 
distinct,  pale-brown  stripe  along  the  middle,  on  each  side  of  which  the  surface  of  the 
segments  is  furnished  with  numerous  small,  erect,  sharp  points  of  a  dark  brown  color, 
those  on  the  apical  segment  being  double  the  length  of  the  others. 

The  beetle. — They  are  usually  from  0.50  to  0.55  in  length  and  0.12  broad,  of  a  slender, 
cylindrical  form,  of  a  dull  black  color,  tinged  more  or  less  with  brown  on  the  wing- 
covers,  more  evidently  so  towards  their  tips,  whilst  the  antennae  are  paler  brown,  and 
the  under  side  and  legs  chestnut  colored,  sometimes  bright,  sometimes  dark  and- 
blackish.  The  surface  is  everywhere  clothed  with  shortish,  prostrate  gray  hairs,  and 
•on  the  wing-covers  these  are  in  places  more  dense,  forming  small  gray  spots,  and  on 
each  side  of  the  thorax,  in  the  middle,  is  a  whitish  dot,  formed  in  the  same  manner. 
Sometimes  also  on  the  base  of  the  thorax,  on  each  side  of  its  middle,  a  short  gray 
stripe  formed  by  these  hairs  is  very  obvious,  whilst  in  other  individuals  no  traces  of 
these  stripes  can  be  discerned. 

The  scutel  also  is  densely  covered  and  gray  from  these  hairs.  The  surface,  above, 
is  occupied  by  numerous  coarse,  round  punctures,  those  on  the  thorax  being  of  the 
same  size  with  those  on  the  wing-covers,  but  more  crowded,  many  of  them  running 
into  each  other.  Towards  the  tips  of  the  wing-covers  these  punctures  become  per- 
ceptibly smaller. 

In  at  least  three-fourths  of  the  fallen  limbs  no  worm  is  to  be  found;  and  an  exam- 
ination of  them  shows  that  the  insect  perished  at  the  time  the  limb  was  severed,  and 
before  it  had  excavated  any  burrow  upward  in  its  center,  no  perforation  being  present, 
except  that  leading  into  the  lateral  twig.  It  is  probable  that  in  many  of  these  in- 
stances the  limb  broke  when  the  worm  was  in  the  act  of  gnawing  it  asunder,  either 
from  its  own  weight  or  from  a  wind  arising  whilst  the  work  was  in  progress.     And 


even  though  tin-  worn  may  have  withdrawn  into  its  hole  and  plugged  the  opening 
behind  it.  it  is  frequently  discovered  here,  probably,  and  devoured  by  birds.  After  a 
violent  wind  in  the  rammer  IMlSSOn,  BOOM  Of  oar  ins.-ct-eating  birds  may  always  be 
noticed  actively  in  search  of  limbs  and  trees  that  have  thereby  heeu  broken,  their 
instinct  teaching  them  that  this  breakage  usually  occurs  from  the  wood  being  weak- 
ened by  the  mining  operation!  of  worms  therein,  whose  lurking  places  are  now  opened 
to  them.  And  they  will  be  seen  industriously  occupied  in  picking  around  the  fract- 
ured ends  of  the  wood,  and  feasting  upon  the  grubs  which  they  there  find.  Num- 
ben  of  OUT  wood-boring  larva-  are  thus  destroyed,  and  the  oak  primer,  notwith- 
ing  the  precautions  it  takes  to  secrete  itself,  doubtless  frequently  falls  a  prey  to  these 
ions  fbragi 
lUmtdies. — These  insects  will  undoubtedly  at  times  occur  in  such  numbers  as  to 
render  it  important  that  they  be  destroyed,  at  least  where  they  resort  to  the  | 
or  other  valuable  trees.  And  this  may  readily  be  effected  by  gathering  and  burning 
the  fallen  limbs  in  the  winter  or  the  early  part  of  spring.  (Fitch's  Fifth  Report,  pp. 

We  have  preferred  to  quote  in  full  Dr.  Fitch's  accouut  of  this  infi 
although  somewhat  prolix,  and  though  he  ascribes  too  much  intelligence 
to  the  larva.     The  following  criticisms  and  observations  are  also  quoted 
in  full  from  an  article  by  Dr.  John  Hamilton,  published  in  the  Cana- 
dian Entomologist,  August,  1887  :  * 

Divested  of  all  romance  and  imagination,  and  descending  to  facts,  the  observations 
of  Professors  Peck,  Fitch,  and  Harris  may  be  reduced  to  this  :  In  the  month  of  July 
the  parent  lays  the  eggs  on  the  limbs  or  in  the  axil  of  a  leaf  near  the  end  of  the  twigs 
of  that  year's  growth  of  various  species  of  oak,  and  perhaps  other  trees.  After  hatch- 
ing, the  young  larva  (in  the  latter  case)  penetrates  to  the  pith  and  devours  it  down- 
wards till  the  woody  base  is  reached,  and  so  onward  to  the  center  of  the  main  limb; 
here  it  eats  away  a  considerable  portion  of  the  inside  of  the  limb  and  then,  plugging 
the  end  of  the  burrow,  which  it  excavates  towards  the  distal  end,  eventually  falls  to 
the  ground  with  the  limb,  which,  being  weakened,  is  broken  off  by  the  high  autumnal 
winds.  They  exist  here  either  as  larva?  or  pupa?  till  spring  and  emerge  in  June  as 
perfect  beetles.     Time,  one  year,  though  not  so  stated  in  words. 

The  account  given  in  detail  below  is  so  different  from  the  above  that  were  the  iden- 
tity of  the  individualsn  ot  established  by  actual  comparison  and  by  recognized  au- 
thority, it  might  well  be  asserted  I  had  giveu  an  account  of  some  other  Elajyhidion. 

April,  lr?83,  I  procured  a  barrel  of  hickory  limbs  from  a  tree  girdled  early  in 
The  limbs  were  from  one-half  to  1  inch  in  diameter.  Very  few  things  developed  from 
them  that  season,  but  the  next  (1884)  quite  a  number  of  species  came  forth — Clytan- 
thus  ruricola  and  albofasciatus,  Xeoclytus  luscus,  and  ertithrocephahts,  Siemotpkmn 
tatii8,  etc.  Many  larva*  of  some  CerambycicUe  continued  to  work  on  under  the  bark. 
Late  in  the  fall  I  observed  that  most  of  these  had  penetrated  the  wood,  but  some  re- 
mained under  the  bark  till  April  and  May  of  the  next  year  (1-85).  The  most  of  the 
beetles  appeared  during  the  first  two  weeks  of  June,  though  individuals  occurred 
occasionally  till  September.  A  few  Larvae  were  still  found  at  work,  but  by  October 
they  likewise  had  bored  into  the  wood  and  appeared  as  beetles  the  next  Juue  (1886). 
The  normal  period  of  metamorphosis  is  therefore  three  years,  but  in  individuals  it 
may  be  retarded  to  four  or  more  years. 

At  the  present  writing  (June  5)  these  beetles  are  issuiug  in  great  uumbers  from  a 
barrel  of  hickory  limbs  obtained  in  April,  1S^>,  from  a  tree  deadened  in  January, 
1884,  thus  verifying  the  first  observation. 

How  the  larva-  get  under  the  bark  could  not  be  ascertained.    When  lirst  examined, 

'Also  reprinted  in  the  Eighteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Entomological   Society  of 
Ontario,  1857.  pp.  :>8-40. 


in  April,  they  were  from  4  to  5mm  long.  They  ate  the  wood  under  the  bark,  follow- 
ing its  grain,  and  packed  their  burrows  solidly  with  their  dust.  The  growth  and 
progress  were  both  slow,  for  by  the  next  April  they  had  scarcely  more  than  doubled 
in  length  and  had  not  traveled  more  than  from  4  to  6  inches  during  the  year;  but 
after  July  they  developed  an  euormous  appetite  and  consumed  the  wood  for  at  least 
an  inch  in  length  and  often  entirely  around  the  limb,  ejecting  their  castings  through 
holes  made  in  the  bark.  When  full  fed  they  bore  obliquely  an  oval  hole  into  the 
wood,  penetrating  it  from  4  to  10  inches.  The  larva  then  packs  the  opening  with 
fin©  castings  and  enlarges  a  couple  of  inches  of  the  interior  of  the  burrow  by  gnaw- 
ing off  its  sides  a  quantity  of  coarse  fiber,  in  which  it  lies,  after  turning  its  head  to 
the  entrance.  When  about  to  become  pupa  (I  witnessed  the  process)  the  skin  rup- 
tures on  the  dorsum  of  three  or  four  segmeuts  next  the  head ;  the  head  of  the  pupa 
appears,  and  after  about  half  an  hour's  wriggling  the  whole  body  is  divested  of  its 
covering.  To  the  observer  the  pupa  appears  to  crawl  out  of  the  skiu,  but  in  fact  the 
skin  with  the  large  mandibles  is  forced  backwards  by  the  alternate  extension  and  con- 
traction of  the  segments,  assisted  materially  by  the  fiber  that  surrounds  it.  After 
its  soft  body  hardens  the  same  movements  free  it  from  the  fiber,  some  being  shoved 
in  advance  of  the  head,  and  some  posteriorly,  the  exuviae  being  often  found  at  the 
distal  end  of  the  hole.  The  time  spent  in  the  pupal  state  is  indefinite  and  does  not 
seem  to  concern  greatly  the  time  of  the  appearance  of  the  beetle.  Sticks  split  open 
at  different  periods  from  December  till  March  contained  larvae  and  pupae  about  equally, 
but  no  developed  beetles.  A  larva  that  I  observed  go  into  the  wood  in  April  appeared 
as  a  beetle  among  the  first  of  such  as  had  presumably  pupated  in  the  fall. 

The  number  of  these  beetles  obtained  that  and  the  present  season  was  great  and 
afforded  a  good  opportunity  to  observe  individual  variations,  and  they  do  differ 
greatly.  In  length  from  8  to  18mm  ;  in  pubescence,  some  being  nearly  naked  and  uni- 
colored,  others  having  it  longer  and  condensed  into  spots  or  almost  vittate ;  some 
being  quite  slender  and  elongate,  while  others  are  short  and  broad.  The  surface  of 
the  elytra  is  mostly  uniform,  but  in  some,  especially  such  as  are  narrow  and  elon- 
gated, one  or  two  costaB  are  more  or  less  evident. 

Now,  although  this  account  differs  so  widely  from  that  given  by  Mr.  Fitch,  still 
the  beetles  are  the  same.  Unfortunately,  I  have  never  been  able  to  find  any  pruned 
oak  limbs  from  which  to  obtain  the  insects  myself,  but  I  have  a  good  set  from  Mr. 
Blanchard,  of  Massachusetts,  presumably  from  the  oak,  which  are  identical.  Through, 
the  kindness  of  Mr.  F.  Clarkson,  I  have  a  set  of  those  described  by  him  in  the  Can. 
Ent.,  vol.  17,  p.  188,  from  oak  limbs,  and  which  became  imagoes  in  November,  and 
there  is  no  perceptible  difference.  Dr.  George  H.  Horn  says,  "  They  are  the  same." 
To  identify  Elaphidion  parallelum  had  always  been  a  puzzle  to  me,  and  I  once  thought 
I  had  a  real  set ;  I  obtained  it  about  a  dozen  times  by  exchange,  but  could  never  be- 
satisfied  that  the  specimens  received  were  not  pauperized  or  peculiar  individuals  of 
E.  villosum.  On  comparing  my  hickory  insects  with  all  the  descriptions  of  E.  villosum 
and  parallelum  and  their  several  synonyms,  as  far  as  I  possess  them,  it  was  easy  to 
pick  out  sets  that  would  answer  satisfactorily  all  their  requirements,  and  I  became 
satisfied  that  E.  parallelum  could  not  be  separated. 

29.  Elaphidion  parallelum  Newman. 
(Larva,  PI.  xvn,  Fig.  1.) 

This  borer,  according  to  Riley,  infests  the  oak,  and  Mr.  Tyler  Town- 
send,  of  Washington,  D.  C,  has  found  it  to  be  the  common  oak  pruner 
of  the  vicinity  of  Constantine,  Mich., while  it  also  is  common  in  hickory.* 

*Dr.  Horn  has,  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Hamilton  (Can.  Ent.,  Aug.,  1887),  stated  that 
Elaphidion  villosum  and  parallelum  "  are  inseparable."  It  is,  however,  too  late,  since 
this  note  is  added  in  the  galley  proof,  to  combine  the  accounts  of  the  latter  so-called 
species  with  that  of  E.  villosum. 



It  becomes  a  papa  either  in  the  autumn  or  spring.     (Can.  Ent.,  xviii,  13, 

188().)  In  the  absence  of  the  larva  of  any 
other  species  of  this  or  an  allied  genus,  for 
comparison,  we  have  compared  the  larva 
with  that  of  Xylotreehut  colon  us. 

Beetle. — Brown,  punctured,  covered  with  aD  ashy 
woolly  pabesoenoe;  elongated  linear;  anteuuie 
scarcely  shorter  than  the  body  ;  second  and  third 
joints  with  a  terminal  spine;  elytra  parallel,  trun- 
cated at  the  apex  and  armed  with  a  spine  at  each 
angle,  the  outer  spine  rather  long  and  incurved. 
Length  .55  inch.     (Le  Conte.) 

Larva. — The  body  very  closely  resembles  A',  colon  it  a  t 

Fig.  S2.—Elaphidum  parallelum.      but  is  larger  and  broader,  especially  on  segments?  to 
(Alter  Smith.)  .  .,,..,  „, 

9,  but  in  general  appearance  is  closely  similar.  Pro- 
thoracic  segment  scarcely  wider  than  the  mesothoracic,  but  not  so  much  swollen  as  iu 
Xylotrechus.  The  disk  is  regularly  transversely  oblong,  the  sides  not  convex  but 
straight,  the  edges  in  front  and  on  the  sides  brown.  The  disk  is  one-half  as  long  as 
broad  ;  posterior  half  free  from  hairs,  not  so  distinctly  marked  as  in  X.  colonus,  but  the 
longitudinal  irregular  pale  streaks  are  present.  The  mesothoracic  and  metathoracic 
segments  are  as  wide  as  the  prothoracic,  but  the  mesothoracic  is  a  little  shorter  than 
the  metathoracic.  The  mesothoracic  segment  is  divided  into  two  lateral  portions  by  a 
scutel-like,  very  short  and  broad  callosity  which  is  narrow,  lanceolate-oval.  The 
metathoracic  segment  has  a  similar  callosity,  but  a  transverse  fleshy  ridge  is  present, 
not  fouud  on  the  mesothoracic  segment.  Beneath  is  a  callous  brown  spot  incised  in 
the  middle,  longer  and  narrower  than  those  on  the  six  succeeding  segments.  That 
on  the  prothoracic  is  much  shorter  and  narrower  thau  on  the  mesothoracic,  the  latter 
not  divided  raesially,  where  those  on  the  metathoracic  and  three  succeeding  segments 
are  partly  divided  by  the  median  line  of  the  body,  forming  two  irregular  oval  patches 
touching  the  median  line  of  the  body,  and  with  the  outer,  hinder  edge  produced  a 
little  posteriorly.  On  the  first  abdominal  segment  is  a  transverse,  short  but  very 
wide  crescent-shaped  callosity  with  swollen  margins;  on  the  succeeding  segments 
these  become  longer  and  narrower,  until  on  the  fourth  segment  they  become  one-half 
as  long  as  broad;  on  the  hinder  segments  (5  to  7)  they  become  still  longer  and  trans- 
versely oblong-oval,  with  irregular  broad  thickened  patches.  Beneath,  on  the  seg- 
ments behind  the  fourth,  the  callosities  disappear,  but  there  are  raised  smooth  oval 
areas.  A  pair  of  thoracic  feet  on  each  of  the  three  segments;  they  are  three-jointed, 
basal  joint  membranous;  second  joint  about  three-fourths  as  long  as  wide;  third 
joint  about  two-thirds  as  wide  as  the  secoud,  and  slightly  longer.  The  ninth  ab- 
dominal segment  but  little  narrower  than  the  eighth;  the  tenth  about  one-third  as 
wide  as  the  ninth.     A  pair  of  mesothoracic  spiracles  and  eight  abdominal  pairs. 

Head  not  quite  so  large  in  proportion  as  in  X.  colonus.  Labruru  small,  not  quite  so 
broad  as  in  X.  colonus,  convex  and  well  rounded  in  front,  and  very  hairy.  Mandibles 

Antennae  four-jointed,  first  joint  apparently  divided  into  two  subsegments;  third 
a  little  longer  and  narrower  than  the  second;  the  fourth  minute,  obtuse,  one-half  as 
long  as  the  third  is  wide.  Maxilla?  with  the  lobe  rather  small,  reaching  to  near  the 
end  of  the  third  joint  of  the  palpus.  Maxillary  palpi  four-jointed,  second  joint 
slightly  shorter  and  narrower  than  the  first;  fourth  half  as  thick  as  the  third  and 
pointed  at  the  tip.  Labium  with  the  mentum  nearly  square,  narrower  than  the  sub- 
ineutum.     The  ligula,  which  is  very  small  iu  X.  colonus,  is  here  entirely  wanting. 


30.  Elaphidion  atomarium  (Drury). 

According  to  Mr.  Schwarz,  this  species  and  E  mucronatum  bore  in 
dry  twigs  of  Quercus  virens  in  Florida.  (Riley  in  American  Entomol- 
ogist, iii,  239.) 

Beetle.— Head  brownish  black,  covered  with  snort  yellowish-gray  pile.  Thorax 
dirty  black,  covered  with  yellow-gray  pile  ;  cylindrical,  and  without  any  spines  or 
eminences.  Antennae  dusky  brown ;  having  a  spine  on  each  joint,  except  that  next 
the  head,  and  about  the  length  of  the  insect.  Scutellum  very  small.  Elytra  black, 
mottled  with  yellow-gray,  being  margined  at  the  sides  and  suture  and  not  reaching 
or  covering  the  anus,  each  having  two  spines  at  the  extremity.  Abdomen  and  breast 
grayish  brown,  as  are  the  legs,  each  of  which  is  furnished  with  a  spine  at  the  tip  of 
the  tibiae. 

31.   Elaphidion  mucronatum  (Say). 

This  species  was  found  in  company  with  the  preceding  by  Mr.  Schwarz. 

Beetle. — Brown,  with  ashy  hairs ;  antennae  three  or  four  spined ;  thighs  mucronate ; 
«lytra  bidentate ;  body  reddish  brown,  partially  covered  with  short,  prostrate  cine- 
reous hairs,  unequally  distributed.  Antennae  longer  than  the  body  ;  joints  3  to  6, 
ending  in  a  spine ;  scutellum  white,  with  dense  hair  divided  into  two  lobes  ;  elytra 
punctured ;  the  hairs  so  disposed  as  to  give  the  surface  an  irregularly  spotted  appear- 
ance; tip  bispinose;  intermediate  and  posterior  thighs  bimucronate,  the  inner  spine 
longest.     Length  seven- twentieths  of  an  inch.     (Say.) 

32.  Acanthoderes  4-gibbus  Say. 

In  this  longicorn,  which  according  to  Mr.  Schwarz  bores  in  the  twigs,  the  scape  ot 
the  antennae  becomes  thicker  towards  the  tip,  and  is  shorter  than  the  third  joint; 
the  prothorax  is  armed  with  dorsal  tubercles,  with  a  large  lateral  spine.  The  eyes 
are  less  coarsely  granulated  than  in  the  other  species.  "  Body  dark  brownish  ;  an- 
tennae hardly  longer  than  the  body,  blackish ;  head  before  sparingly  punctured  ; 
labrum  dull  honey-yellow  ;  thorax  with  distant  punctures ;  four  tubercles  nearly  in 
a  transverse  line,  and  a  longitudinal,  elevated  line;  elytra  quadrigibbous  at  base; 
inner  gibbosity  extended  with  a  longitudinal  elevated  line  ;  numerous  distant  deep 
punctures;  a  dilated,  waved  ashen  spot  before  the  middle;  a  sutural  series  of  alter- 
nate square  small  brown  and  cinereous  spots  nearly  opposite ;  tip  emarginate ;  thighs 
•clavate.     Length  less  than  three-fifths  of  an  inch."    (Say.) 

33.    Leptura  zebra  Olivier. 

The  larva  and  pupa  inhabit  the  black  oak.    (Dr.  Horn.) 

34.    Tragidion  fulvipenne  Say. 

According  to  Riley,  this  longicorn  bores  in  the  oak.  (Am.  Ent.,iii,  239.) 

Beetle. — Body  deep  black,  covered  with  dense  black  hair;  antennae  rather  longer 
than  the  body,  somewhat  hairy  ;  palpi  glabrous,  deep  reddish  brown;  thorax  above, 
with  four  obsolete  tubercles  and  an  intermediate,  abbreviated,  glabrous,  longitudinal 
line;  a  slightly  prominent  lateral  spine;  scutel  hairy,  black;  elytra  yellowish- ful- 
vous, covered  with  dense,  very  short  prostrate  hair ;  four  longitudinal  slightly  ele- 
vated lines.     Length  three-fifths  inch.     (Say.) 



Fig.  33.— Tragidion  ml  vipenne.— Smith  and  Marx  del. 

35.  Bo8trichu8  bicornw  Weber. 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Ptinid^e. 

Mr.  A.  S.  McBride  records  finding  this  beetle  under  the  dead  bark  of 
white  oak  posts  in  August,  and  he  thinks  the  larva  bores  in  the  wood. 
(Can.  Ent.,  xii,  107,  June,  1880.) 

Beetle. — Body  blackish-brown  varied  with  cine- 
reous; with  robust,  scale-like  hairs;  head  equal; 
eyes  prominent,  reddish  brown  ;  antenna?  and  palpi 
ferruginous;  labrum  fulvous;  thorax  declivous 
before  and  behind  ;  anterior  half  and  lateral  mar- 
gin armed  with  numerous  short  spines ;  anterior 
angles  projected  over  the  head  in  the  form  of  par- 
allel horns  ;  posterior  angles  elongated  backward 
in  the  form  of  tubercles ;  two  hardly  elevated  tuber- 
cles on  the  middle  of  the  base ;  scutel  rounded, 
cinereous  ;  elytra,  each  with  two  elevated  lines,  of 
which  the  inner  one  is  the  more  prominent  and  acute,  with  the  blackish-brown  and 
cinereous  colors  somewhat  alternate  ;  tip  near  the  sutural  termination  mucronate  or 
only  angulated  ;  beneath  dark  reddish-brown. 

Length,  two-fifths  of  an  inch.     (Say.) 

Fig.  34. — Bostrichus  bicomis. 
Smith  del. 

36.  Xyleborw  cehus  Eichhoff. 
Order  Coleoptera;  Family  Scolytid.e. 

This  species  belongs  to  that  section  of  the  genus,  according  to  Le 
Conte,  in  which  the  body  is  elongate,  cylindrical;  the  declivity  of  the 
elytra  oblique,  frequently  retuse  or  excavated ;  the  funicle  of  the  antennae 
with  five  distinct  joints;  tibiae  rounded  at  tip  and  usually  finely  serrate. 

Beetle. — Two  lines  long.  Ferruginous,  clothed  with  yellow  hair;  elytra  obliquely 
sloping  behind,  perfectly  flat,  smooth,  with  two  larger  acute,  pointed,  tubercles  each 
side  near  the  suture,  .and  near  the  edge  of  the  declivity,  with  many  smaller  acute  ele- 
vations.  It  differs  from  X.pyri  by  its  much  more  elongate  form,  the  prothorax  being 
about  one-half  longer  than  wide,  with  the  sides  parallel  behind  the  middle  and  the 
elytra  much  more  than  one-half  longer  than  the  thorax.     (Le  Conte.) 


37.  Xyleborus  fuscatus  Eichhorn. 

Beetle. — Length,  1  to  1£  lines.  Ferruginous  brown,  or  yellow,  thinly  clothed  with 
gray  hair,  with  the  same  form  and  sculpture  as  X.  monographus,  but  somewhat  smaller, 
and  distinguished  by  the  oblique  declivity  of  the  elytra  being  marked  by  only  a 
single,  large,  acute  tubercle,  while  the  suture  itself  is  also  distinctly  elevated.  (Le 

38.  Xyleborus  reiusicollis  Zimmermann. 

Beetle. — Length,  1  line.  Rust-yellow ;  front  smooth,  with  a  deep  longitudinal 
impression ;  prothorax  longer  than  wide,  a  little  broader  than  the  elytra,  punctured 
in  front ;  thinly  pubescent  and  very  deeply  excavated  ;  the  front  margin  rising  into 
an  acute  point ;  behind  nearly  glabrous  and  smooth.  Elytra  short,  punctured  with- 
out order,  thinly  pubescent,  obliquely  declivous  behind,  and  somewhat  impressed 
along  the  suture.     Maryland,  found  under  oak-bark.     (Le  Conte.) 

39.   Pityophthorus  pubipennis  Lee. 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Scolytid^e. 

Mr.  Ricksecker  remarks  concerning  the  habits  of  this  bark  borer  on 
the  Pacific  coast: 

I  have  seen  great  swarms  of  Pityophthorus  pubipennis  Lee.  in  the  branches  of 
newly  felled  live  oaks,  and  have  taken  the  same  or  an  allied  species  from  sticks  of 
oak  that  had  previously  been  peeled  for  tan-bark.     (Ent.  Amer.,  i,  97.) 

Beetle. — Club  of  antennae  distinctly  annulated  and  pubescent  on  both  sides,  not 
fringed  with  long  hair.  Fore  tibiae  moderately  serrate;  fore  tarsi  with  joints  1  to  3 
stout,  fifth  longer  than  the  others  united. 

Male  bead  deeply  concave;  edge  of  the  concavity  fringed  with  long  silky  hairs. 
Female  head  shining,  sparsely  hairy,  punctured  with  an  interocular  tubercle;  the 
longer  hairs  of  the  elytra  ( which  are  finely  punctulate)  are  arranged  in  rows.  (Le  Conte 
and  Horn.) 

40.  Pityophthorus  querciperda  Schwarz. 

Mr.  Schwarz  has  observed  the  habits  of  this  Scolytid  beetle,  and  also 
described  the  beetle  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of 
Washington  (i,  56),  stating  that  it  occurs  from  New  York  to  Florida. 
On  page  162  of  the  same  Proceedings  Mr.  John  D.  Sherman  records 
finding  some  sixty  or  seventy  specimens  under  the  bark  of  a  felled  oak 
tree  at  Peekskill,  N.  Y. 

The  galleries,  which  are  partly  in  the  bark  and  partly  in  the  outermost  layer  of 
the  wood,  are  the  primary  galleries — i.  e.,  those  made  by  the  parent  beetle — and  ex- 
hibited a  feature  hitherto  not  observed  in  any  other  Scolytid.  The  female  beetle 
bores  straight  through  the  bark;  then  follows  a  very  short  gallery  vertically  down- 
ward, and  this  is  crossed  immediately  below  the  entrance  hole  by  an  extremely  long 
transverse  gallery.  The  novelty  consists  in  the  short  vertical  gallery,  which,  evi- 
dently, is  constructed  only  for  the  purpose  of  enabling  the  beetle  to  turn  around 
without  getting  on  the  outside  of  the  tree.  The  larval  galleries,  if  there  be  any,  are 
not  yet  known.    (Schwarz.) 

Beetle. — This  new  species  belongs  to  Le  Conte's  group  B,  and  may  be  called  Pityoph- 
thorus querciperda.  It  is  closely  allied  to  P.  minulissimus,  with  which  it  agrees  in 
size,  f'jrm,  and  coloration,  but  from  which  it  differs  in  the  sculpture  and  pubescence 
of  the  elytra.  In  minutissimus  the  elytra  are  finely  and  rather  indistinctly  punctu- 
late ;  the  pubescence  is  fine,  very  sparse  or  nearly  absent  on  the  basal  portion  of  the 
elytra  and  denser  on  the  declivity,  but  always  hair-like.  In  querciperda  the  elytra 
are  quite  distinctly  rugosely  punctulate,  and,  therefore,  less  shining.     The  pubescence 



i>  stont,  moderately  dense  on  the  anterior  part  of  the  elytra  and  still  denser  and  scale- 
like on  tin*  declivity.  In  the  two  California  D  speciesof  the  same  group  the  pubescence 
consists  of  long  and  short  hair  intermixed.  P.  querciperda  occurs  from  New  York  to 
Florida.     (Schwarz.) 

41.    Monavthrum  mali  (Fitch). 

Mr.  Sohwarg  has  observed  this  Scolytid  while  at  work  in  pieces  of 
the  red  oak  at  Washington,  D.  C.  It  was  tirst  observed  by  Fitch  at- 
tacking the  apple  tree  in  New  York.     It  ranges  from  Lake  Superior  to 

Florida.     (Le  (Jonte.) 

The  parent  beetle  bores  through  the  bark  straight  into  the  wood  to  a  distance  of 
from  5  to  7mm.  Then  follows  a  transverse  gallery  and,  in  most  cases,  a  second  trans- 
verse gallery  immediately  behind  the  first;  in  several  instances  there  is  still  a  third 
gallery.  The  secondary  burrows,  in  which  the  larva;  undergo  their  transformations, 
and  which,  in  all  probability,  are  made  by  the  larva',  start  rectangularly  upward  or 
downward  from  the  transverse  galleries  and  are  but  little  longer  than  the  beetle. 
Oviposition  in  this  species  has  not  yet  been  observed,  and  it  remains,  also,  uncertain 
whether  ouly  one  or  several  beetles  have  been  at  work  when  there  are  two  or  three 
transverse  galleries  present.     (Schwarz,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.,  i,  44,  48.) 

Beetle. — In  this  genus  the  body  is  long  and  cylindrical;  the  scape  cf  the  antennas 
long  and  slender;  the  fuuicle  of  but  one  short  joint,  the  others  being  absorbed  in  the 
club,  which  is  rounded  and  very  much  compressed  ;  elytra  elongate,  nearly  perpen- 
dicularly declivous  behind,  and  pubescent  on  the  declivity;  feebly  punctured  in 
rows.     M.  mali  is  small  brown,  elytra  not  hairy  at  tip. 

Male:  Club  of  antenna?  with  a  long  apical  spine  and  a  few  hairs;  declivity  of 
elytra  oblique,  not  refuse  at  the  sides,  acutely  margined  only  at  the  apex  and  for  a 
short  distance  behind;  face  of  declivity  with  a  slight  reniform  elevation  rising  into 
two  cusps  near  the  suture,  which  is  deeply  impressed  and  excavated  at  that  place; 
head  flat,  opaque,  not  fringed  with  hair. 

Female:  Club  of  antennae  without  apical  spine  ;  declivity  of  elytra  as  in  male,  but 
with  the  reniform  elevation  and  its  two  cusps  much  stronger ;  head  slightly  convex, 
subopaque,  feebly  punctured. 

Lake  Superior  to  Florida;  depredates  on  apple  trees.     Length,  2mm  (.08  inch). 

(Le  Conte.) 

42.  Ithycerus  noveboraceiws  (Forster). 

According  to  Riley  this  weevil  in- 
fests the  oak,  having  been  seen  bor- 
ing into  the  twigs  of  the  burr-oak; 
the  larva  is  of  the  usual  eurcnlioni- 
form  appearance.  The  female  first 
makes  a  small  longitudinal  excava- 
tion with  her  jaws,  eating  upward 
toward  the  end  of  the  branch,  then 
turns  round  and  thrusts  her  egg  into 
it.  She  was  observed  in  the  act  by- 
Mr.  Charles  Peabody.  (Riley's  un- 
published notes.) 

Beetle.-  This  is  our  largest  species  of  weevil, 
and  may  be  recognized  by  its  great  size,  by 
its  broad,  large  snont,  its  ash  color,  and  by 
the, eight  pale  lines  on  the  wing-covers,  inter- 
rupted by  four  or  five  distinct  black  squarish  spots.     Length.  IS"* 

Fig.  35.  Ithycerus  noveboracen»is.     Smith  del. 


43.  The  seventeen- year  Cicada. 

Cicada  septendecira  luinu. 

Order  Hemiptera  ;  Family  Cicadarle. 

Stinging  the  terminal  twigs  of  the  oak  and  other  forest  trees  and  of  various  fruit 
trees,  the  seventeen-year  locust,  which  deposits  its  long  slender  eggs  in  a  hrokeu  line 
along  the  twig. 

Without  attempting  to  recapitulate  the  history  of  this  famous  insect, 
we  would  only  say  that  the  eggs  are  deposited  from  the  end  of  May 
through  June  (Fig.  36,  d,  e)  in  pairs  in  the  terminal  twigs  of  the  oak,  etc. 
The  larva3  (Fig.  36,/)  hatch  out  in  about  six  weeks  after  they  are  depos- 
ited, and  drop  to  the  ground,  in  which  they  live,  sucking  the  roots  of 
trees,  etc.,  for  nearly  seventeen  years,  the  pupa  state  (Fig.  36,  a,  b)  last- 
ing but  a  few  days. 

The  following  remarks  on  the  habits  of  this  insect  are  taken  from  our 
Third  Report  on  the  Injurious  Insects  of  Massachusetts: 

As  regards  the  kinds  of  trees  stung  by  the  Cicada,  I  may  quote  from  a  communication 
from  William  Kite,  in  the  American  Naturalist,  vol.  ii,  p.  442,  as  confirming  and  add- 
ing somewhat  to  Dr.  Harris's  statements:  "  Seeing  in  the  July  number  of  the  Naturalist 
a  request  for  twigs  of  oak  which  had  been  stung  by  the  so-called  seventeen-year 
locust,  I  take  the  liberty  of  sending  you  twigs  from  eleven  different  varieties  of  trees 
in  which  the  females  have  deposited  their  eggs.  I  do  this  to  show  that  the  insect 
seems  indifferent  to  the  kind  of  wood  made  use  of  as  a  depository  for  her  eggs.  These 
were  gathered  July  1,  in  about  an  hour's  time,  on  the  south  hills  of  the  '  Great  Chester 
Valley,'  Chester  County,  Pa.  No  doubt  the  number  of  trees  and  bushes  might  be 
much  increased.  The  female,  in  depositing  her  eggs,  seems  to  prefer  well-matured 
wood,  rejecting  the  growing  branch  of  this  year,  and  using  the  last  year's  wood  and 
frequently  that  of  the  year  before,  as  some  of  the  twigs  inclosed  will  show.  An  or- 
chard which  I  visited  was  so  badly  '  stung'  that  the  apple  trees  will  be  seriously  in- 
jured and  the  peach  trees  will  hardly  survive  their  treatment.  Instinct  did  not  seem 
to  cantiou  the  animal  against  using  improper  depositories,  as  I  found  many  cherry 
trees  had  been  used  by  them,  thegnm  exuding  from  the  wounds,  in  that  case  sealing 
the  eggs  in  beyond  escape. 

"The  males  have  begun  to  die,  and  are  found  in  numbers  under  the  trees;  the 
females  are  yet  busy  with  their  peculiar  office.  The  length  of  wood  perforated  on 
each  branch  varied  from  one  to  two  and  a  half  feet,  averaging  probably  eighteen 
inches ;  these  seemed  to  be  the  work  of  one  insect  on  each  twig,  showing  a  wonderful 

"The  recurrence  of  three  'locust  years'  is  well  remembered  in  this  locality — 1834> 
1851,  and  1868.  There  has  been  no  variation  from  the  usual  time,  establishing  the 
regularity  of  their  periodical  appearance." 

A  6  regards  the  time  and  mode  of  hatching,  Mr.  S.  S.  Rath  von,  of  Lancaster,  Pa.,  con- 
tributes to  the  same  journal  some  new  and  valuable  facts,  which  we  quote:  "  With 
reference  to  the  eggs  aud  youug  of  the  seventeen-year  Cicada,  your  correspondent  from 
Haverford  College,  Philadelphia,  is  uot  the  only  one  who  has  failed  to  produce  the 
young  by  keeping  branches  containing  eggs  in  their  studios.  I  so  failed  in  1834  and 
1851,  and  indeed  I  have  never  heard  that  any  oue  has  succeeded  in  that  way  who  has 
kept  them  for  any  great  length  of  time.  In  the  brood  of  1868  the  first  Cicadas  appeared 
here  in  a  body,  on  the  evening  of  the  second  day  of  June.  The  first  pair  in  coitu  I  ob- 
served on  the  2lst,  and  the  first  female  depositing  on  the  26th  of  the  same  month. 
The  first  young  were  excluded  on  the  5th  of  August.  All  these  dates  are  some  ten 
days  later  than  corresponding  observations  made  by  myself  and  others  in  former  years. 


On  the  15th  of  July,  1  cutoff  some  apple,  pear,  and  chestnut  twigs  containing  eggs, 
and  stuck  the  cuds  into  a  buttle  containing  water,  and  set  it  in  a  broad,  shallow  dish 
also  filled  with  water,  the  whole  remaining  out  of  doors  exposed  to  the  weather,  what- 
ever it  might  be.  The  young  continued  to  drop  out  on  the  water  in  the  dish  for  a  full 
week,  after  the  date  above  mentioned.  I  could  breed  no  Cicadas  from  branches  that 
were  dead  and  on  which  the  leaves  were  withered,  nor  from  those  that  from  any  oanse 
had  fallen  to  the  ground,  and  this  was  also  the  case  with  Mr.  Vincent  Bernard,  of 
Kennet  Square,  Chester  County,  Pa.  After  the  precise  time  was  known,  fresh  branches 
were  obtained,  and  then  the  young  Cicadas  were  seen  coming  forth  in  great  numbers 
by  half  a  dozen  observers  in  this  county.  As  the  fruitful  eggs  were  at  least  a  third 
larger  that)  they  were  when  first  deposited,  I  infer  that  they  require  the  moisture  con- 
tained in  living  wood  to  preserve  their  vitality.  When  the  proper  time  arrives  and 
the  proper  conditions  are  preserved,  they  are  easily  bred,  and  indeed  I  have  seen  them 
evolve  on  the  palm  of  my  hand.  The  eyes  of  the  young  Cicadas  are  seen  through  the 
egg-skin  before  it  is  broken." 

Mr.  Riley,  in  an  interesting  account  of  this  Cicada  in  his  First  Annual  Report  on 
Noxious,  Beneficial,  and  Other  Insects  of  Missouri  for  1869,  has  shown  that  in  the 
Southern  States  thirteen-year  broods  of  this  insect  are  found.  He  remarks  :  "  It  was 
my  good  fortune  to  observe  that  besides  the  seventeen-year  broods,  the  appearance  of 
one  of  which  was  recorded  as  long  ago  as  1633,  there  are  also  thirteen-year  broods, 
and  that,  though  both  sometimes  occur  in  the  same  States,  yet,  in  general  terms,  the 
seventeen-year  broods  may  be  said  to  belong  to  the  Northern  and  the  thirteen  year 
broods  to  the  Southern  States,  the  dividiug  line  beiug  about  latitude  38°,  though  in 
some  places  the  seventeen-year  brood  extends  below  this  line,  while  in  Illinois  the 
thirteen-year  brood  runs  up  considerably  beyond  it.  It  was  also  exceedingly  grati- 
fying to  find,  four  months  after  I  had  published  this  fact,  that  the  same  discovery 
had  been  made  years  before  by  Dr.  Smith,  though  it  had  never  been  given  to  the 

Mr.  Riley  predicts  that  in  southern  New  England  a  brood  will  appear  in  1877  and 
1885.  Probably  the  Plymouth  brood,  which  appeared  in  1872,  will  not  appear  again 
for  seventeen  years,  namely,  in  1889,  the  two  broods  noticed  by  Riley  appearing  west 
of  this  town.  As  regards  its  appearance  in  Plymouth,  Mass.,  Harris  states  that  it 
appeared  there  in  1633.  The  next  date  given  is  1804,  "  but,  if  the  exact  period  of 
seventeen  years  had  been  observed,  they  should  have  returned  in  1803." 

Mr.  B.  M.  Watson  informs  me,  from  his  personal  observation,  that  it  also  appeared 
in  1838,  1855,  and  1872.  In  Sandwich  it  appeared  in  1787,  1804,  and  1821.  In  Fall 
River  it  appeared  in  1834,  in  Hadley  in  1818,  in  Bristol  County  in  1784,  so  that,  as  re- 
marked by  Harris  and  others,  it  appears  at  different  years  in  places  not  far  from  each 
other.  Thus,  while  in  Plymouth  and  Sandwich  we  may  look  for  its  re-appearance 
in  1839,  in  Fall  River  it  will  come  in  1885,  or  four  years  earlier. 

There  are  three  species  of  Cicada  in  the  Northern  States,  and,  in  order  that  they 
may  not  be  confounded  in  studying  the  times  of  appearance  of  the  different  broods  of 
the  seventeen-year  species,  I  add  a  short  description  of  each  form,  so  that  they  may 
be  readily  recognized  in  the  winged  and  immature  states. 

The  two  larger  species  are  the  seventeen-year  locust  (Cicada  septendecim)  and  the 
dog-day  cicada  (C.  pruinosa).  Fig.  36,  copied  from  Riley's  report,  gives  a  good  idea 
of  the  former  species:  a  represents  the  pupa,  b  the  same  after  the  adult  has  escaped 
through  the  rent  in  the  back,  c  the  winged  fly,  d  the  holes  in  which  the  eggs,  e,  are  in- 
serted. Fig.  36,  /  represents  the  larva  as  soon  as  hatched.  The  adult  may  be  known 
by  its  rather  narrow  head,  the  black  body,  and  bright  red  veins  of  the  wings.  The 
wings  expand  from  two  and  a  half  to  three  and  a  quarter  inches. 

The  pupa  is  long  aud  narrow,  and  compared  with  that  of  C.  pruinosa  the  head  is 
longer  and  narrower,  the  antennie  considerably  longer,  the  separate  joints  being 
longer  than  those  of  the  dog-day  locust.  The  auterior  thighs  (femora)  are  very  large 
and  swolleu,  smaller  than  in  C.  pruinosa,  though  not  quite  so  thick,  with  the  basal 



spine  shorter  than  in  that  species,  while  the  snag  or  supplementary  tooth  is  larger  and 
nearer  the  end;  the  next  spine,  the  basal  one  of  the  series  of  five,  is  three  times  as 
large  as  the  next  one,  while  in  C.  pruinosa  it  is  of  the  same  size,  or,  if  anything, 
smaller.  The  toe  joint  (tarsus)  projects  over  two  thirds  of  the  length  beyond  the  end 
of  the  shank  (tibia),  while  in  the  other  species  it  only  projects  half  its  length.  The 
terminal  segment  of  the  body  is  rather  larger  than  in  C.  pruinosa.  The  body  is  shin- 
ing gum-color  or  honey-yellow,  with  the  hinder  edge  of  the  abdominal  segments 
thickened,  but  no  darker  than  the  rest  of  the  body.  Length,  one  inch  (.90  to  1.00); 
width,  about  a  third  of  an  inch  (.35),  being  rather  smaller  than  that  of  C.  pruinosa 
and  much  larger  than  that  of  C.  rimosa. 

Fig.  36.— The  seventeen-year  Cicada  (c)  and  pupa  (a.  b):  d,  position  of  eggs  (e) ;  /,  larva.    (After  Riley.) 

For  a  farther  account  of  this  Cicada  the  reader  is  referred  to  Prof. 
Kiley's  report  of  the  U.  S.  Entomologist  for  1885,  and  to  Bulletin  No.  8, 
of  the  Division  of  Entomolosry,  which  contain  fall  information  regard- 
ing the  differeut  broods  which  appear  in  different  years.  From  his 
observations  it  appears  that  the  development  of  the  larva  is  extremely 
slow,  and  when  six  years  old  it  hardly  attains  one-fourth  its  full  size. 
Moulting  also  takes  place  more  than  once  a  year,  so  that  there  are  prob- 
ably twenty-five  or  thirty  changes  of  skin  in  all.  Riley,  also,  has  rarely 
found  it  more  thau  two  feet  below  the  surface  during  the  first  six  or 
seven  years  of  its  life,  and  almost  invariably  iu  an  oval  cell,  and  more 
often  away  from  roots  than  near  them.  Yet  it  can  descend  to  great 
depths,  one  writer  stating  that  he  had  found  it  20  feet  below  the  sur- 
face. "As  the  time  approaches  for  the  issuing  of  the  pupa  it  gradually 
rises  nearer  and  nearer  to  the  surface,  and,  for  a  year  or  two  before  the 
appearance  of  any  given  brood,  this  pupa  may  be  dug  up  within  one  or 
two  feet  of  the  surface." 
5  ent 7 


44.    The  WHITE-LINED  TREE  hopper. 
Thelia  univittata   Harris. 
Order  Hemip  i Hi  ;    family  Mkmhracid.E. 
Common  upon  oak  limbs  ami  twigs,  puncturing  them  and  Booking  their  juices. 

This  tree  hopper  is  found  on  the  oak  in  July.  It  is  about  four-tenths 
of  an  inch  in  length  :  the  thorax  is  brown,  has  a  short,  obtuse  horn  ex- 
tending obliquely  upwards  from  in  front,  and  there  is  a  white  line  on 
the  back  extending  from  the  top  of  the  horn  to  the  hinder  extremity* 

|  Harris.) 

4.">.  '1  BE   OAK    BLIGHT. 

Erio8oma  querd  Fitch. 

Order  Hemipteha  ;  family  Aphidid^e. 

A  species  of  blight,  or  a  woolly  aphis  upon  oak  limbs,  puncturing  them  and  exhaust- 
ing them  of  their  sap. 

This  blight  is  very  like  a  similar  insect  upon  the  basswood.  The 
winged  individuals  are  black  throughout,  and  slightly  dusted  over  with 
an  ash-gray  powder  resembling  mold.  The  fore  wings  are  clear  and 
glassy,  with  their  stigma-spot  dusky  and  feebly  transparent,  their  rib- 
vein  black,  and  their  third  oblique  vein  abortive  nearly  or  quite  to  the 
fork.     It  is  .16  long  to  the  tips  of  its  wings.     (Fitch.) 

46.  The  white  oak  scale-insect. 

Lecanium  quercifex  Fitch. 

Order  Hemiptera  ;  family  Coccid.e. 

Adhering  to  the  smooth  bark  of  the  limbs  of  the  white  oak,  in  June,  an  oval,  con- 
vex, brownish-black  scale,  about  .30  inch  long  and  .18  wide,  its  margin  paler  and 
dull  yellowish.     (Fitch.) 

47.  The  quercitron  scale-insect. 

Lecanium  quercitronis  Fitch. 

Order  Hemiptera  ;  family  Coccid^e. 

On  the  small  limbs  of  the  black  oak;  a  scale  like  the  preceding  but  smaller,  and  of 
a  nearly  hemispherical  form;  its  color  varying  from  brownish-black  to  dull  reddish 
and  pale,  dull  yellow,  with  a  more  or  less  distinct  stripe  of  paler  yellow  along  the 
middle  of  its  back,  aud  the  paler  individuals  usually  mottled  with  black  spots  or 
stripes.     Length,  .20;   width.  .16  inch.     (Fitch.) 

These  scales  are  parasitized  by  Platygaster  lecanii  (Fitch) 

48.  The  black  scale  of  California. 
Lecanium  olew  Bernard. 

The  black  scale  is  stated  by  Signoret  to  be  properly  in  France  an 
olive  scale,  sometimes,  however,  becomiug  so  common  as  to  occur  on  all 
neighboring  plants  also.  In  California  we  find  it  infesting  the  greatest 
variety  of  plants  and  becoming  a  very  serious  enemy  to  orange  and 
other  citrus  trees.     I  have  found  it  at  Los  Angeles  on  orange  and  all 


other  citrus  plants,  ou  olive,  pear,  apricot,  plum,  pomegranate,  Oregon 
asb,  bitter-sweet,  apple,  eucalyptus,  sabal  palm,  California  coffee,  rose, 
cape  jessamine,  Habrothmus  elegans  /  and  elsewhere  upon  an  Australian 
plant  known  as  Brachceton,  and  also  upon  a  heath.  It  preferably  attacks 
the  smaller  twigs  of  these  plants,  and  the  young  usually  settle  upon  the 

The  development  of  this  species  is  very  slow,  and  it  seems  probable 
that  there  is  only  one  brood  in  a  year.  Specimens  observed  by  Mr. 
Alexander  Craw  at  Los  Angeles,  which  hatched  in  June  or  July,  began 
to  show  the  characteristic  ridges  only  in  November.  Mr.  Craw  has 
seen  the  lice,  even  when  quite  well  grown,  move  from  twigs  which  had 
become  dry  and  take  up  their  quarters  on  fresh  ones. 

Although  carefully  looked  for,  the  males,  like  those  of  so  many  other 
Lecanides,  have  never  been  found. 

A  dark-brown  bark-louse  has  been  sent  me  from  Florida,  on  live  oak, 
holly,  oleander,  orange,  and  one  or  two  unknown  plants,  by  Dr.  R.  S. 
Turner,  of  Fort  George,  which  appears  to  be  identical  with  Lecanium 
olece.  It  is,  however,  by  no  means  as  abundant  or  injurious  in  that 
State  as  in  California. 

Enormous  quantities  of  the  eggs  of  the  black  scales  are  destroyed  by 
the  chalcid  parasite  Tomocera  californica*  described  on  p.  368  of  this 
report.  Particulars  as  to  the  work  of  this  parasite  are  given  at  the 
same  place.  Upon  oue  occasion  (August  25,  1880),  I  found  within  the 
body  of  a  full-grown  female  a  lepidopterous  larva,  which  was  very  similar 
in  appearance  to  the  larvaB  of  the  species  of  Ddkruma  described  in  ray 
last  report  as  destroying  bark-lice.  The  specimen,  however,  was  lost, 
and  no  more  have  been  found  since. 

A  number  of  beetles  of  the  genus  Latridius  were  found  under  scales 
which  had  been  punctured  by  the  Tomocera,  but  probably  would  not 
destroy  the  live  insect.  Many  mites  were  found  feeding  upon  the  eggs 
and  young.  The  infested  trees  were  also  swarming  with  the  different 
species  of  lady  bugs  (Coccinellidce).     (Comstock.) 

Adult  female. — Dark  brown,  nearly  black  in  color;  nearly  hemispherical  in  formr 
often,  however,  quite  a  little  longer  than  bread;  average  leugth  from  4mm  to  5imn- 
average  height,  3mm.  Dorsum  with  a  median  longitudinal  carina  and  two  transverse 
cariuse,  the  latter  dividing  the  body  into  three  subequal  portions;  frequently  the 
longitudinal  ridge  is  more  prominent  between  the  transverse  ridges  than  elsewhere, 
thus  forming  with  them  a  raised  surface  of  the  form  of  a  capital  H-  The  body  is 
slightly  margined  ;  outer  part  of  the  disk  wiih  many  (18  to  30)  small  ridges  which 
extend  from  the  margin  half-way  up  to  center  of  dorsum.  Viewed  with  the  micro- 
scope, the  skin  is  seen  to  be  filled  with  oval  or  round  cells,  each  with  a  clear  nucleus, 
the  average  size  of  the  cells  being  from  .05mm  to  .06mm  in  length,  while  the  nuclei 
average  .02mm  in  diameter.  The  antenna  are  long  and  8-jointed,  the  two  basal  joints 
short ;  joint  3  longest,  joints  4  and  5  equal  and  shorter,  joints  6  and  7  equal  and  still 
shorter,  joint  8  with  a  notched  margin  and  almost  as  long  as  joint  3.     Legs  rather 

"This  parasite  is  now  known  as  Dilophogaster  californica  Howard,  Mr.  Howard  Sav- 
ing changed  the  name  Tomocera  on  account  of  its  similarity  to  Tomocerus  in  Thysanura. 


long  and  stout,  the  tibia-  being  about  one-fifth  Longer  than  the  tarsi.  The  anal  ring 
Beema  to  bear  six  Long  hairs. 

The  egg. — Long  oval  in  shape,  .4"""  in  Length,  yellowish  in  color. 

Xctclij  hatched  larva. — Then-  is  nothing  very  characteristic  about  the  young  larva-; 
they  are  tlat   and  their  antennae  are  only  b-jointed.     (Comstock'a  Report  for  1880, 

p.  336.) 

vj.  The  oak  cukkmes. 

Chermes  ap. 

(Plate  XXVIII,  Pig.  1.) 

The  following  characterization  of  this  genus  is  taken  from  Signoivt  : 

Body  perfectly  globular  or  with  a  slight  incision  for  insertion  on  thetwigor  branch. 
On  an  external  examination  no  trace  of  antenna-,  legs,  or  even  mouth  parts  is  to  be 
observed,  and  the  insect  presents  precisely  the  appearance  of  a  gall.     . 

In  the  larva',  however,  the  true  characters  of  the  Cocciuaj  are  seen — ruultiarticu- 
late  lower  lip  and  the  absence  of  the  anal  plates.  The  larval  characters  an-  the  one-, 
which  have  been  principally  used  in  the  description  of  species,  as  they  are  ea 
find.  They  (the  larva»)  are  long,  oval,  the  abdomen  plainly  segmented  and  deeply 
cleft  at  the  extremity,  except  in  C.  vermilio  and  C.  ballotce.  Upon  each  segment 
there  are  several  spines  at  the  lateral  edge  and  several  hairs  upon  each  disk.  The 
lateral  lobes  have  each  a  bundle  of  spines  and  a  very  long  hair.  Antennas  6-jointed, 
joint  3  longest.  With  all  the  legs  the  tibia}  are  shorter  than  the  tarsi.  With  the 
adult  the  antennae  and  legs  appear  natural ;  but  in  very  old  individuals,  which  have 
secreted  the  horny  covering,  the  autenme  are  still  present,  but  deformed;  so  also 
with  the  legs,  but  the  latter  are  sometimes  entirely  wanting. 

The  males  resemble  those  of  other  Coccime,  and  are  inclosed  in  a  little  white  felt- 
like sac.  Head  globular,  with  four  eyes  and  six  ocelli  in  C.  bauhinii  i  the  only  species 
observed  by  Signoret).  The  antenna'  are  very  long,  joint  3  longest,  joint  10  shortest, 
and  carrying  several  hairs  with  buttoned  tips.  Wings  long.  Abdomeu  long,  with  a 
short  genital  armature  and  two  long  bristles  each  side.  Legs  long,  the  tibiae  longer 
than  the  tarsi,  the  latter  with  a  long  claw  and  the  four  ordinary  digitules. 

There  are  in  the  collection  of  the  Department  several  specie?  belong- 
ing to  this  genus,  which  we  have  collected  in  Florida,  Alabama,  Lou- 
isiana, California,  New  York,  and  District  of  Columbia.  For  want  of 
time  I  am  unable  to  characterize  these  now.  The  species  represented 
on  Plate  xxvni,  fig.  1,  occurs  on  Quercus  in  California.  The  only 
North  American  species  which  has  been  described  is  Kermes  ga Uifo rmis 
Riley,  described  in  the  Americau  Naturalist,  vol.  xv.  p.  482  (June, 
1881).     (Couistock,  U.  S.  Agricultural  Report,  1880,  337.) 

50.   Chermes  galliformis  Riley. 

" Received  from  H.  H.  Rusby,  Silver  City,  N.  Mex.,  the  almost  glob- 
ular scales  of  a  coccid  from  the  same  oak  as  the  preceding  [Quercus 
emoryi).  They  are  shining,  very  indirectly  sculptured,  white,  beauti- 
fully variegated  with  yellowish-gray  and  black.  The  white  ground  color 
is  especially  noticeable  in  longitudinal  stripes.  These  scales  occur  either 
singly  or  in  clusters — the  largest  containing  about  eight — around  the 
twig.    They  contained  nothing  but  eggshells  when  received. 

These  scales  were  infested  with  the  larva  of  a  Lepidopteron  appar- 
ently belonging  to  Dakruma,  which  issued  in  April,  1881."  (Riley's 
unpublished  notes.) 


51.  The  obscure  scale  insect. 
Aspidiotus  obscurus  Comstock. 

This  scale  insect  was  found  by  Professor  Comstock  on  the  leaves  of 
the  willow  oak.  The  following  account  is  copied  from  his  report  in  the 
U.  S.  Agricultural  Report  for  1880: 

Scale  of  female.— The  scale  of  the  female  is  very  dark  gray,  agreeing  in  color  with 
the  bark  to  which  it  is  attached ;  and  as  it  is  only  slightly  convex,  its  presence  is 
difficult  to  detect.  It  is  somewhat  irregular  in  outline,  but  nearly  circular.  The 
exuviae  are  between  the  center  and  one  side  ;  their  position  is  indicated  by  a  nipple- 
like prominence,  which  is  marked,  as  in  many  other  species,  with  a  white  dot  and 
concentric  ring  of  the  same  color.  The  ventral  scale  consists  of  a  delicate  film  of 
white  excretion,  and  the  lower  half  of  the  exuviae  attached  to  the  bark.  Diameter 
of  scale,  3mir  (.12  inch). 

Female. — The  body  of  the  full-grown  female  is  reniform,  being  only  four-fifths  as 
long  as  wide  and  having  the  lobes  of  the  penultimate  segment  extending  back 
nearly  as  far  as  the  end  of  the  body.  The  segmentation  of  the  body  is  very  indistinct ; 
the  color  is  a  yellowish  brown.  The  last  segment  presents  the  following  characters 
(Plate  xii,  Fig.  4) : 

There  are  five  groups  of  spinnerets ;  the  median  consists  of  about  six,  the  superior 
lateral  of  about  twelve,  and  the  inferior  lateral  of  about  eight.  The  oval  pores 
opening  on  the  dorsal  side  of  the  body  are  to  be  seen  very  distinctly  from  below. 

There  are  three  pairs  of  well  developed  lobes.  The  first  lobe  of  each  side  is  conical, 
tapering  anteriorly,  and  with  the  distal  margin  rounded ;  there  is  often  a  small 
notch  on  the  lateral  side.  The  distal  margins  of  the  second  and  third  lobes  are  ser- 

The  thickened  part  of  the  lateral  margin  of  the  segmeut  becomes  narrower  ante- 
riorly until  near  the  penultimate  segment  it  is  a  mere  line.  It  is  irregularly  notched 
and  is  terminated  posteriorly  by  a  prominent  lobe. 

There  are  seven  short  club-shaped  thickenings  of  the  body  wall  upon  each  side  of 
the  meson.  Each  thickening  is  rounded  anteriorly  and  tapers  posteriorly.  They  are 
situated  as  follows :  one  terminating  near  the  lateral  margin  of  the  first  lobe,  one  at 
each  side  of  second  lobe,  one  midway  between  second  and  third  lobes,  one  at  each 
side  of  third  lobe,  and  one  near  the  posterior  end  of  the  thickened  lateral  margin. 
This  one  is  often  obsolete.  Those  terminating  at  the  median  sides  of  the  second  and 
third  lobes  are  narrower  and  shorter,  and  have  their  anterior  ends  directed  laterad 
more  than  the  others.  The  remaining  thickenings  are  of  about  the  same  length  as  the  ■ 
median  lobes. 

The  plates  are  inconspicuous,  and  in  no  case  extend  as  far  as  the  lobes.  There  is 
one  between  the  median  lobes,  one  between  the  first  and  second  lobe  of  each  side,  two 
between  the  second  and  third  lobes,  and  two  between  the  third  lobe  and  the  poste- 
rior end  of  the  thickened  lateral  margin.  The  last  two  are  unequally  bifid,  the  other 
four  are  simple  and*  truncate. 

On  the  ventral  side  the  first  pair  of  spines  is  obsolete,  the  second  and  third  pores 
are  situated  at  the  base  of  the  lateral  margins  of  their  respective  lobes,  the  fourth  pair 
is  just  laterad  of  the  lobe  of  the  lateral  margin,  and  a  fifth  pair  is  situated  about  one- 
third  the  distance  from  this  lobe  to  the  penultimate  segment.  On  the  dorsal  side  the 
first  pair  is  also  obsolete ;  each  member  of  the  other  four  pairs  is  situated  in  little 
mesad  of  the  corresponding  spine  on  the  ventral  surface. 

Egg. — The  eggs  have  not  been  observed,  and  several  specimens  of  females  in  the 
collection  indicate  that  the  species  is  viviparous. 

Scale  of  male. — The  scale  of  the  male  is  oval  in  outline  with  the  protuberance  cov- 


ering  the  larval  skin  near  the  anterior  end.  This  scale  is  of  the  same  color  as  that  of 
the  female. 

Length,  a  little  more  than  lmm  (.04  inch)  ;  breadth  nearly  £mm  (.02  inch). 

Habitat.— Oil  the  bark  of  the  limbs  of  willow  oak  (Quercus  phellos)  at  Washington, 
D.  C. 

Described  from  forty  females  and  very  many  scales  of  each  sex. 

The  scale  of  this  species  resembles  very  much  that  of  Aspidiotus  tenehricosus  which 
occurs  on  red  maple.  That  scale,  however,  is  much  more  convex  than  this  one,  and 
its  diameter  is  only  one-half  as  -real. 

52.  A8terodia8pi8  quercicola  (Boucbe'). 
(Plate  xx vin,  Fig.  4.) 

The  females  of  this  genus  resemble  those  of  Asterolecanium  Targ.- 
Tozz.  Around  the  lateral  edge  and  upon  the  dorsum  are  spinnerets, 
which  secrete  a  fringe  which  persists  upon  the  sides  but  which  upon  the 
back  melts  down  and  forms  a  continuous  whole,  which  constitutes  in 
the  old  individuals  a  hard  and  consistent  shield,  slightly  iridescent, 
which  covers  the  whole  insect.  When  the  females  have  deposited  their 
eggs  the  body  shrinks  up  into  the  cephalic  end  of  the  covering  so  that 
there  appears  to  be  only  a  sac  inclosing  the  eggs,  which  one  would  nat- 
urally take  to  be  the  body  of  the  female.  The  male  scale  is  of  a  long 
oval,  with  a  weak  median  carina,  and  showing  under  the  microscope 
an  elegant  fringe  around  the  edge  similar  to  that  of  the  female  scale. 
(Comstock,  1880.) 

Adult  female. — Of  a  dark  brown  or  a  clear  yellow  color,  nearly  round  in  outline,  fur- 
nished at  the  anal  extremity  with  a  rounded  lobule  and  above  with  transverse 
strke,  which  represent  the  abdominal  segmentation.     Diameter  from  lmm  to  2mm. 

The  skin  is  covered  with  quite  a  large  number  of  tubular  spinnerets.  The  circum- 
ference of  the  body  is  ciliated  witbja  fine  radiating  fringe  secreted  by  openings  upon 
the  edge  of  the  body.  This  fringe  is  double,  formed  of  a  row  of  large  tubes  joined 
together  two  by  two,  secreted  by  double  openings,  and  another  row,  smaller,  secreted 
by  smaller  openings  placed  below  the  others. 

These  insects  are  very  closely  applied  to  the  bark,  forming  for  themselves,  in  fact 
slight  depressions,  so  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  lift  them.  Occasionally,  however, 
one  of  the  yellow  scales  (in  which  the  body  of  the  insect  has  shrunken  up  to  the  end) 
is  slightly  elevated  a$  one  side,  perhaps  to  allow  for  the  exit  of  the  young.  On  lift- 
ing one  of  the  scales  there  remain  upon  the  bark  floury  marks  corresponding  to  the 

Male—  The  male  scale  is  of  a  long  oval,  lninl  in  length  by  .6mm  in  width  ;  of  a  clear 
brilliant  yellow  with  a  weak  median  carina,  and  with  a  fringe  similar  to  that  of  the 

The  male  is  brownish  yellow  upon  the  head  and  thorax,  and  of  a  clearer  yellow 
upon  the  abdomen,  the  base  of  which  is  a  little  darker  ;  the  antenme  and  legs  almost 
black,  the  prothorax  and  mesothorax  darker  than  the  rest,  the  transverse  band  of  the 
metathorax  perfectly  black,  as  well  as  the  eyes.  The  wings  are  large  and  of  a  trans- 
parent whitish  gray.  The  abdomen  is  large  and  rounded;  the  stylet  is  dark  yellow 
and  .35°""  long. 

Habitat. — Upou  the  imported  oaks  on  the  Department  of  Agriculture  grounds  at 
Washington.  Only  the  females  were  found  and  the  male  description  is  taken  from 
Signoret.  The  species  is  not  a  common  one  in  Europe,  but  is  occasionally  quite  de- 
structive to  au  individual  tree.     (Comstock,  1880.) 



53.  Rhizococcus  quercus  Comst. 

(Plate  xxix,  Fig.  2.) 

The  following  account  of  this  scale  insect  is  by  Professor  Comstock 
(Agricultural  Report,  1880) : 

Female. — The  tubular  spiuueret9  are  more  numerous  thau  iu  R.  araucaria,  and  are 
not  confined  to  the  margin  of  the  body,  but  are  distributed  irregularly  over  the  dor- 
sum. They  vary  much  in  size  and  are  curved  and  acuminate  (Fig.  2a).  Tarsi  less 
than  one-half  as  long  as  tibiae.     Hair  on.  trochanter  nearly  as  long  as  femur. 

Male. — I  have  only  one  specimen,  which  is  much  shriveled;  this  resembles  R. 
araucarice,  except  that  the  ocelli  are  placed  farther  caudad  of  the  eyes  than  in  that 

Described  from  17  females,  1  male,  and  very  many  larvae,  all  mounted  in  balsam. 

Habitat. — On  scrub  oak  at  Rock  Ledge,  Fla. ;  upon  gall-berry,  oak,  and  grass  at 
Fort  George,  Fla.  (Dr.  R.  S.  Turner).  The  sacs  (Fig.  2)  of  this  species,  ofVhich  I 
have  very  many  specimens,  very  closely  resemble  those  of  R.  araucarice.  The  sacs  of 
the  female  are  all  large,  indicating  that  the  species  is  naked  till  full  grown. 

The  following  observations  are  from  Prof.  Riley's  MS.  notes: 

Specimens  of  this  coccid  were  received  March  29,  1882,  from  A.  Koebele,  Archer, 
Fla.,  infesting  both  the  trunk  and  twigs  of  live  oak.  Males  were  just  issuing  in  con- 
siderable numbers  when  received.  Their  color  is  reddish,  eyes  black,  antennae  and 
legs  paler  red,  thoracic  band  black.  Wings  faintly  yellowish,  somewhat  iridescent, 
with  the  veins  slightly  darker.  The  whole  insect  is  covered  with  a  delicate  whitish 
layer  of  a  mealy  excretion.  The  white  anal  filaments  are  louger  than  the  whole 
insect,  including  the  antennae.  The  young  females  are  dull  greenish  yellow.  The 
old  females  are  purplish,  and  the  eggs  pale  purplish.  Some  of  the  scales  were  in- 
fested by  Dakruma  coccidivora,  and  others  by  the  larvae  of  a  Scymnus  which  were 
feeding  on  the  eggs. 

The  following  observations,  which  relate  to  this  or  an  allied  species, 
are  also  copied  from  Prof.  Riley's  MS.  notes  : 

March  1,  1830,  received  from  Dr.  J.  H.  Mellichamp,  of  Bluffton,  S.  C,  some  twigs 
of  Quercus  myrtifolia  infested  by  a  coccid.  The  scales  are  white  and  have  a  silky  ap- 
pearance ;  they  are  mostly  oblong-oval  in  form,  but  sometimes  shorter.  .  The  eggs 
under  these  scales  are  regularly  oval,  whitish  pink  in  color,  opaque,  semi-transparent, 
without  visible  sculpture,  and  held  together  by  short,  interwoven  threads  that  some- 
what resemble  cottou  batting.  The  scales  are  found  in  clusters  at  the  base  of  the 
more  slender  twigs,  others  single,  while  a  few  stray  to  the  leaves.  One  cluster  of 
these  scales  was  infested  by  a  lepidopterous  larva  about  two-thirds  of  an  inch  in 
length  and  of  a  dirty  greenish-gray  color.  This  larva  kept  concealed  under  the 
scales  and  wherever  it  pierced  them  it  closed  up  the  holes  with  a  delicate  web.  It 
spun  for  itself  a  silken  cocoon,  March  3,  at  the  bottom  of  the  jar  and  issued  on  April 
19.     The  eggs  of  the  coccid  hatched  from  the  6th  to  20th  of  March.    All  died. 

54.   Chionaspis  quercus  Comstock. 

(Plate  xxvm,  Fig.  3.) 

This  scale  insect,  according  to  Professor  Comstock  (Ag.  Rep.  18.80),- 
lives  on  white  oak  (Quercus  lobata)  in  San  Fernando  Valley,  California. 


The  females  occur  on  the  bark  of  the  small  limbs;  the  males  upon  the 

8oale  of  female.— The  scale  of  the  female  is  long,  narrow  at  the  anterior  end,  much 
widened  posteriorly,  and  <juite  convex.  The  exnriae  are  brownish  yellow ;  the  secre- 
tion,of  which  the  remainder  of  the  scale  is  composed,  is  white;  but  all  of  my  speci- 
mens appear  dark  gray,  being  more  orless  covered  with  the  hairs  of  the  stem  to  which 
the  stale  was  attached,  and  with  dust.     Length  of  scale  2"""  (.08  inch). 

i\  inalt. — The  last  .segment  of  the  female  presents  the  following  characters: 

The  anterior  groupof  tpinntrttx  consists  of  about  ten  ;  the  anterior  laterals  of  sev- 
enteen to  twenty,  and  the  posterior  laterals  of  ten  to  eighteen. 

This  species  differs  from  all  Diaspime  known  to  me  in  having  a  single  undivided 
lobe  on  the  meson  ;  this  lobe  is  large  and  rounded  distally.  The  second  and  third 
lobes  of  each  side  are  very  small  and  are  laterad  of  small  incisions  in  the  margin  of 
the  segment.  In  each  case  there  is  a  reniform  thickening  of  the  body  wall  bound- 
ing each  incision  anteriorly.  There  is  also  asimilar  incision  with  a  rudimentary  lobe 
and  reniform  thickening  of  the  body  wall  about  midway  between  third  lobe  and 
penultimate  segment. 

The  plates  are  inconspicuous  and  spine-like;  there  are  usually  one  or  two  laterad 
of  second  ventral  spine,  two  or  three  between  third  and  fourth  lobe,  and  usually  five 
between  fourth  lobe  and  penultimate  segment.  The  penultimate  and  antepenultimate 
segments  bear  six  each;  those  on  the  latter  are  much  expanded  at  the  base. 

The  spines  are  long  and  conspicuous;  those  on  the  dorsal  surface  are  situated  as 
follows:  One  on  each  side  at  the  base  of  the  lateral  margin  of  median  lobe,  one 
laterad  of  each  of  the  second  and  third  lobes,  and  a  fourth  one  near  the  center  of  the 
anterior  group  of  plates.  Those  on  the  ventral  surface  are  as  follows  :  A  short  one 
nearly  ventrad  of  the  first  dorsal  spine,  a  large  one  laterad  of  each  of  the  second  and 
third  dorsal  spines,  and  a  fourth  one  a  little  cephalad  of  the  fourth  dorsal  spine. 

Scale  of  the  mole.— The  scale  of  the  male  is  snowy  white,  with  the  larval  skin  very 
light  yellow.  The  texture  of  the  scale  is  quite  loose  and  the  carinas  prominent; 
length,  1.25mm  (.05  inch). 

Male. — The  adult  male  is  as  yet  unknown;  many  pupae  were  collected  August  17, 
1860.  Specimens  of  these  mounted  in  basaku  are  bright  yellow  in  color,  with  eyes 
purplish  black.     Fully  grown  male  larvae  in  basalm  are  yellowish  brown. 

Described  from  four  scales  of  the  female,  four  females,  hundreds  of  scales  of  the 
male,  and  many  male  pupae  and  larvae. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Ashmead  has  kindly  allowed  me  to  reprint,  with  his  addi- 
tions and  corrections,  the  following: 


Division  I. — Psexid.e,  or  True  Gall-makers. 


55.  treatae.  Mayr.  Die  Gen.  d.  Gallenbw.  Cynip.  p.  16. 

AMPHIBOLIPS,  Keinhard. 

56.  spongifica,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil,  ii  p.  244. 

57.  cocciniae,  0.  8. 1.  c.  p.  24*2. 

58.  nubilipennis,  Harris  (Cynips)  Ins.  Inj.  Veg.  p.  434:  Fitch  Rep.  2nd,  No.  318. 

OAK    GALL-FLIES,  105 

AMPHIBOLIPS,  Beiuhard— Continued. 

59.  inanis,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  ante  i,  p.  61. 

60.  coelebs,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  61. 

61.  ilicifoliae,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  iii,  p.  682. 

62.  formosa,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  679. 

63.  sculpta,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  324. 

64.  phellos,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i,  p.  70. 

65.  cinerea,  Ashin.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  1881,  p.  xix. 

66.  racemaria,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  I.  c.  p.  xxvi. 

67.  citriformis,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  xxviii. 

68.  fuliginosa,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  1885,  p.  vii. 

69.  melanocera,  Ashm.  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  xii,  p.  299. 

70.  prunus,  Walsh  (Cynips)  Am.  Ent.  i,  p.  104. 

ANDRICUS,  Hartig. 

S.  G.  CALLIRHYTIS  Forster. 

71.  agrifoliae,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Can.  Ent.  vol.  xiii,  p. 53. 

72.  suttoni,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  54. 

73.  californicus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  51. 

74.  capsula,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  101. 

75.  conigerus,  O.  S.  ( Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil,  ii,  p.  251,  vol.  v,  p.  358. 

76.  seminator,  Harris  (Cynips)  Ins.  Inj.  Veg.  p.  548;  Fitch,  Rep.  2d  N.  Y.  State 

Agr.  Soc.  p.  315. 

77.  similis,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil,  iii,  p.  685. 

78.  futilis,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  pp.  63-64. 

79.  tumifica,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  v,  p.  683. 

80.  scitula,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  iii,  p.  683. 

81.  clavula,  Bass.  ( Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  685. 

82.  operator,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  ii,  pp.  256-257. 

83.  palustris,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i,  p.  63. 

84.  nigrae,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i,  p.  66. 

85.  tuber,  Fitch  (Cynips)  Rep.  2d  N.  Y.  State  Agr.  Soc.  p.  309;  Bassett.  Proc.  Ent. 

Soc.  Phil,  iii,  p.  685. 

86.  modesta,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i,  p.  66. 
87   notha,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  58. 

88.  podagrae,  Walsh  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  iii,  p.  492. 

89.  futilis,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i,  pp.  63-64. 

90.  papillatus,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  64. 

91.  quercifoliae,  Ashm.  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  xii,  p.  299. 

S.  G.  ANDRICUS,  Hartig. 

92.  tubicola,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  i,  p.  60. 

93.  singularis,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  326;  Walsh,  vol.  ii,  p.  485. 

94.  osten  sackenii,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  327. 

95.  ventricosus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  iii,  p.  681. 

96.  lana,  Fitch  (Cynips)  Fifth  Report,  No.  316. 

97.  confluens,  Harris  (Cynips)  Ins.  Inj.  Veg.  p.  433;  O.  S.  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  i,  p.  57, 

98.  petiolicola,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Proc.  ii,  p.  325. 

99.  fusiformis,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i,  p.  61. 

100.  flocci,  Walsh  (Cynips)  1.  c.  vol.  iv,  p.  482. 

101.  ignotus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Can.  Ent.  vol.  xiii,  p.  106. 

102.  cinerosus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  110. 

103.  utriculus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  78. 

104.  californicus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  51. 

105.  pomiformis,  Bass   (Cynij)s)  1.  c.  p.  74. 


ANDRICUS,  Hartig— Continued. 

S.  <i.  ANDB1CU6,  Hartig— Continued. 

LOG.  Pattoni,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i».  98. 

107.  coxii,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  0,  p.  112. 

108.  papula,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  1<>7. 

109.  batatoides,  Ashin.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  1881,  p.  xi. 
11<>.  foliatus,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  xiii. 

111.  lanigera,  Ashm.  (Cynip»)  1.  c.  p.  xiii. 

112.  catesbaei,  Ashin.  (Cynips)  1.  o.  p.  xv. 

113.  turnerii,  Ashin.  (Cynips)  1.  o.  p.  xvi. 

114.  rugosus,  Ashin.  (Cynips)  1.  o.  p.  xviii. 

11.").  medullae,  Ashui.  (Cynips)  I.e.  1885,  p.  viii. 

116.  geramarius,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  188f>,  p.  ix. 

117.  capsualus,  Aslnn.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  1885,  p.  ix. 

118.  virens,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  1881,  p.  x. 

119.  succinipes,  Ashm.  (Cynips)\.  c.  p.  xi. 

120.  clavigerus,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  xxvii. 

121.  omnivorus,  Aslnn.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  1885,  p.  vi. 

122.  gibbosus,  Prov.  Le  Nat.  Can.  vol.  xii,  p.  232. 

123.  quinqueseptum,  n.  sp. 

CYNIPS,  Linn. 

124.  strobilana,  O.  S.  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil,  ii,  p.  254;  Bassett,  I.e.  vi,  p.  690. 

125.  echinus,  O.  S.  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  1870,  p.  56. 


126.  pezomachoides,  O.  S.  (Teras)\.  c.  ii,  p.  250. 

127.  erinacei,  Walsh  (Teras)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  483. 

BIORHIZA,  Westw. 

128.  forticornis,  Walsh  (Cynips)  1.  c.  iii,  p.  190  [  (Teras)  O.  S.  1.  c.  iv,  p.  379. 

129.  hirta,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  iii,  p.  688;  (Teras)  O.  S.  1.  c.  iv,  p.  379. 

130.  fulvicollis,  Fitch  (Philonix)  Rep.  No.  291;  (Teras)  O.  S.  1.  c.  p.  379. 

131.  nigricollis,  Fitch  (Philonix)  1.  c.  No.  292  ;  (Teras)  O.  S.  1.  c.  iv,  p.  379. 

132.  nigra,  Fitch,  Fifth  Rep.  No.  290. 

133.  loxaulis,  Mayr,  mammilla,  Bass.  (Cynij)s)  Can.  Ent.  xiii,  p.  76. 


134.  globulus,  Fitch  (CaUaspidia)  Fifth  Rep.  No.  313;  (Cynips)  O.  S.  1.  c.  ante 

vol.  i,  p.  67 ;  Bassett,  1.  c.  vol.  ii,  p.  328. 

135.  centricola,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  vol.  i,  p.  58. 

136.  tenuicornis,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Can.  Ent.  vol.  xiii,  p.  92. 

137.  ficula,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  xii,  p.  75. 

138.  ficigera,  Ashm.  (Cnnips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  1885,  p.  vi. 

DRYOPHANTA,  Forster. 

139.  gemmula,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Can.  Ent.  vol.  xiii,  p.  104. 

140.  nubila,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  56. 

141.  bella,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  56. 

142.  polita,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  56. 

143.  aquaticae,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  1881,  p.  xvi. 

144.  laurifoliae,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  xvii. 

OAK    GALL-FLIES.  107 


14f>.  batata,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil,  iii,  p.  684;  Fitch,  Fifth  Rep.  No. 

146.  noxiosus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Can.  Ent.  xiii,  p.  108. 

147.  vesiculus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil,  iii,  p. 683. 

148.  irregularis,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  i,  p.  65. 

149.  verrucarum,  O.  S.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  62. 

150.  minutus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Can.  Ent.  vol.  xiii,  p.  96. 

151.  floccosus,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  111. 

152.  affinis,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  103. 

153.  piger,  Bass.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  105. 

154.  corrugis,  Bass.  (Cynijys)!.  c.  p.  109. 

155.  majalis,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.  iii,  p.  683. 

156.  rileyi,  Bass.  (Cynips)  Am.  Nat.  1881,  p.  149;  Am.  Ent.  vol.  iii,  p.  153  (figure 

of  gall). 

157.  crassitelus,  Prov.  Le  Nat.  Can.  vol.  xii,  p.  232. 

158.  minutissimus,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  1885,  p.  vii. 

159.  confusus,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  1881,  p.  xviii. 

160.  coniferus,  Ashm.  (Cynips)  1.  c.  p.  xxvii. 

The  following  species  were  characterized  from  the  galls  alone  and  their  ge- 
neric position  is  uncertain : 

161.  Cynips  pilulae,  Walsh  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.  vol.  iii,  p.  481. 

162.  Cynips  juglans,  Osten  Sacken  1.  c.  vol.  ii,  p.  256. 

163.  Cynips  cicatricula,  Bassett,  Can.  Ent.  vol.  xii,  p.  105. 

Division  II.— Inquilin\e,  or  Guest  Gall-flies.* 


sylvestris,  O.  S.  (Aulax)  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.  vol.  iii,  p.  37. 
pirata,  O.  S   (Aulax)  1.  c.  vol.  i,  p.  64. 
futilis,  O.  S.  (Aulax)  1.  c.  vol.  i,  p.  64. 
semipiceus,  Harris  (Cynips)  Ins.  Inj.  Veg.  p.  549. 

CEROPTRES,  Hartig. 

ficus,  Fitch  (Cynips)  Fifth  Rep.  No.  314. 

petiolicola,  O.  S.  (Amblynotus)  1.  c.  vol.  i,  p.  67 ;  vol.  v,  p.  380. 

Amblynotus  ensiger  Walsh,  1.  c.  vol.  ii,  p.  496. 
inermis,  Walsh  (Amblynotus)  1.  c.  vol.  ii,  p.  598;  (Ceroptres)  1.  c.  vol.  v,  p.  380. 
arbos,  Fitch  (Cynips)  Fifth  Rep.  No.  310. 
tuber,  Fitch  (Cynips)  1.  c.  No.  309. 
obtusilobse,  Ashm.  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  xii,  p.  301. 
citriformis,  Ashm.  1.  c.  p.  300. 
pomiformis,  Ashm.  1.  c.  p.  300. 
virentis,  Ashm.  1.  c.  p.  300. 
succinipedis,  Ashm.  1.  c.  p.  300. 
lanigerae,  Ashm.  1.  c.  p.  301. 
minutissimi,  Ashm.  1.  c.  p.  301. 
catesbaei,  Ashm.  1.  c.  301. 

SYNERGUS,  Hartig. 

lignicola,  O.  S.  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  vol.  ii,  p.  252;  rhoditiformis  Walsh  1.  c.  p.  499. 
oneratus,  Harris  (Cynips)  Ins.  Inj.  Veg.  3d  ed.  p.  548;  Fitch  Second  Rep.  No. 
313;  (Synergus)  Osten  Sacken  1.  c.  ante  vol.  v,  p.  380. 

*As  these  are  parasites  on  the  other  gall-flies,  they  are  not  numbered  as  injurious 
to  the  oak. 


SYNERGUS,  Bartig— Continued. 

laeviventris,  O.  S.  (8ynopkru$)  1.  0.  vol.  i,  p.  54;  Walsh  vol.  ii,  p.  494  ;  (Synergus) 

<>.  s.  I.  c.  vol.  v,  p.  380. 
campanula,  O.  8.  1.0.  vol.  v,  }>.  376. 
dimorphus,  O.  S.  I.  c.  vol.  v,  p.  3?(l. 
aloipes,  Walsh  (Synophrus)  1.  o.  vol.  ii,  p.  496. 
medax,  Walsh  1.  c.  vol.  iv,  p.  498. 
ficigerae,  Aahm.  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  BOO.  x ii,  p.  301. 
coniferae,  Ashin.  1.  c.  p.  301. 
batatoides,  Ashin.  1.  o.  p.  301. 
bicolor,  Aahm.  1.  c  i>.  302. 
medullae,  Ashin.  1.  c.  p.  302. 

SAPHOLYTUS,  Foreter. 

gemmariae,  Ashin.  1.  c.  p.  302. 

Division  III.— Figitinjs,  or  the  Parasites. 

ANACHARIS,  Dahnan. 

subcompressa,  Prov.  (Eucoila)  1.  c.  (ante)  vol.  xii,  p.  237. 

ONYCHIA,  Dalman. 

quinquelineata,    Say   ( DipJo iepsi s )  Le  Con te's  Ed.  Say's   Works  vol.  ii,  p.  716; 

(Figites)  Prov.  Le  Nat.  Can.  xii.  p.  237. 
armata,  Say  (Diplolepsis)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  716;  (Figites)  Prov.  1.  c.  xii,  238. 

EUCOILA.  Westwood. 

stigmata,  Say  (Figites)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  718. 

Kleiilotoma  maculipenuis,  Prov.  1.  c.  xii,  237. 
impatiens,  Say  (Diplolepsis)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  716. 

Kleidotoma  cupulifera,  Prov.  1.  c.  xii,  238. 
pedata,  Say  (Diplolepsis)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  717. 
mellipes,  Say  (Figites)  1.  c.  ii,  p.  718. 

Kleidotoma  minima,  Prov.  1.  c.  xii,  p.  238. 

KLEIDOTOMA,  Westwood. 

vagabunda,  Ashm.  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  xii,  p.  302. 
FIGITES,  Latreille. 

impatiens,  Say  1.  c.  ii,  p.  718. 

?  chinquapin,  Fitch  Fifth  Rep.  No.  320. 

-5JGILIPS,  Halliday. 

?  aciculatus,  Prov.  1.  c.  (ante)  vol.  xii,  p.  239. 

?  obtusilobae,  O.  S.  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.  vol.  i,  p.  68. 

IBALIA,  Latreille. 

ensiger,  Norton  1.  c.  vol.  i,  p.  200. 

anceps,  Say,  Le  Conte's  Ed.  Say's  Works,  vol.  i,  p.  218. 
maculipennis,  Hald.  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  vol.  iii,  p.  127. 
rufipes,  Cress.  Proc.  Ent.  Sec.  A.  N.  S.  1879,  p.  xvii. 
montana,  Cress.  1.  c.  1879,  p.  xvii. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Ashmead  has  published  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Ameri- 
can Entomological  Society  for  1886,  pp.  303-304,  the  following  list  of 
the  species  of  oak  on  which  the  North  American  Cynipid^:  are  found, 
with  a  list  of  the  described  species  (129  in  number)  inhabiting  each  kind 
of  oak.  Mr.  Ashmead  has  kindly  revised  and  added  to  the  list,  bring- 
ing it  down  to  1888. 



The  Oaks  (Cupulifera). 


(Quercus  agrifolia.) 
Andricus  pomiformis,  Bassett. 
Callirhytis  agrifolia,  B. 
Cynips  echinus,  O.  S. 


(Quercus  alba.) 
Acraspis  pezomachoides,0.  S. 

forticornis,  Walsh. 
Andricus  fusiformis,  O.  S. 
lana,  Fitch. 
ulriculus,  B. 
flocci,  W. 
Callirhytis  clavula,  B. 
tuber,  F. 
futilis,  O.  S. 
seminator,  Harris. 
•Cynips  juglans,  O.  S. 
cicatricula,  B. 
pisum,  F. 
Dryophanta  Carolina. 
Holcaspis  globulus,  F. 
Loxaulis  mammula,  B. 
Neuroterus  batatus,  B. 
majalis,  B. 
minutus,  B. 
vesiculus,  B. 


(Quercus  aquatica.) 
Dryophanta  aquatica,  Ashui. 
Andricus  turnerii,  A. 
Amphibolips  melanocera,  A. 
Callirhytis  aquatica?,  A. 


(Quercus  bicolor.) 
Andricus  ignotus,  B. 
Acraspis  lanw-globuli,  A. 

echini,  A. 

Callirhytis  capsulus,  B. 

Cynips  strobilana,  O.  S. 

Xeiwoterus  noxiosus,  B. 

fluccosus,  B. 


(Quercus  Catesban.) 
Andricus  catesbosi,  A. 
omnirorus,  A. 
capsualus,  A. 
infuscatus,  A. 
cry  pi  us,  A. 


(Quercus  cinerea.) 
Amphibolips  cinerea,  A. 
Andricus  omnivorus,  A. 

medulla,  A. 

gemmarius,  A. 

capsualus,  A. 

saltatus,  A. 

difficilis,  A. 

blaslophagus,  A. 
Dryophanta  cinerea,  A. 


(Quercus  coccinea.) 
Amphibolips  coccinea,  O.  S. 

nanus,  O.  S. 
Andricus  osten-sackenii,  B. 


Andricus  papillatus,  B. 
Callirhytis  seminator,  H. 
Holcaspis  rugosa,  B. 
Neuroterus  majalis,  B. 


(Quercus  laurifolia.) 
Amphibolips  racemaria,  A. 
cilriformis,  A. 
spinosa,  A. 
Andricus  rugosus,  A. 

clavigerus,  A. 
calycicola,  A. 
femoratus,  A. 
Callirhytis  calla,  A. 
Eumayria  floridana,  A. 
Holcaspis  fuliginosa,  A. 
Neuroterus  confusns,  A. 
coniferus,  A. 
longipennis,  A. 
laurifolia,  A. 


Holcaspis  jicula,  B. 


(Quercus  virens 
Andricus  foliatus,  A. 

lanigerus,  A. 

virens,  A. 
Belonocnema  treata  Mayr. 
Holcaspis  omnivora,  A. 

ficigera,  A. 
Neuroterus  minutissimus,  A. 



I  Qut  reus  nigra.) 

Callirhytis  nigra ,  ( ).  S. 

operator,  O.  S. 

podagra',  W. 


|  (Jm  reus  palustris.) 

Callirhytis  oomigera,  0.  S. 
palustritf  O.  S. 
notha,  O.  S. 


(Quercus  phellos.) 
Amphibolips phellos,  O.  S. 


(Quercus  casta  nea.) 
Xcuroterus  rileyi,  B. 


(Quercus  hindsii.) 
Andricus  californicus,  B. 


(Quercus  montana.) 
Andricus  petiolicola,  B. 
Biorhiza  fulvicollis,  F. 
hirta,  B. 


(Quercus  prinoides  f) 
Dryophanta  gem  mid  a,  B. 
Holcaspis  rugosa,  B. 
Xeuroterus  affinis,  B. 

corrugis,  B. 

RED    OAK. 

(Quercus  rubra.) 
Amphibolips  nubilipennis,  H. 
ccelebs,  O.  S. 
formosa,  B. 
sculpta,  B. 
Andricus  singularis,  B. 
confiuens,  B. 
papains.  B. 
Callirhytis  modesta,  O.  S. 

punctata,  B. 
Cynipspiluhv,  Jr. 

I'd-!     MAK. 

"-//  roiM  ohtusiloba.) 
Andricus  tubioola,  O.  S. 

pattoui,  B. 

omnivorous.  A. 

Jloridunus  Ashm. 

topiarius,  A. 

strop  it.",  A. 

ciunamona  us,  A. 
Aeraspis  VOCCinti,  A. 
Iliorliiza  mi  Ilea,  A. 

Callimgtis  parvifolia,  A. 

Dryophanta  polita.  B. 
Holca8j>is  eentricola,  O.  S. 

Jicula.  B. 
Loxaulis  ma  in  in  a  I  a.  I',. 
Xeuro  terns  verruca  rum,  O.  S. 

irregularis,  O.  S. 

pattoni,  B. 


(  (Jutrcus  tinctoria.) 
Amphibolips  spongifca,  O.  S. 
Andricus papul us,  B. 
Callirhytis  tumifica,  O.  S. 

podagra3,  \Y. 

scitula,  B. 
Xeuroterus  piger,  B. 

(Quercus  ilicifolia.) 
Amphibolips  ilicifolia,  B. 
Andricus  osten-sackenii,  B. 
ventricosus,  B. 
eoniger us,  O.  S. 
Callirhytis  similis,  B. 

palustri8,  O.  S. 


Andricus  cinerosus,  B. 

coxjj,  B. 
Callirhytis  suttonii,  B. 
Dryophanta  nubila,  B. 
ftetfa,  B. 
tcxana.  A. 
Holcaspis  tenuicornis,  B. 


The  following  species  of  Cynipidae  are  not  arranged  systematically 
or  by  their  modern  genera,  but  so  far  as  practicable  by  the  species  of 
oak  on  which  they  live. 

The  oak-fig  gall-fly. 

Cynips  quercus-ficus  Fitch. 

Order  Hymenoptera;  family  Cynipid^e. 

Surrounding  the  twigs  of  white  oaks  in  a  dense  cluster,  resembling  preserved  figs 
packed  in  boxes,  each  molded  to  the  shape  of  those  pressing  against  its  sides,  hollow 
bladder-like  galls  of  the  pale  dull  yellow  color  of  a  faded  oak  leaf,  each  gall  produc- 
ing a  small  black  fly  with  the  lower  half  of  its  head,  its  antennae,  and  legs  pale  dull 
yellow,  its  hind  shanks  dusky,  and  its  abdomen  beneath  reddish-brown,  its  antennas 
with  fifteen  and  in  the  female  thirteen  joints.  Length  .06,  females  .10,  and  to  the 
end  of  their  wings  .14.     (Fitch.) 

Galls  which  apparently  belong  to  the  above  species  were  received 
June  10,  1882,  from  Miss  Kath.  Parsons,  South  Lancashire,  Mass.,  who 
found  them  on  the  oak  at  Breakheart  Hill,  Saugus,  Mass.,  and  several 
of  the  gall-flies  were  bred  from  them  between  July  1  and  July  13. 

Apparently  the  same  kind  of  galls  were  found  July  20,  1883,  in  Vir- 
ginia on  Q.  alba.  From  these  issued,  from  August  16,  1883,  to  April 
21,  1884,  numerous  parasites,  belonging  to  the  genera  Torymus,  Ormy- 
rus,  Decatoma,  and  a  Oecidomyid. 

The  Cynips,  which  are  wingless,  differ  from  those  from  Miss  Parsons 
in  that  they  were  winged.  They  commenced  to  issue  January  30, 18S4, 
and  kept  on  issuing  through  the  whole  of  February. 

From  a  few  galls,  received  March  19,  1883,  two  specimens,  also  wing- 
less, issued  February  9,  1884,  and  large  numbers  of  wingless  insects 
issued  from  a  lot  of  galls  collected  by  Mr.  Koebele  at  Meredith  Village, 
N.  EL,  in  September,  1883,  in  the  same  month.  Among  these  last  was 
also  one  winged  specimen  of  probably  a  differeut  species.  (Riley's  un- 
published notes.) 

The  oak-potato  gall-fly. 

Cynips  quercus-batatus  Fitch. 
Order  Hymenoptera;  family  Cynipid,e. 

A  large,  hard,  uneven  swelling,  three-fourths  of  an  inch  thick  and  twice  or  thrice 
as  loug,  resembling  a  potato  iu  its  shape,  growing  on  white-oak  twigs  more  distant 
from  their  ends  than  the  oak-tumor;  producing  a  small  black  gall-fly  with  the  basal 
joints  of  its  antennae  and  its  legs  dull  pale  yellow,  its  thighs  and  hind  shanks  black, 
and  its  middle  shanks  often  dusky,  the  autennae  in  the  female  with  thirteen  joints, 
and  the  length  of  this  sex  .09.     (Fitch.) 

The  oak-bullet  gall-fly. 

Callaspidia  quercus- globulus  Fitch  aud  Cynips  oneratus  Harris. 

Order  Hymenoptera;  family  Cynipid.e. 

Smooth,  globular  galls  the  size  of  a  bullet,  growing  singly,  or  two,  three,  or  mere  in 
a  cluster,  upon  white-oak  twigs,  internally  of  a  corky  texture,  each  containing  in  its 
center  a  single  worm,  lying  in  an  oval  whitish  shell  resembling  a  little  egg  .15  in 


length;  producing  sometimes  ■  black  gall-fly  with  tawny-red  legs  and  the  second 
reinlef  of  its  wings  elbowed  or  angularly  ben  I  backwards,  it>  length  .15;  sometimes 
■  smaller  tly  |  C.  oneratu*)  of  a  clear  pale  yellow  color,  almost  white,  with  a  broad 
black  stripe  the  whole  length  of  its  back,  which  color  in  the  males  is  more  extended, 
reaching  down  upon  the  sides,  its  length  .12.     (Fitch.) 

These  species  arc  parasitized  by  two  chalcid  flies,  Maeroglenes  querci- 
globtUi  Pitch  and  Pteromalu*  onerati  Fitch. 


Cynipa  *t  initiator  Harris. 

Order  Hy.menupteka:   family  Cyxipid.e. 

A  round  mass  resembling  wool,  from  the  size  of  a  walnut  to  that  of  a  goose  egg, 
growing  on  the  side  of  or  surrounding  white-oak  twigs  in  June,  of  a  pure  white  color, 
or  tinged  or  speckled  with  »*ose-red,  and  in  autumn  the  color  of  sponge;  producing 
small  shining  black  gall-flies  with  bright  tawny  yellow  Legs  and  antenna-,  and  in  the 
female  the  head  and  thorax  cinuamou-red;  their  antennae  of  fifteen  aud  fourteen 
joints;  length  .08,  aud  females  .11  inch.     (Fitch.) 

The  oak-tumok  gall-fly. 

Cynips  guercus-tuber  Fitch. 

Order  Hymenoptera;  Family  Cyxipid.e. 

On  or  uear  the  euds  of  the  small  limbs  and  twigs  of  the  white  oak,  hard  irregular 
swellings  thrice  as  thick  as  the  twig  below  them,  the  bark  upon  them  of  a  brighter 
cherry -red  color  than  elsewhere,  and  their  substance  internally  corky  and  woody; 
produced  by  the  stiugs  of  a  small  black  gall-fly,  with  dull  pale  yellow  antenme,  mouth, 
and  legs,  its  hind  shanks  and  its  antenme  towards  their  tips  being  dusky,  its  length 
.08  and  to  the  tips  of  its  wings  .13.     (Fitch.) 

The  oak-tree  gall  fly. 

Cynips  qnercus-arhos  Fitch. 

Order  Hymenoptera:  family  Cyxipid.e. 

Swellings  similar  to  those  above  described,  growing  on  the  tips  of  the  limbs  of  aged 
and  large  white-oak  trees  ;  producing  a  small  black  gall-fly  having  all  its  legs  and 
antennae  of  a  bright  pale  yellow  color,  and  one  more  joint  in  the  latter  organs  than 
in  the  preceding  species  iu  the  males,  which  sex  is  .06  in  length,  aud  to  the  tips  of 
its  wings  .JO.     (Fitch.) 

The  followiug  observations  are  from  Professor  Riley's  unpublished 

('ij)iips  quercua-seminator  Harris. 

Galls  of  this  species  were  found  on  twigs  of  Q.  alba  in  May  and  June  in  Virginia, 
aud  the  flies  and  several  species  of  Chalcidians  issued  from  them. 

The  Cynipids  are  the  true  sexes,  and  were  issuing  June  13,  and  the  parasites,  among 
which  was  also  a  Cecidomyid,  issuing  from  June  till  November  12. 

Many  of  the  galls  were  placed  with  a  small  tree  of  Q.  alba  and  covered  withgauze, 
for  observation,  but  notwithstanding  the  great  number  of  flies,  not  a  single  gall  was 
produced  on  leaves  or  twigs. 

OAK    GALL-FLIES.  113 

C.  q.-batatua  Bassett. 

Found  in  Virginia  June  13,  1883,  numerous  galls  on  a  small  shrub  of  Q.  alba,  which 
apparently  belong  to  the  above  species.  On  some  of  the  large  branches  all  the  young 
twigs  were  deformed.  Most  of  the  Cynipids  seem  to  have  issued,  as  only  a  single 
specimen  was  bred  June  14. 

Betweeu  June  14  and  July  3  four  different  species  of  Chalcidians  were  bred. 

Cynips  q.-strobilana  Osten  Sacken. 

Dr.  Engelmann  found  this  gall  on  Q.  bicolor  February  10,  1872,  containing  at  this 
date  fully  formed  larvae. 

The  same  gall  on  Q.  alba  was  also  received  from  G.  W.  Letterraann,  Allenton,  Mo., 
November  10,  lb73.  Nothing  was  bred  from  any  of  them,  but  when  opened  in  1881 
they  were  found  to  contain  the  perfect  fly  and  pupae. 

C.  q.-pezomachoides  Osten  Sacken. 
On  Q.  alba.    Received  November  10,  1873,  from  G.  W.  Lettermann,  Allenton,  Mo. 

Cynips  quercus-clavula  Bassett. 

Collected  in  the  middle  of  April,  1870,  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  a  lot  of  these  galls  on  Q.  alba. 
Received  also  some  of  the  same  galls  from  E.  Michener,  New  Garden,  Pa.  At  this  date 
the  galls  are  almost  all  empty;  some  of  them  contain,  however,  different  parasites, 
among  which  are  Antigaster  and  a  trogositidous  beetle  and  also  the  dead  Cynips. 

Galls  collected  in  July  contain  the  larva  of  parasites.  The  gall-flies  are  issuing  by 
the  20th  of  July. 

Cynips  q.-glandulus  Riley. 

Gall  formed  on  cups  of  acorns  on  Q.  bicolor,  in  Chester  County,  Pa.,  producing  a 
very  curious  swelling  of  the  cupule  terminating  in  a  bunch  of  curly  woolly  fibers, 
the  swelling  being  hard  and  woody  like  the  acorn  and  containing  in  a  cavity  a  ker- 

It  is  a  gall  something  after  the  fashion  of  C.  q.-frondosa,  and  the  kernel  has  the 
same  crinkled  appearance,  but  is  more  elongate.  It  is  greenish  with  a  distinct  bright 
yellowish-brown  crown  with  a  point  sunken  in  the  middle.  In  the  more  perfect 
galls  the  acorn  is  entirely  absorbed. 

Cynips  q.-duricaria  Bass. 

Forming  small  woolly  galls  on  the  laurel-leaved  oak  in  Missouri.  Galls  on  both 
upper  and  under  surface  on  the  midrib. 

Cynips  q.-duricaria  ? 

Received  from  G.  W.  Lettermann,  Allenton,  Mo.,  November  10,  1873,  galls  on  Q. 
alba  which  probably  belong  to  the  above  species.     Flies  are  just  issuing  at  this  date. 

C.  q.-globulus  Fitch. 

Found  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  on  burr  oak  and  swamp  oak.  PupaB  are  found  in  Septem- 
ber, the  flies  issuing  in  November. 

Cynips  quercus-palustris  O.  S. 

May  19,  1869.     A  globular  gall,  .45  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  on  the  leaves  of  the  pin 
oak.     Usually  situated  on  the  midrib  and  penetrating  the  leaf  both  above  and  be- 
low; sometimes  on  a  side  vein  ;  tolerably  smooth  ;  partly  translucent;  containing  a 
5  ENT 8 


•ma]]  kernel,  usually  of  an  oval  form  and  08  of  an  inch  long;  this  kernel  perfectly 
free  and  containing  the  larva.  Color  of  outer  gall  pale-green,  with  usually  a  pale 
rosy  check,  and  having  pale  yellowish  blotches.  Color  of  inner  gall  fulvous.  The 
galls  had  completed  their  growth,  though  the  leaves  had  not  been  out  more  than  a 
week.     Flavor  subacid.     Flies  issued  during  middle  of  May. 

Cynipr(Xeuroteru8)  rileyii  Bassett. 

Received  April  25,  1880,  from  John  A.  Warder,  North  Bend,  Ohio,  some  twigs  of 
Querent  castanea  thickly  covered  with  the  galls  of  this  insect.  Others  were  received 
March  5,  1883,  from  J.  G.  Barlow,  Cadet,  Mo.  Cynipids  issue  during  April  and  early 
May.     They  are  preyed  upon  by  a  species  of  Chalcid. 

C.  q. -sculp  ta  Bass. 

A  translucent  gall  on  Q.  imbricarid.     This  is  Bassett's  C.  q.  8culpta,  which  hi 
from  Q.  rubra.     The  fly  has  cloudy  wings  and  is  probably  nubilipennis  Harr.     Harris 
probably  described  the  gall,  but  not  correctly. 

Cynips  q.-cornigera  O.  S. 

Found  on  Q.  t'm&rican'a,  St.  Louis,  Mo.  Galls  of  the  same  species  were  also  obtained 
at  Kidgewood,  N.  J.,  on  Q.  palustris,  and  the  Hies  were  issuing  for  two  weeks  after 
September  8,  1871.      They  are  the  true  sexes  and  were  very  active. 

Cynips  q.pedunculata. 

Received  May  22,  1883,  from  J.  G  Barlow,  Cadet,  Mo.,  one  of  these  galls,  found 
growing  on  the  margin  of  Q.  obtusiloba.  Several  were  also  found  May  23  at  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  on  leaves  of  Q.  prinos ;  a  large  number  of  them  were,  however,  de- 
stroyed by  birds  which  had  eaten  them,  leaving  only  the  petiole. 

The  flies  were  issuing  from  May  26  to  June  f>.  Some  were  confined  to  some  leaves 
and  twigs  on  the  same  oak,  covered  with  gauze,  but  no  galls  were  formed. 

On  the  6th  of  May,  1884,  the  galls  were  found  to  be  already  fully  formed. 

C.  q.-vcntrico8a  Bass.  ? 

In  May,  1870,  it  was  observed  that  a  week  before  the  8th  of  that  month  there  was 
no  trace  yet  of  any  galls,  while  on  the  8th  they  were  almost  fully  grown.  Large 
clusters  of  these  galls  up  to  fourteen  and  more  aggregate  around  a  twig,  each  ftp- 
pressed  to  one  another  and  terminating  in  a  prominent  nipple.  Color,  green  with  a 
roseate  tint  and  thickly  covered  with  bluish-white  hairy  pubescence.  Inside  dense 
and  spongy,  becoming  harder  towards  the  cell.  Flavor  pleasantly  subacid  or  rather 
insipid.     Larval  cell  at  base  close  to  twig.     Larva  quite  small  at  this  date. 

By  July  31  a  very  different  growth  has  formed  around  the  twigs  of  the  same  trees, 
caused  by  several  spherical  growths  around  the  axis,  which,  as  they  enlarge,  become 
closely  coutlueut. 

Their  outside  is  green  aud  roughened  with  a  number  of  fulvous  blotches,  very 
much  like  the  green  bark.  Flesh  tough,  yellowish,  insipid  and  leathery,  becoming 
whiter  and  more  leathery  towards  the  twig.  It  does  not  look  like  a  fungus,  and  yet 
has  no  trace  of  insects,  though  in  the  more  woody  center  there  are  pellucid  spots 
which  would  indicate  it  to  be  a  gall. 

Similar  galls  were  found  by  Mr.  Bassett  in  October,  1871,  on  red  oak  and  on  Q.  ilici- 

It  was  found  also  on  Q.  imbricaria.  May  20,  1873.  at  St.  Louis.  Mo. 

Some  old  galls  which  were  opened  contained  the  dead  gall-flies  and  three  different 

OAK    GALL-FLIES.  115 

Cynips  suttonii  Bass. 

Received  September  25,  1882,  from  William  Sutton,  San  Francisco,  three  very  large 
galls  belonging  to  above  species,  found  on  twigs  of  Q.  lobata.  Several  of  the  gall- 
flies issued  November  8,  1882,  and  another  one  January  2,  1883.  Chalcidians  issued 
from  January  2  to  13,  1883. 

Cynips  q.-floccicola  Riley. 
Producing  a  fuzzy  gall  on  underside  of  leaves  of  swamp  oak. 

C.  q.-decidna  Bass. 

Received  November  10,  1873,  from  G.  W.  Lettermann,  Allenton,  Mo.,  apparently 
the  same  or  a  very  similar  gall  to  C.  q.flocci,  on  twig  of  white  oak.  The  insects  were, 
however,  in  the  larva  state  July  8,  1874.     Nothing  was  bred. 

A  lot  of  galls,  which  also  resemble  those  of  flocci,  were  received  February  14,  1879, 
from  E.  A.  Schwarz,  Jackson,  Miss.,  but  a  fly  which  had  issued  on  the  way  appears 
to  be  identical  with  C.  q.  decidua.     Some  of  the  galls  contained  Chalcidian  larvae. 

C.  q.-flocci  W. 

Found  galls  on  white  oak  September  27,  1870,  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.     Found  apparently 
the  same  galls  also  on  black  oak,  burr  oak  and  red  oak. 
C.  lance  Fitch  is  perhaps  synonymous. 
Bassett  has  another  gall  with  totally  different  kernel. 
I  have  insects  and  the  gall  of  his  flocci. 
Flies  from  galls  on  post  oak  issued  January  20,  1^72. 

Cynips  q.-prunus  Walsh. 

One  gall  of  the  above  species  was  received  June  11,  1882,  from  D.  S.  Sheldon, 
Griswold  College,  Davenport,  Iowa,  and  some  dry  galls  from  J.  G.  Barlow,  Cadet, 
Mo.,  March  18,  1883. 

Cynips  q.-tubicola  O.  S. 

Galls  of  this  insect  were  received  December  31,  1878,  from  W.  B.  Flippier,  of  Tell- 
ville,  Ark.  They  were  found  on  the  leaves  of  post  oak.  Others  galls  were  also 
received  from  Dr.  J.  W.  Sparkman,  Plantersville,  S.  C.  The  flies  issued  during  the 
mouths  of  January  and  February,  1879.  There  also  issued  quite  a  number  of  a 
greenish-black  chalcid  fly.  Prof.  W.  S.  Barnard  also  collected  the  gall  at  Atlanta, 
Ga.,  in  November,  1880,  from  which  the  cynipids  and  a  chalcid  which  is  very  likely 
identical  with  those  referred  to  above,  issued  during  January  and  February,  1881. 

Cynips  cadncus  W.  (?) 

Round  galls  in  clusters  on  the  midrib  on  underside  of  leaf  of  Quercus  undulafa,  of 
the  size  of  a  very  small  pea.  Collected  October  10,  1874,  and  examined  December  16, 
1876,  when  one  cynipid  was  found.  This  gall  looks  much  like  159*.  October  1,  1880, 
received  the  same  gall  from  J.  Schenck,  of  Mt.  Carmel,  Ills.,  found  on  Q.  muhlembergii. 
The  larvte  were  only  just  hatching;  gall  tasteless,  a  pale  circle  around  the  larva. 
It  is  evidently  caducus  W. 

Cynips  q.-spongifica  O.  S. 

May  19,  1870.     Galls  are  found  to  contain  pupae  at  this  date.     Flies  issued  May  31. 


160.  Mamestra  detracta  Walk. 

The  following  observations  have  been  recorded  by  Professor  Riley:* 

Larva*  of  this  species  were  noticed,  April  90,  1884,  n<-ar  Rock  Creek,  Washington, 
D.  C,  feeding  at  night  on  the  huds  of  oak,  and  others  were  seen  resting  on  the  twigs 
of  different  kinds  of  trees  and  shrubs. 

They  transformed  to  papa  bj  the  2d  of  May,  and  the  moths  commenced  issuing  by 
the  83d  of  the  same  month.  The  pupa  is  quite  aetive,  and  if  placed  ou  a  table  is 
ab]»«  to  crawl  readily,  on  account  of  the  spines  along  its  sides. 

Moth.— Dark  gray.     Hind  wings  black.     Expanse  of  wings,  l."20  inches. 

161.  Agrotis  alternata  Grt. 

The  larv;e  of  the  above  species  were  observed,  during  April,  1884,  to  climb  all 
kinds  of  trees  and  shrubs  and  to  feed  on  the  buds,  especially  those  of  the  oak  and 
hickory.  They  seemed  to  prefer,  however,  the  hickory,  as  on  some  of  the  smaller 
bushes  almost  every  bud  had  a  hole,  sometimes  even  two  or  three,  and  the  worms 
may  often  be  observed  when  feeding  to  have  penetrated  so  far  that  only  about  one- 
half  of  their  body  projects  from  the  bud.  On  one  small  oak  shrub  six  of  these  larva) 
were  found  at  work.  Numbers  of  these  larvae  were  also  noticed  at  night  to  feed  on 
the  liquid  which  was  placed  on  the  trunk  of  oak  trees  for  the  purpose  of  capturing 
moths.  They  would  feed  in  confinement  on  almost  any  kind  of  leaves  from  trees  and 
shrubs  and  also  on  grass.  By  the  1st  of  May  numbers  of  them  were  noticed  every 
evening,  as  soon  as  it  became  dark,  to  ascend  the  trunks  of  the  trees  and  shrubs. 

Some  begin  at  this  date  to  enter  the  ground  for  transformation,  and  the  moths  issue 
from  the  6th  to  about  the  end  of  June.     (Riley.) 

Moth. — Color  reddish  brown,  sprinkled  with  dark  brown  atoms.  Lines  obliterated. 
No  white  along  the  costa.  Subterminal  space  darker  than  the  rest.  The  wings 
tinged  with  grayish ;  no  ante-apical  spot.     Expanse  of  wings,  1.50 inches.     (French.) 

162.  Scopelo8oma  sidus  Guen. 

This  (writes  Prof.  Riley)  is  one  of  the  earliest  noctuids  of  the  season. 
Specimens  which  were  captured  March  24,  1884,  at  sugar,  commenced 
to  deposit  their  eggs  the  following  day,  the  larvae  hatching  therefrom 
in  about  fifteen  days.  Not  fiuding  any  leaves  they  commenced  at  once 
to  attack  the  leaf-buds  of  oak,  wild  cherry,  apple,  peach,  and  perhaps 
other  trees  and  shrubs,  into  which  they  bore. 

The  larvae  commence  entering  the  ground  by  about  the  10th  of  May, 
and  the  moths  emerge  from  the  last  of  September  to  the  early  part  of 
November,  many,  however,  remaining  as  pupae  till  the  next  spring. 

Larvae  of  the  species  were  found  in  May  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  feeding 
on  blackberry,  the  moth  issuing  in  October. 

Eggs. — Globular,  with  numerous  fine  ridges,  of  a  yellowish-white,  which  gradually 
changes  into  a  light  brownish  color. 

The  newly  hatched  larva  are  whitish  with  black  head  and  dusky  thoracic  plate  and 
legs.  The  first  molt  takes  place  about  seven  days  after  hatching,  and  with  it 
there  is  quite  a  change  in  coloration.  The  thoracic  segments,  a  broad  lateral  stripe, 
and  the  anal  segment  are  reddish.  The  warts  are  prominent,  black,  bearing  a  short, 
fine  hair. 

*  For  this  habit  of  low-plant  feeders  eating  the  buds  of  trees  in  early  spring,  see 
Weismann's  Studies  in  the  Theory  of  Descent,  i,  *271. 


After  four  to  six  days  the  second  skin  is  cast  and  the  color  has  become  still  darker. 
Head  honey  yellow.  Cervical  shield  polished  black.  Thoracic  and  first  abdoinina1 
segment  brownish.  Dorsal  space  light  green  or  whitish,  with  the  medial  line  and 
subdorsal  stripe  white,  a  brown  line  above  stigmata  and  broad  white  lateral  line. 
Venter  light  green.     Piliferous  warts  white,  furnished  with  a  fine,  short,  pale  hair. 

Four  or  five  days  later  the  fourth  and  fifth  molts  take  place.  (Riley's  unpublished 


163.  The  forest  tent- caterpillar. 

Clisiocampa  disstria  Hubner;  {Clisiocampa  sylvatica  Harris). 

Order  Lepidoptera;  family  BOMBYCID.E. 

A  caterpillar  like  the  apple-tree  tent-caterpillar,  but  differing  from  it  in  having  a 
row  of  oval  white  spots  instead  of  a  white  stripe  along  its  back ;  the  colony  spinning 
a  cobweb-like  nest  against  the  side  of  the  tree;  spinning  a  whitish  cocoon,  the  moth 
appearing  early  in  July. 

The  nests  of  this  caterpillar,  unlike  the  prominent  tents  of  C.  americana, 
so  abundant  in  wild-cherry  trees  and  neglected  orchards,  are  seldom 
seen,  as  they  are  of  so  slight  a  texture  and  are  so  much  less  conspicuous 
objects  than  the  tent-like  whitish  nests  of  C.  americana  ;  but  the  cater- 
pillars are  not  infrequently  met  with.  After  spinning,  about  the  middle 
of  June  in  the  Northern  States,  a  dense,  oblong  cocoon,  the  caterpillar 
lies  in  it  about  twenty  days,  the  moth  appearing  the  early  part  of  July, 
It  occurs  in  the  Atlantic  and  Southern  States.  Fitch  states  that  it  also 
occurs  on  the  apple  and  cherry,  the  walnut,  and  other  trees.  Dr.  Kiley 
informs  me  that  this  is  as  destructive  as  any  caterpillar  to  the  foliage  of 
the  oak  in  the  Southern  States,  being  far  more  injurious  than  stated  by 
Fitch,  who  quotes  with  disapproval  Abbot's  statement  (Insects  of  Geor, 
gia,  p.  117)  that  they  are  "  sometimes  so  plentiful  in  Virginia  as  to  strip 
the  oak  trees  bare.'7 

Boisduval  states  that  this  species  occurs  rarely  in  California,  but  Mr. 
Stretch  states  that  "  the  occurrence  of  this  species  in  California,  or  even 
on  the  Pacific  coast  of  North  America,  is  unknown"  to  him.  (Papilio,!, 

Mr.  James  Fletcher*  reports  that  this  tent-caterpillar  was  very 
injurious  in  1884  in  parts  of  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick,  "entirely 
defoliating  large  tracts  of  hard-wood  bush." 

"  It  feeds  on  leaves  of  different  kinds  of  trees,  such  as  the  different 
kinds  of  oak,  but  seems  to  do  best  on  the  black  oak  (Quercus  tinctoria) 
and  laurel  oak  (Q.  imbricaria),  though  it  will  feed  also  on  post  oak  (Q. 
obtusiloba)  and  other  species.  Found  also  feeding  on  hickory,  locust, 
plum,  cherry,  apple,  and  peach."     (Kiley's  unpublished  notes.) 

The  caterpillar. — Pale  blue,  sprinkled  over  with  black  points  and  dots.  Along  the 
middle  of  the  back  is  a  row  of  ten  or  eleven  oval  or  diamond-shaped  white  spots ;  be- 
hind each  of  these  spots  is  a  much  smaller  white  spot,  occupying  the  middle  of  each 

*  Report  of  the  Entomologist,  1885.     Ottawa. 


Fig.  37. -Forest  tent-caterpillar;  6,  female  moth  ;  c,  d,  eggs 
of  the  forest  tout-caterpillar.     (After  Riley.) 

segment     On  the  hinder  p«rt  of  enofa  wing  are  three  crinkled  and  more  or  less  pale, 
orange-yellow  lines,  which  are  edged  with  black.     On  ea.h  tide  also  is  a  continuous 

andsonie  what  broader  stripe  of 
the  same  yellow  color,  similarly 
edged  on  each  side  with  black. 
Lower  down  on  each  side  of  the 
body  is  a  paler  yellow  or  cream- 
colored  stripe,  the  edges  of  which 
are  more  jagged  and  irregular 
than  those  of  the  one  above  it. 
Length  1.50  inches.    (Fitch.) 

The  male  moth  usually  measures 
1.20  across  its  spread  wings.  Its 
thorax  is  densely  coated  with  soft 
hairs  of  a  nankin-yellow  color. 
Its  abdomen  is  covered  with 
shorter  hairs,  which  are  light  um- 
ber or  cinnamon  brown  on  the 
back  and  tip  and  paler  or  nankin- 
yellow  on  the  sides.  Theantenine 
are  gray,  freckled  with  brown 
scales,  and  their  branches  are  very 
dark  brown.  The  face  is  brown  with  the  tips  of  the  feelers  pale  gray.  The  fore 
■wings  are  gray,  varied  more  or  less  with  nankin  yellow,  and  they  are  divided  into 
three  nearly  equal  portions  by  two  straight,  dark-brown  lines,  which  cross  them 
obliquely,  parallel  with  each  other  and  with  the  hind  margin.  The  space  between 
these  lines  is  usually  brownish  and  darker  than  the  rest  of  the  wing,  being  quite  often 
of  the  same  dark-brown  color  as  the  lines,  whereby  they  become  wholly  lost.  Some- 
times the  hind  stripe  is  perceptibly  margined  on  its  hind  side  by  a  pale-yellowish  line. 
The  fringe  is  of  the  same  dark-brown  color  with  the  oblique  lines,  with  two  whitish 
alternations  toward  its  outer  end.  But  sometimes  it  is  of  the  same  color  with  the 
wings  and  edged  along  its  tips  with  whitish.  The  hind  wings  are  of  a  uniform  pale 
umber  or  cinnamon  brown,  sometimes  broadly  grayish  on  the  outer  margin,  and  across 
their  middle  a  faint  darker  brown  band  is  usually  perceptible,  its  edges  on  each  side 
indefinite.  The  fringe  is  of  the  same  color  with  the  wings  or  slightly  darker  and  is 
tipped  with  whitish.  The  under  side  is  paler  umber  brown,  the  hind  wings  often  gray, 
and  both  pairs  are  sometimes  crossed  by  a  narrow  dark-brown  baud,  which  on  the 
hind  wings  are  curved  outside  of  the  middle.  All  back  of  this  band  on  both  wings 
is  often  paler,  aud  more  so  near  the  baud. 

The  female  is  1.75  in  width,  and,  in  addition  to  the  shortness  of  the  branches  of  her 
antennae,  differs  from  the  male  in  her  fore  wings,  which  are  proportionally  narrower 
and  longer,  with  their  hind  margin  cut  off  more  obliquely  and  slightly  wavy  along  its 
edge.  Hence,  also,  the  dark-brown  lines  cross  the  wings  more  obliquely,  the  hind  one 
in  particular  forming  a  much  more  acute  augle  with  the  outer  margin.  And  all  the 
wing  back  of  this  line  is  sometimes  paler  or  of  a  brownish-ashy  color.  And  the  fringe 
of  these  wings  has  not  the  two  whitish  alternations  which  are  often  so  conspicuous 
in  the  male.  The  head  aud  forepart  of  the  thorax  is  cinnamon  brown.  The  abdomen 
is  black,  clothed  with  brown  hairs,  though  very  thinly  so  on  the  anterior  part  of  each 
segment,  where  these  hairs  are  intermingled  with  silvery  gray  scales.     (Fitch.)* 

*Tbe  following  references  are  copied  from  Mrs.  A.  K.  Dimmock's  Insects  of  Betula, 
in  Psyche,  iv,  275: 

Clisiocampa  sylvatica  Harris  (Rept.  Ins.  Injur.  Veg.,  1841,  pp.  271-272)  [=  C.  disstria 
Hiibn.].  Harris  (op.  cit.,  p.  272)  describes  the  larva  of  this  species,  giving  as  food- 
plants  Quercus,  Juglans,  and  apple;  later  (Treatise  on  Ius.  Injur.  Veg.,  1362,  pp. 
375-376.,  pi.  7,  tigs.  18,  19)  he  repeats  the  description  and  adds  a  colored  figure  of  the 
larva  and  imago,  adding  wild  cherry  to  the  food-plants;   again  he  describes  (Entom. 


164.  The  California^  tent-caterpillar. 

Clisiocampa  calif omica  Packard. 

Feeding  on  the  scrubby  oak,  in  abundance  near  San  Francisco,  a  tent-caterpillar 
■with  a  black  head  and  a  double  rusty  reddish  dorsal  line,  often  inclosing  a  long  pale 
blue  mediau  dash,  one  to  each  segment ;  and  with  two  lateral  pale  blue  irregular 
spots ;  appearing  from  the  middle  of  March  till  the  middle  of  April. 

I  extract  the  following  notice  of  its  habits  by  Mr.  Henry  Edwards : 

The  moth  lays  its  eggs  in  Jane,  and  they  must  remain  unhatched  until  the  follow- 
ing spring.  Just  when  the  young  shoots  of  the  oaks  (Quercus  agrifolia  Nee)  begin  to 
appear,  the  larvte  make  their  appearance  also,  spinning  thin  and  irregular  webs  over 
the  branches  of  the  trees.  In  these  webs  they  house  mostly  during  the  heat  of  the 
day,  but  sally  forth  in  the  evening  and  at  night  for  food.  In  this  way  they  will  soon 
strip  a  tree  of  its  leaves,  though  it  is  well  to  say  that  the  oaks  do  not  seem  to  be  per- 
manently affected,  as  they  soon  send  forth  fresh  shoots,  and  toward  the  time  that  the 
caterpillars  undergo  their  change  to  the  chrysalis  they  are  green  aud  gay  again.  The 
larvae  retain  the  shelter  of  their  web  until  after  the  third  molt,  when  they  wander 
away  singly,  are  found  everywhere,  becoming  sometimes  a  complete  nuisance  in  gar- 
dens and  fields.  They  feed  in  their  more  mature  stages  upon  many  plants  besides 
the  oak,  eating  with  avidity  willows,  ash,  JZsculus  californica,  Phatinia  arbutifolia, 
Arbutus  menziesii,  as  well  as  apple  and  pear  trees.  Toward  the  end  of  May  they  spin 
their  cocoons,  seeming  to  have  no  choice  of  locality,  but  fixing  themselves  wherever 
they  may  chance  to  be,  either  on  walls,  palings,  trunks  or  branches  of  trees,  stems 
of  grapes,  or  among  the  leaves  of  herbaceous  plants.  The  time  in  the  chrysalis  state 
is  about  eighteen  to  twenty-one  days,  so  that  the  moths  emerge  and  are  in  the  great- 
est abundance  about  the  middle  of  June. 

"  This  species,"  says  Mr.  Stretch  (in  Papilio,  vol.  i,  No.  5),  "  is  exceed- 
ingly abundant  in  the  neighborhood  of  San  Francisco,  and  is  probably 
widely  distributed."  Near  Sau  Francisco  its  favorite  food-plant  is  a 
species  of  scrubby  oak,  Q.  agrifolia,  but  it  is  sometimes  found  on  the 
blackberry  (Bubus)  and  other  shrubby  plants.  Its  depredations  have 
lately,  Professor  Rivers  writes  me,  extended  to  the  orchards.  The 
nests,  according  to  Mr.  Stretch,  may  be  seen  in  warm  localities  as  early 
as  the  middle  of  March,  while  in  those  more  exposed  they  are  not  seen 
till  the  middle  of  April ;  but  both  these  dates  are  sufficiently  early  to 
protect  the  orchards.  The  larvae  pupate  in  about  six  weeks  from  the 
egg,  and  the  imago  appears  in  about  a  fortnight. 

The  following  notes  have  been  received  from  Professor  Riley  : 

Received  April  20,  1877,  from  Mr.  E.  W.  Hilgard,  Berkeley  County,  Cal.,  several 
larvae  and  pupae  of  above  insect. 

Corresp.,  1869.  p.  292)  the  larva.  Morris  (Synop.  Lepid.  N.  A.,  1862,  p.  326)  quotes 
Harris's  descriptions  (1841)  of  the  larva  aud  imago.  Riley  (Amer.  Entom.,  July-Aug., 
1870,  v.  2,  pp.  261-265,  and  3d  Rept.  State  Entom.  Mo.,  1871,  pp.  121-127)  describes 
eggs  and  egg-mass,  larva  and  imago,  giving,  in  addition  to  the  food-plants  men- 
tioned above,  Fraxinus,  Tilia,  Rosa,  Carya,  plum,  and  peach.  Saunders  (Can.  Entom., 
July,  1872,  v.  4,  p.  134)  repeats  Riley's  figures  and  (op.  cit.,  Aug.,  1877,  v.  9,  p.  159), 
gives  another  figure  of  the  larva,  adding  Acer,  Crataegus,  and  Fag  us  to  the  food- 
plants;  later  Saunders  (op.  cit,  Feb.,  1878,  v.  10,  pp.  21-23)  gives  notes  on  the  eggs 
of  this  species  and  of  C.  americana,  and  on  the  destruction  of  these  eggs  by  mites. 
The  larva  of  this  species  eats  leaves  of  Beiula  alba. 


The  larva'  ;irc  about  2  inches  lonir,  of  a  velvety,  blackish-brown  color,  and  are  cov- 
ered with  quite  long  yellowish-brown  hairs.     They  are  feeding  on  oak. 

The  larva-  changed  to  pupae  April  21,  and  the  moths  issued  May  lb. 

Larva),  papa  aud  eggs  were  also  received  in  July,  1884,  from  H.  Bliss,  Salt  Lake 
City,  Utah,  who  reports  them  to  be  extremely  injurious  to  all  kinds  of  fruit-trees  and 
other  vegetation.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Head  black,  legs  black;  abdominal  feet  pale  testaceous.  Body  black, 
faintly  dusted  with  rusty,  which  forms  an  exceedingly  broken  and  indistinct  lateral 
Line  and  a  more  complete  double  dorsal  line.  Each  segment  carries  a  lateral,  trans- 
verse, very  faint  linear  dot  above  the  lateral  line,  a  dorsal  pale  blue  median  stripe, 
and  on  the  -hie  two  irregular  pale  blue  patches  separated  by  a  deep  black  space. 
The  dorsal  ami  lateral  hairs  are  all  tawny.  The  general  appearance  of  the  larva  is 
tawny  brown.     Length  about  1.40  inches. 

Cocoon. — Constructed  in  the  crevices  of  bark  or  in  the  angles  of  masonry,  where 
accessible,  and  consisting  of  a  loose,  white  web,  in  which  is  suspended  the  long  ovate 
cocoon  of  dense  papery  consistency,  thickened  with  a  yellowish  powdery  gum. 

Moth. — Cinnamon  brown,  with  two  transverse  pale  lines  curved  outward  just  be- 
fore ending  on  the  costa.  Base  of  the  fore  wings  within  the  inner  line  lighter  than 
without.  Hind  wings  darker  than  the  fore  pair.  Fringe  of  both  pairs  of  wings 
broadly  interrupted  with  pale  brown.  The  female  is  lighter  colored  than  the  male, 
with  two  dark -brown  lines,  the  other  one  continuing  straight  on  to  the  costa.  Be- 
neath, in  both  sexes,  uniformly  darker  than  above.  Expanse  of  wings,  male,  1 
inch;  female,  1.20  inch. 

The  caterpillar  of  a  species  of  Clisiocampa,  which  I  have  now  little  doubt  is  that 
of  C.  californica,  which  I  have  bred  from  eggs  received  from  Miss  Emily  L.  Morton,  to 
whom  they  were  sent  from  Colorado  by  Mr.  Nash,  was  abundant  at  Virginia  City  and 
Helena,  Mont.,  on  the  leaves  of  the  wild  rose  so  common  near  those  towns,  its  con- 
spicuous tents  readily  attracting  the  eye.  A  half-grown  larva,  found  June  16  at 
Virginia  City,  measuring  .75  inch  in  length,  had  a  blue-black  head.  The  body  was 
blue  on  the  sides,  with  dark  spots ;  a  black  subdorsal  spot  rudely  resembling  a  St. 
George's  cross  occurred  on  each  side  of  each  ring.  The  median  dorsal  line  was  pale 
blue,  interrupted  by  the  sutures  between  the  segments.  On  each  side  of  the  line  was 
a  brown  ocherous  patch.  The  hairs  are  ocherous  brown ;  the  long  ones  paler.  When 
fully  grown  it  is  about  the  size  of  the  eastern  tent-caterpillar  (C.  americana),  i.  e.,  an 
inch  aud  a  half.  The  mature  larva  found  at  Helena,  June  21,  was  described  from 
life  in  my  notes  as  follows: 

"Head  grayish  brown;  body  pale,  grayish-blue  on  the  sides,  speckled  with  black, 
with  a  large  black  squarish  patch  extending  above  into  the  subdorsal  broad  longi- 
tudinal band,  which  is  mottled  with  bright  ocherous  brown,  short  wavy  lines.  A 
pale  bluish  distinct  longitudinal  broad  median  dorsal  stripe  interrupted  by  the  Butures 
between  the  segments.     Hairs  long,  pale  brown.     Body  blackish  beneath." 

At  this  date  the  caterpillars  had  begun  to  be  full-fed,  and  one  caterpillar  had  spun 
a  cocoon  under  a  stone. 

This  caterpillar  differs  from  that  of  C.  americana  in  having  a  broad  blue  dorsal 
stripe  instead  of  a  white  one,  and  there  is  no  broad  lougitudiual  black  stripe,  as  in 
the  eastern  caterpillar.  It  also  differs  decidedly  from  the  caterpillar  of  C.  constricta 
Stretch,  the  dorsal  stripe  being  blue  instead  of  forming  a  series  of  black  and  ocher- 
ous red  spots.  The  blue  dorsal  interrupted  stripe  varies  in  distinctness  and  may  be 
nearly  or  quite  absent.  In  fact,  this  caterpillar  is  exposed  to  much  variation,  aud 
it  would  be  easy  to  make  several  species  out  of  this  widely  diffused  one,  which  in 
Colorado  feeds  on  the  aspen.  A  blown  specimen  received  from  Prof.  J.  J.  Rivers 
"  from  the  mountains  of  Nevada  that  may  be  C.  fragilis"  is  unquestionably  a  very 
distinctly  marked  larva  of  C.  californica.  My  Montana  specimens  closely  resemble 
it.     In  Mr.  Rivers'  Nevada  examples  the  row  of  long  dorsal  pale-blue,  almost  whitish 


blue,  spots  are  very  distinct.  This  dorsal  row  is  flanked  on  each  side  by  two  large 
distinct  irregular  spots  of  the  same  pale  blue  color,  the  space  between  them  being 
conspicuously  deep  black.  In  this  specimen  also  the  numerous  close,  broken,  fine 
dorsal  alternating  black  and  ocherous  lines  so  characteristic  of  C.  calif ornica  are 

Whether  the  larva  received  from  Professor  Rivers,  and  referred  by  him  with  doubt 
to  C.  fragilis  Stretch,  is  that  species  is  quite  another  question.  I  have  not  seen  either 
the  larva  or  imago  of  Stretch's  fragilis. 

165.  The  Pacific  oak  tent-caterpillar. 
Clisiocampa  constricta  Stretch. 

Feeding  on  the  leaves  of  the  Sonoma  oak  of  California,  a  tent-caterpillar,  with  a 
broken  dorsal  row  of  large  rust-red  spots,  and  transforming  at  the  end  of  May,  the 
moth  appearing  late  in  June. 

Prof.  J.  J.  Rivers  writes  me  regarding  this  species:  "I  have  never 
found  G.  constricta  but  upon  oak.  This  species  can  not  be  confused 
with  any  of  the  others  that  I  am  acquainted  with,  because  the  male  is 
always  pale  and  the  female  always  dark,  the  male  being  a  cream  color 
and  the  female  a  little  like  red  cedar  color  with  a  warm  tone." 

From  an  excellent  blown  larva  kindly  loaned  me  by  Professor  Eivers 
1  find  that  it  differs  from  all  the  other  Oalifornian  species  in  the  large, 
conspicuous  ocherous-red  dorsal  patches  which  give  rise  to  peculiar 
wedge-shaped  ocherous  tufts  of  short  hairs ;  also  by  the  lateral  row  of 
short  white  tufts,  while  the  body  in  general  is  much  more  hairy  than  in 
the  other  species.  No  eastern  species  has  such  a  characteristic  and 
peculiar  arrangement  of  spots  and  hairs. 

The  following  descriptions  of  larva,  chrysalis,  and  cocoon  of  this  moth 
are  copied  from  Mr.  Henry  Edwards's  account  in  the  Proceedings  of  the 
California  Academy  of  Sciences,  vol.  v,  1874,  p.  368: 

Larva. — Head  slate-gray,  with  black  spots;  mouth  parts  black,  tipped  with  dull 
yellow.  Body  slate-gray,  covered  laterally  with  fine  black  speckles.  Along  the  middle 
of  the  dorsal  region  is  an  irregular  black  strip  e,  marked  on  its  sides  with  waved  orange 
lines,  and  surmounted  at  the  union  of  the  segments  by  a  double  tuft  of  chestnutr 
brown  hairs.  On  the  second  and  third  segments,  in  the  middle  of  the  notched  black 
line,  is  a  stripe  of  dull  white.  From  the  base  of  the  orange-brown  tufts  spring  a  few 
scattered  black  hairs,  longest  anteriorly,  and  from  the  forepart  of  each  segment  arise 
lateral  tufts  of  white  hairs.  The  stigmata  are  orange,  with  black  central  points. 
Above  the  base  of  the  feet  is  a  black  interrupted  line,  out  of  which  spring  other  white 
hairs,  irregularly  disposed.  Under  side  dull  velvety  black,  with  the  anterior  portion 
of  each  segment  whitish.  Feet  and  prolegs  black,  yellow  at  their  tips.  Length  1.85 
inches.     Food-plant,  Quercus  sonomensis  Benth. 

The  larva  is  frequently  attacked  by  a  species  of  ichneumon,  the  eggs  of  which  are 
visible  on  the  head  and  anterior  segments. 

Chrysalis. — Chestnut  brown,  with  few  hairs  along  the  base  of  each  segment. 

Cocoon. — Ovo-lanceolate,  very  silky,  yellowish  white,  with  some  portions  glued  in 
compact  mass  and  whiter  than  the  remainder.  Chrysalis  only  imperfectly  seen 
through  the  web.     Larva  May  22,  changed  to  chrysalis  May  29.     Imago,  June  16. 

Moth. — Of  the  size  and  general  appearance  of  C.  americana,  but  the  outer  line,  in- 
stead of  being  directed  outward  on  the  costa,  is  more  sinuous  than  in  the  eastern 
species,  and  decidedly  curved  inwards  upon  the  costa. 


166.  Tin:  A.mkkicax'I'kt-moth. 
Qaatropacha  amerieana  Harris. 
Order  Lepidoptkra ;  family  Bombycidjt:. 
The  interesting  larva  of  this  moth  rarely  occurs  on  the  oak. 

Larva.— Body  broad,  somewhat  flattened;  the  lateral  ridge  produced  on  eaeh  seg- 
ment into  a  pail  of  hairy  lappets,  white,  edged  with  gray,  and  Cringed  with  lung  radi- 
ating hairs.    On  the  eighth  abdominal  segment  is  a  round  Mack  hamp  ringed  with 

white.  The  body  is  white  and  gray,  mottled  so  as  to  resemble  the  pale  bark  of  the 
ash  or  poplar.  When  creeping  two  transverse  bright  scarlet  bands  are  disclosed  in 
the  siit  in.  s  just  behind  the  second  and  third  thoracic  segments.  On  each  segment 
are  two  dorsal,  curved  spindle-shaped  dark  gray  spots:  the  sides  are  clouded  with 
dark  gray.     Length  :>:>-<;()""". 

167.  The  Califobnian  phkyganidia. 

Phryganidia  califomica  Pack. 
Order  Lepidoptbra ;  family  Zyqmmdm. 
Very  destructive  to  young  oaks,  a  naked,  yellowish-white  caterpillar,  striped  with 
black  and  white,  with  a  large  head,  wandering  incessantly  over  the  bnshesaad  feed- 
ing very  rapidly  ;  spinning  no  cocoon,  but  the  chrysalis,  yellowish  and  black,  attached 
by  the  tail  to  fences,  &c. 

This  is,  by  its  numbers  and  familiar  habits,  one  of  the  best  known 
and  most  destructive  insects  of  California.  The  following  accouut  has 
been  furnished  me  for  Hayden's  Report  by  Mr.  Henry  Edwards:* 

"This  insect  is  also  very  destructive  to  our  young  oaks,  the  caterpillars,  which  are 
naked  perfectly  and  with  the  head  almost  monstrous  in  size,  making  their  appearance 
about  the  same  time  as  those  of  Clisiocampa.     They  are 
restless  little   creatures,  wandering  incessantly  over  the 
trees  and  feeding  very  rapidly.     They  spin  no  cocoon, 
but  hang  by  the  tail,  like  the  larva  of  Vanessa,  etc.     The 
change  to  the  chrysalis  is  undergone  in  April  and  May, 
and  the   moths   appear  in  about  fifteen  or  sixteen  days. 
There  is  a  second  brood  of  these  insects,  the  imagos  of 
Fig.  38.-Caliibrnian  Phrygani-    the  laUer  appearing  in  September  and  October.     Indeed, 
<lia.  —  From     Packard,     after     „      ,  ,,  .,  ,    ., 

_  fresh  specimens  are  now  upontr.e  wing,  though  the  sec- 

ond brood  is  by  no  means  so  abundant  as  the  first.  I  have 
observed  that  Phryganidia  and  Clisiocampa  never  associate  upon  the  same  tree,  and 
I  think  that  the  former  has  always  the  mastery.  This  is  perhaps  owing  to  some  ex- 
cretion from  its  body  which  is  unpleasant  to  the  Clisiocampa,  but  of  course  I  do  not 
speak  with  certainty  as  to  this  fact.  It  is,  howrever,  sure  that  they  are  never  found 
in  large  quantities  on  the  same  tree.  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  Phryganidia  is  more 
destructive  to  the  oaks  than  the  other  species,  as  it  feeds  solely  upon  Quercus,  while 
the  other,  as  I  have  said,  is  not  so  particular  in  the  choice  of  its  food.  I  inclose  my 
published  description  of  the  eggs  of  Phryganidia.''  I  quote  Mr.  Edwards's  description 
of  the  egg  and  larva: 

"  The  egg  is  spherical,  a  little  flattened  above,  shining,  yellowish-white  at  exclusion, 
attached  in  clusters  of  about  ten  or  twelve  to  the  upper  sides  of  the  leaves.  The 
third  day  the  apex  of  the  egg  assumes  a  dull  orange  hue,  afterwards  changing  to  a 
bright  reddish-purple  and  gradually  to  a  duller  shade  as  the  young  larva  emerge. 
The  eggs  were  laid  by  a  female  in  my  possession  on  July  5.  In  the  young  larva  the 
head  is  very  large,  almost  monstrous,  pale  olive-brown,  with  a  narrow  black  line  at 
basr  ;  body  pale  canary-yellow,  with  four  rows  of  black  spots  arranged  longitudi- 
nally in  lines. 

*  A.  S.  Packard,  jr.,  Report  on  the  Pocky  Mountain  Locust,  *Vc.  Hayden's  Report 
U.  S.  Geological  Survey  of  the  Territories  for  1876. 



"  The  larva  is  slender,  with  the  head  prominent,  globose  ;  last  segment  but  one 
iiutnped  ;  head  pale  brown;  body  black  above,  dirty  green  below,  with  a  broad  dor- 
sal line  of  dirty  greenish,  divided  by  three  narrow  black  lines,  and  the  sutures 
faintly  marked  with  same  color.  There  is  also  a  narrow,  broken,  stigmatal  line  of 
dirty  greenish,  and  a  similar  line  above  each  of  the  abdominal  legs.  Tip  of  the  last 
segment  horny,  the  segment  not  being  used  to  assist  in  progression,  but  usually 
slightly  elevated  ;  body  smooth,  transversely  wrinkled.  Younger  specimens  chiefly 
differ  in  the  disproportionate  size  of  the  head.     Length  .90  to  1  inch."     (H.  Edwards. ) 

Pupa,  naked,  suspended  by  the  tail,  greenish  white,  with  black  markings ;  all  the 
sutures  of  the  head,  thorax,  legs,  and  antennae  lined  with  black.  The  mesothorax  has 
a  central  black  line  ;  the  abdomen  has  a  dorsal  row  of  black  points  on  the  front  edge 
of  each  segment,  and  a  lateral  row  blending  into  each  other  towards  the  anal  seg- 
ment, which  is  black ;  below  with  two  sublateral  series  of  black  transverse  spots 
nearly  blending  into  two  longitudinal  bands.     Length  0.75  inch.     (Stretch.) 

Moth. — Sable  brown,  partially  transparent ;  antenna?  and  veins  darker  ;  fore  wings 
with  the  costa  straight  and  apex  obtuse,  subrectangular.  The  hind  wings  of  the 
female  scarcely  reach  to  the*  end  of  the  abdomen.  Expanse  of  wings,  1.22  to  1.47 

Mr.  Behrens,  of  San  Francisco, 
writes  me  that  three  generations  of 
the  Phryganidia  appear  in  a  year. 
"  In  1875  it,  with  the  larva  of  the 
Clisiocampa  calif ornica,  ate  our  ever- 
green oaks  to  broomsticks.  You 
could  hear  the  caterpillars  eat  and 
their  manure  drop,  the  latter  cover- 
ing everything;  it  could  be  swept 
together  by  the  bushelful.  In  the 
wake  of  both  followed  ichneumon 

This  singular  insect  was  originally, 
from  a  study  of  the  moth  alone,  re- 
ferred by  me  to  the  Psychinae,  but 
Mr.  E.  H.  Stretch,  with  a  knowl- 
edge of  its  transformations,  has 
shown  that  I  was  in  error,  and  has 
placed  it  very  properly  in  the  Zy- 
gaeuidae,  in  his  valuable  work  enti- 
tled Illustrations  of  the  Zygaenidae 
and  Bombycidae  of  North  America 
(1873).  Having  recently  received 
specimens  of  the  larvae  and  pupae 
from  Mr.  James  Behrens,  it  was  at  once  evident  on  a  cursory  examina- 
tion that  the  early  stages  show  all  the  characteristic  features  of  tbe 
Zygaenidae.  The  venation  of  the  moth  is,  however,  unusual,  and  this, 
together  with  the  dull-brown  coloration  and  semi-hyaline  wings,  misled 
me  into  placing  it  near  Psyche.  Mr.  A.  G.  Butler,  of  the  British 
Museum,  regards  it  as  closely  allied  to  Dioptis. 

Fig.  39.— a,  larva  of  Phryganidia  californica, 
after  Stretch ;  b,  pupa ;  c,  d,  end  of  pupa.  Bridg- 
ham,  del. 


168.   The  oraxge->triiki>  oak-worm." 

An 'mot  a  ainatonu  Hiibner. 

Order  Lepidoptera:    family  Bombycid.k. 

In  August,  sometimes  stripping  the  trees,  a  spiny  black  caterpillar,  with  four  orange- 
yt'llow  vtoipef  «>n  the  book  and  two  along  each  side,  with  two  black  prickles  above 
and  two  on  each  side,  changing  the  following  June  to  a  large  ocher-yellow  moth, 
with  a  large  white  dot  on  the  fore  wings. 

These  prickly  caterpillars,  during  certain  years,  as  I  have  noticed  at 
Amherst,  Mass.,  and  at  Providence,  as  well  as  in  Maine,  so  abound  as 
to  nearly  strip  large  oak  branches  of  their  leaves,  and  is  perhaps  the 
most  destructive  of  all  our  caterpillars  to  the  foliage  of  the  oak.  The 
spines,  if  they  happen  to  penetrate  the  skin,  as  Fitch  and  others  have 
observed,  sting  like  nettles.  This  species,  Mr.  Riley  informs  me,  is  the 
more  injurious  in  the  Northern  States,  while  A,  stigma  is  most  destruct- 
ive in  the  Southern.  According  to  Riley,  Mr.  Bassett  has  bred  a  small 
ichneumon  fly  (Limner ia  [Bancnus]  fugitiva  Say)  from  this  caterpillar. 
Riley  has  also  bred  it  from  the  larva  of  Anisota  stigma,  Clisiocampa 
sylvatica,  as  well  as  other  caterpillars. 

Mr.  Lintner  states  that  "the  larvaB  occur  so  abundantly  at  Center  as 
wholly  to  defoliate  numbers  of  the  smaller  oaks.  On  the  7th  of  July 
the  female  moths  were  seen  to  have  commenced  the  deposition  of  their 
eggs  on  the  under  side  of  oak  leaves  in  patches  often  nearly  covering 
the  entire  surface.  On  the  11th  of  July  some  newly  hatched  larvae 
were  observed."    (Eut.  Contr.,  i,  5S,  foot-note  1.) 

In  1882  this  caterpillar  was  very  destructive  to  oak  forests  in  Penn- 
sylvania. Professor  Claypole  writes  to  the  Canadian  Entomologist 
(xv,  38): 

I  have  seen  hillsides  that  looked  as  if  fire  had  passed  over  them  in  consequence  of 
the  destruction  of  the  foliage  by  millions  of  this  species.  Iu  the  woods  they  could  be 
found  crawling  over  almost  every  square  foot  of  ground  and  lying  dead  by  dozens 
in  every  pool  of  water.  The  sound  of  their  falling  ''frass,"  too,  was  like  a  slight 
shower  of  rain.  Farmers  tell  me  they  have  never  known  them  to  be  so  abundant  before 
within  their  recollection.     Harris  says  this  species  lives  on  the  white  and  red  oaks  in 

*  Anisota  senatoria  Abb.  &  Smith  (Nat.  Hist.  Lepid.  Ins.  Ga.,  1797,  v.  2,  p.  113,  pi. 
57).  Harris  (Rept.  Ins.  Injur.  Veg.,  1841,  p.  291-29*2)  describes  the  larva,  pupa,  and 
imago  of  this  species;  the  larva,  he  states,  feeds  upon  white  and  red  oaks  [Quercw 
sp.].  Morris  (Synop.  Lepid.  X.  A.,  1862,  p.  231)  describes  the  larva  and  imago.  Har- 
ris (Treatise  on  Ins.  Injur.  Veg.,  1662,  p.  405-406)  figures  and  describes  larva,  pupa,  aud 
imago,  and  (Entom.  Corresp.,  1869.  p.  896,  pL  2,  fig.  9,  and  pi.  4,  fig.  12)  gives  a  col- 
ored figure  of  the  larva  and  a  black  one  of  the  pupa.  Riley  [?]  (Amer.  Entom.,  Sept.- 
Oct.,  1669,  v.  2,  p.  26)  states  that  the  larra  eats  raspberry  [Rubus  sp.].  Lintner 
(Entom.  Contrib.,  No.  2.  1672,  p.  51-52)  describes  the  early  stages  of  the  larva,  which, 
he  writes,  has  four  molts  (five  stages),  and  feeds  on  Qucrcu*  prinoides.  Packard 
( Bull.  7,  U.  S.  Entom.  Comm.,  1881,  p.  45)  briefly  describes  the  larva,  and  gives  a  few 
notes  upon  its  habits.  The  larva  feeds  on  Betula  alia.  (Mrs.  Dimmock,  Psyche, 
iv.  275.) 

THE    SPINY    OAK-WORM.  125 

Massachusetts.  Here  the  white  oaks  were  untouched  and  the  red  oak  is  not  abun- 
dant. The  food  of  the  caterpillars  was  almost  exclusively  the  foliage  of  the  black  oak 
(Q.  tinctoria),  the  scarlet  oak  (Q.  coccinea),  and  the  bear  or  scrub  oak  (Q.  ilicifolia). 
(See  also  American  Naturalist,  xvi,  914.) 

It  was  also  abundant  in  September  of  the  same  year  in  Sagadahock 
and  Cumberland  Counties,  Maine,  and  in  Rhode  Island. 

The  following  notes  on  the  egg  and  freshly-hatched  larva  are  con- 
tributed by  Professor  Riley : 

August  1,  1869,  received  of  F.  A.  Gates,  Massillon,  Cedar  County,  Iowa,  a  ribbed 
female  of  Dryocampa  senatoria  with  a  batch  of  over  300  eggs  on  the  underside  of  a 
raspberry  leaf.  These  eggs  are  almost  round  in  outline,  depressed,  being  about  half 
as  high  as. wide,  the  width  across  being  .04  of  an  inch.  The  shell  is  so  very  trans- 
parent that  it  makes  a  very  good  object  for  watching  the  development  of  the  em- 
bryo.    The  egg  is  when  first  laid  yellow,  with  a  darker  brownish  ring  above. 

The  larva  when  first  hatched  is  pale  yellow,  with  a  large  black  head,  black  thoracic 
legs  and  two  stiff  black  horns  springing  with  an  anterior  slant  from  the  top  of  seg- 
ment 2,  each  of  which  horns  terminate  in  two  finer  bristles.  The  rest  of  the  body  is 
covered  with  pale  bristles.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Head  large,  fully  as  wide  as  the  body ;  jet  black.  Body  uniformly  thick, 
cylindrical.  On  meso thoracic  segment  a  pair  of  long  and  slender,  stiff,  black  spines, 
blunt  at  the  end,  nearly  as  long  as  the  body  is  thick.  They  stand  erect,  diverging  a 
little,  and  arise  from  swollen  bases,  connected  by  a  slight  transverse  ridge.  On  each 
succeeding  segment  there  is  a  transverse  series  of  four  small,  sharp,  simple  spines, 
one  or  two  sometimes  ending  in  two  spines  ;  and  low  down  on  each  side,  below  the 
spiracles,  are  three  large  and  a  fourth  minute  short  acute  spine. 

There  are  on  the  hinder  part  of  the  back  of  most  of  the  segments  two  small  black 
spines.  The  spines  become  larger  on  the  last  three,  especially  the  penultimate  seg- 
ment. Supra  anal  plate  large  and  flat,  rather  rough,  ending  in  two  acute  spines,  with 
four  smaller  spines  on  each  side.  Abdominal  legs  larger  and  broad,  with  stiff  short 
hairs  on  the  hinder  and  lower  edge. 

Prothorax  unarmed,  but  with  a  thickened  conical  plate.  Body  jet-black,  with  a 
double  dorsal  ocher-yellow-brown  line,  a  narrow  subdorsal  line,  and  two  wavy  lateral 
lines  of  the  same  color.     A  median  ventral  ochre-brown  band.     Length,  42mm. 

Moth. — Male  antennae  broadly  pectinated  on  basal  two-thirds ;  yellowish-brown ; 
base,  costa,  and  outer  edges  bathed  in  faint  purplish  ;  the  hind  wings  of  the  male  well 
rounded  ;  fore  wings  slightly  spotted  with  dark  brown ;  a  clear  large  round  white 
discal  spot ;  an  outer  oblique  distinct  brownish  line  extending  from  a  little  beyond 
the  middle  of  the  inner  edge  to  the  costa  just  before  the  apex.  Expanse  of  wings 
of  male,  42mra ;  female,  57mm. 

169.  The  spiny  oak- worm. 

Anisota  stigma  Htibner. 

Eating  the  leaves  in  September,  in  the  Southern  States  especially,  a  worm  like  the 
preceding,  but  of  a  bright  tawny  or  orange  color,  with  a  dusky  stripe  along  the  back 
and  dusky  bands  along  the  sides,  and  with  its  prickles  lengthened  into  thorn-like 

This  worm  is  said  by  Dr.  Riley  to  be  nearly  as  destructive  in  the 
Southern  States  as  A.  senatoria  is  in  the  Northern. 

According  to  Abbot  and  Smith,  in  Georgia  the  caterpillar  goes  into  the 
ground  to  pupate  September  20  and  comes  forth  by  the  middle  of  June 


following.  The  young  at  first  keep  together  and  as  they  grow  larger 

The  following  quotations  are  from  Riley's  unpublished  notes: 

"Found  feeding  on  oak  and  hazel  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  by  Professor  Riley, 
OD  hazel  in  Illinois,  by  Mr.  Muhlemann,  and  on  both  oak  and  hazel  by 
Mr.  Saunders,  London,  Out.  Moths  issue  from  middle  of  May  to  mid- 
dle of  June.  Eggs  were  noticed  to  hatch  July  10.  Went  through  the 
first  two  molts  till  July  20,  and  through  third  molt  July  27.  The  first 
larva  entered  the  ground  August  4,  aud  the  last  one  August  22,  1870. 
These  are  specimens  from  Canada,  but  around  Kirk  wood,  Mo.,  there 
are  some  found  which  are  not  yet  full  grown  at  this  date. 

"  Mr.  Saunders  says,  November  21,  1870,  that  he  has  noticed  a  sec- 
ond brood. 

M  According  to  Abbot  and  Smith  this  is  the  more  spotted  moth,  and 
their  larva  agrees  with  mine,  but  is  colored  too  yellow.  Their  larva 
of  pellucida  seems  to  differ  principally  in  having  two  pink  longitudinal 
vittae,  each  side.  The  male  and  female  of  A.  stigma  are  almost  alike, 
whilst  in  A.  pellucida  they  are  unlike.  Both  are  sometimes  found  on  the 
same  tree. 

11  Dr.  Asa  Fitch  states  that  his  little  daughter  was  stung  badly  by  a 
larva  which  he  had  feeding  uuder  a  glass;  but,  notwithstanding  that 
a  slight  stinging  sensation  is  discernible,  it  can  not  be  likened  to  that 
of  the  true  stinging  larvae  and  is  not  more  irritating  than  the  prickly 
spines  of  Vanessa  interrogationis. 

11  Young  larva. — August  24,  1876,  found  a  lot  of  caterpillars  feeding  on  Quercus 
bicolor?  They  are  .63  of  an  inch  in  length,  and  of  a  dark  greenish-gray  color,  with  a 
broad  dorsal  line  a  shade  darker;  on  each  segment  there  are  six  black  thorns  tipped 
with  white ;  two  on  the  dorsal  line,  one  on  each  side,  and  one  on  the  margin  of  each 
side  ;  those  on  the  sides  are  very  small  and  more  like  tubercles  ;  thorns  on  the  back 
and  sides  nearly  equal  in  length,  getting  a  little  longer  on  the  last  segmeuts ;  on  the 
second  segment  are  two  very  long  horns,  resembling  very  much  antennae,  the  point 
of  which  is  divided  into  two;  they  are  directed  forwards  and  curved  a  little  back- 
wards.    Head,  brick-red,   not  very  glossy ;    feet  black.      Destroyed   by  parasites. 

11  Full  grown  larva. — Average  length,  50mm.  General  color  pale  tawny-red,  inclining 
to  orauge.  The  whole  surface  covered  with  bright  yellow,  almost  white  papillae  of 
different  sizes,  giving  a  speckled  appearauce ;  the  usual  medio-dorsal  narrow  line  ;  a 
broad  subdorsal  longitudinal  stripe  of  a  paler  color  and  having  a  dingy  carueoushue  ; 
a  narrower  substigmatal  stripe  of  the  same  hue.  Horns  and  spines  black  and  marked 
with  white  papilhe,  and  with  a  tendeucy  to  brauch,  especially  towards  the  tips;  the 
longer  horns  on  joint  2  being  blunt-pointed,  aud  also  with  white  papilhe  at  the 
base.  Head  uniformly  gamboge-yellow  ;  cervical  shield,  anal  plate,  and  plates  on 
anal  prolegs  of  the  same  yellowish  color  as  head.  A  pale  medio- ventral  line ;  the 
thoracic  legs  pale,  the  prolegs  with  pale  papilhe  outside  ou  a  dark  ground. 

"  The  species  is  at  once  distinguished  from  the  other  species  of  the  genus  by  the 
longer  spines,  their  tendency  to  furcation  and  being  speckled  with  white  papilhe, 
and  by  the  less  distinct  striping."     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Moth. — This  is  closely  allied  to  A.  senatoria,  but  in  both  sexes  the  wings  are  rather 
darker  and  more  spotted  with  blackish;  the  cross-line  on  the  hind  wings  is  heavier 
and  more  distinct,  and  the  white  discal  spot  is  apt  to  be  less  perfectly  round  than  in 
senatoria.     Expanse  of  wings,  malt-,  45mm;   female,  53  to  55mra. 


170.  The  rosy-striped  oak-worm. 

Anisota  peUucida  Hiibner. 

Order  Lepidoptera;   family  Bombycid^e. 

Eating  the  leaves  in  July,  in  New  York,  a  two-horned  prickly  worm  of  an  obscure 
gray  or  greenish  color,  with  dull  brownish-yellow  or  rosy  stripes,  and  its  skin  rough 
from  white  granules. 

This  species  has  been  said  by  Fitch  to  have  been  common  for  many 
years  in  Salem,  N.  Y.,  where  A.  stigma  has  seldom  been  seen  The  worms 
mostly  enter  the  ground  to  transform  into  the  pupa  early  in  August, 
though  some  remain  on  the  trees  as  late  as  the  middle  of  September. 

The  following  description  is  copied  from  Prof.  G.  H.  French's  Report 
of  the  Curator  of  the  Museum  of  the  Southern  Illinois  Normal  Uni- 
versity, 1880.  They  occurred  on  different  species  of  oak' during  the 
middle  and  last  of  September,  most  of  them  pupating  by  October  2  in 
the  soil. 

Larva. — Length  about  1.25  inches.  General  color  pale  dull  green,  striped  with  fine 
red  substigmatal,  subdorsal,  and  dorsal  stripes,  the  last  very  pale,  so  as  to  be  almost 
obsolete.  Head  with  a  slightly  yellowish  tinge.  On  each  segment  there  are  six 
short  black  thorns  or  sharp  points,  the  two  on  the  back  of  the  second  segment  behind 
the  head  being  about  one-fourth  inch  long,  but  the  rest  much  shorter. 

We  add  also  the  following  description  furnished  by  Dr.  Riley,  who 
has  compared  it  with  the  caterpillar  of  Anisota  stigma  : 

A.  peUucida  comes  nearest  to  A.  stigma  in  general  appearance,  but  the  spines  are 
shorter,  more  pointed,  uniformly  black;  the  color  is  darker,  being  almost  black,  so 
that  the  papillae,  which  are  ratber  denser,  give  the  dark  portion  a  bluish  cast ;  the 
subdorsal  and  stigmatal  lines  are  of  a  more  intense  red,  inclining  to  pink,  and  the 
stigmatal  line  is  rather  broader  than  the  subdorsal.  The  average  length  is  somewhat 
less  and  the  larva  more  slender  than  in  stigma;  the  shorter,  blacker  spines,  deeper 
colors,  and  stronger  contrast  between  the  lines  at  once  separating  it  from  stigma.* 

Specimens,  without  much  doubt  belonging  to  this  species,  though  we 
have  not  found  the  moth  in  Maine,  occurred  on  the  red  oak  at  Bruns- 
wick, Me.,  August  28.  The  body  was  greenish,  with  dark  dorsal  and 
lateral,  not  **  reddish,"  bands. 

Moth. — Besides  being  smaller,  the  male  differs  from  those  of  A.  stigma  and  senatoria 
in  the  hind  wings  being  distinctly  triangular,  the  outer  edge  being  straight  and  the 
hind  angle  somewhat  produced;  the  fore  wings  are  also  decidedly  narrower,  while 
the  white  discal  spot  is  considerably  larger,  and  the  wings  are  throughout  consider- 
ably darker  and  free  from  dark  spots.     Expanse  of  wings  of  male,  40,mn. 

*  Found  ou  differeut  kinds  of  oak,  October  2,  1873,  many  larvae  looking  like  A. 
stigma.  The  form  is  the  same,  but  they  differ  considerably  from  them  in  color  and 
markings.  It  is  to  be  distinguished  from  A.  stigma  in  its  smaller  size,  in  the  ground 
color  of  the  dark  parts  being  blacker,  the  papillae  being  yellow  instead  of  white,  and  in 
the  paler  vittae  being  of  a  deep  pink  or  lake-red.  The  head  and  anal  shield  are  more 
olivaceous  and  the  spines  are  shorter  and  stouter.  The  whole  larva  is  more  brightly 
.and  distinctly  marked.     Moths  issued  April  22,  1874. 

Some  of  the  dried  larva  skins  were  brought  from  Loudoun  County,  Va.,  in  July, 
1881.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes). 


The  caterpillars  of  the  following  species  of  Lepidoptera  are  not  known 
to  be  especially  injurious,  but  occur  more  or  less  frequently  on  the 
leaves : 

171.  Basilarchia  astyanax  (Fain.  Limenitis  Ursula  Fabr.). 

In  New  England  a  caterpillar  occurred  on  leaves  of  the  scrub  oak  as 
early  as  June  1;  by  June  7  it  pupated,  the  chrysalis  suspended  verti- 
cally by  the  tail,  while  the  butterfly  emerged  June  18.  Harris  also 
observed  a  pupa  July  8,  the  butterfly  appearing  July  20.  It  also  feeds 
on  the  willow,  wild  cherry,  Carpinus  americana,  and  various  shrubs. 
It  ranges  from  the  Atlantic  coast  to  Kansas. 

Larva. — Larva  found  feeding  on  leaves  of  scrub  oak,  June  1 ;  head  tinged  with  pale 
purple,  two  white  stripes  down  the  center  of  the  face,  lip  brownish;  vertex  bifid, 
tuberculated,  tubercles  pale  green.  Body  elongated,  cylindrical,  a  pair  of  tubercles 
on  each  segment,  those  on  the  second  beiug  much  elongated,  linear,  with  short,  blunt 
spines;  first  and  second  segments  pale  reddish-yellow,  tubercles  dirty  green;  third 
segment  whitish  or  reddish  white,  veined  with  pale  green  above,  tubercles  pale ; 
fourth  segment  green  above,  tinged  with  ocherous,  especially  at  sides  ;  fifth  segment 
pale  olive  green  above,  darker  at  sides;  tubercles  whitish,  transverse  elevated  liue 
at  sides  whitish,  as  it  is  in  all  the  following  segments;  sixth  segment  olive  green, 
with  two  longitudinal  white  lines  above ;  seventh  segment  olive  green  at  sides,  red- 
dish white  or  clay  colored  behind,  and  on  the  top  two  white  lines  with  a  clay-colored 
patch  between,  a  small  blackish  spot  near  the  stigma;  eighth  segment  clay  colored, 
slightly  green  at  sides  behind  ;  ninth  segment  greenish  at  sides,  with  a  small  black 
spot,  clay  colored  above,  before  with  two  white  lines ;  tenth  and  eleventh  segments 
dark  olive  green,  tubercles  paler;  twelfth  segment  dark  green  above,  tubercles  four, 
ocherous.  Feet  ocherous;  prolegs  greenish  bordered  with  ocherous.  Body  beneath 
whitish  varied  with  green.     Length,  1.3  inches.     (Lintner.) 

Pupa. — Like  that  of  B.  archippus  in  form  and  color. 

Butterfly. — Expanse  of  wings,  3  inches.  Upper  surface  black,  tinged  with  bluish  or 
greenish,  and  a  little  with  fulvous  at  the  apex  of  the  fore  wings.  Along  the  outer 
margin  are  two  rows  of  blue  or  green  spots,  the  outer  in  the  form  of  crescents,  the  inner, 
lunules.  Under  side  brownish-black,  the  outer  border  repeated,  preceded  by  a  row  of 
black  and  a  row  of  fulvous  spots,  some  of  the  latter  obsolete  near  the  posterior  angle. 
There  are  two  fulvous  spots  in  the  cell  of  the  fore  wings,  three  near  the  base  of  the 
hind  wings,  and  some  on  the  costae  of  both  wings  near  the  base.     (French.) 

172.   Basilarchia  archippus  (Cram.  Limenitis  disijypus  Godt.). 

According  to  Scudder,  French,  and  others,  this  butterfly  occasionally 
feeds  on  the  oak,  and  the  accompanying  figure  was  drawn  from  a  cater- 
pillar found  on  the  oak.    (See  Poplar  Insects.) 



Fig.  40.— Larva  of  Basilarchia  archippus  (Limenitis  disippus).    Emerton  del. 

173.  The  live  oak  thecla. 
Thecla  favonius  Abbot  and  Smith. 

The  green,  slug-like  caterpillars  of  this  beautiful  butterfly  were  ob 
served  on  the  live  oak  at  Enterprise,  Fla.,  April  7  and  8,  also  a  few 
days  afterwards  at  Crescent  City,  and  again  on  the  scrub  live  oaks  on 
Anastasia  Island,  St.  Augustine.  They  pupated  April  13,  14;  the 
chrysalis  in  general  appearance  closely  resembling  that  of  Thecla  cala- 
nus, found  about  Providence.  They  breed  easily  in  confinement,  my 
specimens  haviug  been  placed  in  a  small  pocket  tin  box.  After  my  re- 
turn to  Providence  the  butterflies  emerged  from  April  30  to  May  2.  It, 
is  the  most  common  species  iu  the  Southern  States,  and  is  said  by  Abbot 
and  Smith  to  feed  on  Quercus  rubra  and  other  oaks. 

Larva. — Closely  resembling  in  general  appearance  that  of  Thecla  calanus.  Body 
straw-yellowish  green,  with  fine  yellowish  papillas  and  dense,  short  hairs.  Head  pale 
horn  color,  small  and  narrow.     Length,  17™m. 

Pupa. — Of  the  same  size  and  shape  as  that  of  Thecla  calanus,  thehirsutiesthe  same, 
though  not  quite  so  coarse.  In  color  rather  pale  horn,  not  so  much  mottled  with 
black.  It  differs  from  T.  calanus  in  the  distinct  lateral  row  of  black  dots.  Length, 

Imago. — Wings  of  the  usu  al  form  and  color  in  the  genus.  Fore  wings  of  male  with 
a  blackish  sex-mark  below  the  costa;  a  tawny  patch  in  the  first  and  a  larger,  more 
distinct  oue  in  the  second  median  cell.  Hiud  wings  with  a  large  deep  orange  patch 
near  the  inner  angle,  with  a  minute  one  on  each  side;  orange  spots  on  the  inner 
'  angle.  "The  points  of  the  W  formed  by  the  inner  line  on  the  under  side  of  the  bind- 
wings  touching  the  outer  line."  (French.)  Expanse  of  wings,  23mm. 
5  ENT 9 


174.   Liu  da  (iiitoh/ciiH  Edwards. 

This  butterfly  ranges  from  Missouri  to  Texas.  The  following  ac- 
count is  given  us  by  Professor  Riley  ! 

Found  May  B,  1872,  under  an  oak  tree,  beneath   stone  and  bricks,  a  rather  eurious 
conchiliform  larva. 
Larva, — Head  and  first  joint  retractile.    Color  dull  straw-yellow,  variegated  with 

pair  fulvous  and  olive  green.  Minutely  granulated  with  black  spots,  each  giving 
rise  to  a  short  stiff  hair.  Dorsum  narrow,  flattened  ;  sides  sloping  roof-fashion.  Ven- 
ter glaucous,  with  full  complement  of  legs  well  developed.  Stigmata  large,  but  so 
COnoolorons  with  body  that  they  are  seen  with  difficulty.  Before  transforming  to 
pnpa  the  distinctive  characters  are  lost  and  it  becomes  pinkish,  more  rounded,  and 
the  black  dots  are  all  pale. 

Papa.— Of  the  normal  rounded  form;  of  a  dull  dirty  yellowish-brown,  speckled  with 
black,  and  pubescent  with  short  pale  blunt  bristles.  The  head  is  produced  into  a 
hood  with  flattened  frontal  edge,  and  the  characteristic  feature  is  a  white  narrow 
transverse  egg-like  elevated  spot  in  place  of  the  first  spiracle  on  suture  between  head 
and  thorax — looking  as  though  they  might  be  eyes.  Head  parts  not  distinguishable. 
Imago  Issued  May  25.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Butterfly. — Differs  from  Thecla  favonius  in  the  points  of  the  W  not  touching  the 
outer  line.     Expanse  of  wings,  1.05  to  1.1  inches.     (French.) 

175.  Thecla  edwardsii  Saunders. 

The  following  note  on  this  butterfly,  which  ranges  from  Maine  to 
Nebraska  and  Colorado,  has  been  contributed  by  Professor  Riley: 

July  2,  1875,  found  two  larvae  of  a  Thecla  on  oak.  They  are  dark  velvety  green  ; 
changed  to  pupa  July  4,  and  the  imago  issued  on  the  13th.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Butterfly. — Upper  surface  pale  wood-brown  ;  the  male  with  the  usual  subcostal  sex- 
mark,  hind  wings  with  one  short  tail  and  an  angle  in  place  of  the  second  tail  ;  two 
faint  blackish  spots  on  the  hind  wings,  one  between  the  tail  and  the  angle  and  the 
other  towards  the  anal  angle,  with  faint  orange  crescents  before  each. 

Under  side  paler  than  the  upper,  two  rows  of  spots  across  each  wing,  as  in  the  lines 
of  Thecla  acadica  Edwards;  they  are  shorter,  with  spaces  between.  The  spots  of  the 
inner  row,  except  the  last  two  on  the  hiud  wings,  are  oblong  and  oval,  each  sur- 
rounded with  white,  the  last  two  longer  than  the  others.  The  outer  row  is  a  series 
of  blackish  crescents,  edged  on  the  inner  side  with  white,  on  the  outside  with  orange, 
fading  out  towards  the  apex  of  the  fore  wings,  more  prominent  at  the  anal  portion 
of  the  hind  wings:  the  usual  blue  patch  between  the  next  to  the  last  and  the  mar- 
gin, and  the  two  black  spots  of  the  other  species.  At  the  end  of  the  discal  cell  a 
spot  similar  to  the  spots  of  the  inner  row.  Maine  to  Nebraska,  Colorado.  Expanse 
of  wings,  1.1  inches.     (French.) 

176.  Thecla  calauus  (Huebner). 

According  to  Scudder  (Butterflies  of  the  Eastern  United  States)  this 
butterfly  feeds  on  Quercus  rubra  and  Q.falcata,  but  prefers  the  walnut 
and  hickory.     (See  Walnut  Insects.) 


177.   Juvenal's  skipper. 
Thanaos  juvenalis  West  wood. 

The  larva  of  this  butterfly  is  not  uncommon 
on  the  white  oak  from  early  in  September  uutil 
towards  the  middle  of  October  iu  Providence. 
We  observed  one  caterpillar  which  (October  8)  fig.  u.— Larva  (a)  and  pupa 
curled  a  leaf  over  its  body  and  spun  a  thin  floss  ^^Za^LT^ 
of  silk  in  which  to  transform. 

Thanaos  ennius  was  originally  regarded  as  the  uortheru  representa- 
tive of  Thanaos  juvenalis  Westwood,  but  Mr.  Scudder  now  writes  me 
that  he  regards  ennius  as  a  synonym  of  T.  juvenalis.  In  New  England 
this  skipper  is  seen  in  meadows  iu  May  and  again  in  August. 

Larva. — Body  somewhat  flattened,  tapering  towards  both  ends  ;  dull  pea-green,  the 
skin  granulated  with  distinct  white  pimples.  A  lateral  white  line.  Head  wider  than 
the  prothoracic  segment,  bilobed,  somewhat  flattened  in  front,  dark  dull  reddish- 
brown,  with  each  lobe  of  the  vertex  touched  slightly  with  red-brown,  and  an  orange- 
red  spot  on  the  inside  of  each  set  of  eyes.  A  dark  median  dorsal  stripe  and  a  lateral 
yellow  line;  the  lateral  ridge  whitish.     Length,  26mm. 

Butterfly. — Smoky  brown  on  both  sides;  fore  wings  variegated  above  with  gray, 
with  transverse  rows  of  dusky  spots,  and  six  or  seven  small  semi-transparent  white 
spots  near  the  tips;  six  of  these  spots  are  disposed  in  a  transverse  row,  but  the  two 
Uindmost  are  separated  from  the  others  by  a  considerable  interval,  and  the  seventh 
spot,  which  is  sometimes  wanting,  is  placed  nearer  the  middle  of  the  wing.  Hind 
wings  with  a  row  of  blackish  spots  near  the  hind  margin.  Expanse  of  wings,  1.6 
inches.     (Harris.) 

178.   Thanaos  brizo  Bois.  and  Le  C. 

Besides  feeding  on  a  leguminous  plant  (Galactia  glabella)  the  larva  of 
this  skipper  occurs  on  Quercus  ilicifolia.     (Scudder.) 

179.  Smerinthus  exccecatus  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

The  larva  of  this  sphiugid  moth  has  been  found  on  Quercus  imbricarius 
and  Q.  obtusiloba  by  Professor  Riley,  who  has  communicated  the  follow- 
ing description  : 

Larva. — Normal  form.  Uniform  pea-green.  The  papilla?  cream-colored  and  regu- 
larly arranged  in  about  eight  annulets.  A  bluish  vesicular  medio-dorsal  mark. 
Yellowish-green  oblique  lines  extending  length  of  two  joints,  the  last  brighter  yel- 
low and  extending  up  the  caudal  horn,  which  is  also  papillated.  The  thoracic  joints 
have  a  longitudinal  yellow  subdorsal  line.  The  head  is  triangular,  but  bluntly  so; 
the  front  flattened,  more  polishad,  and  deeper  green,  with  less  distinct  papiloe  and 
separated  from  the  hinder  part,  which  is  like  the  body,  by  a  pale  A  relieved  behind 
by  darker  shade.  Abdominal  and  thoracic  legs  rosy  outside.  Stigmata  white  with 
heavy  black  anunlations. — (Unpublished  notes). 

180.  Daremma  undulosa  Walker. 

This  sphingid  feeds  occasionally  on  the  white  and  red  oak.  ( W.  J. 
Holland,  Can.  Ent,  June,  1886.     See  Ash  Insects.) 


181.  Nola  ovilla  Grote. 
(Larva.     Plate  xxxv.  Fig. 2.) 

One  of  the  most  interesting  tonus  whose  life-history  we  have  made 
out  is  that  of  a  species  of  Nola.  The  position  of  the  genus  Nola  has 
long  been  an  uncertain  one.  By  some  of  the  older  authors,  notably 
Hiibner,  the  species  were  placed  among  the  Pyralidaj,  and  Stainton  in 
his  Manual  of  British  Butterflies  and  Moths  regards  the  genus  as  form- 
ing "  Family  IX,  Nolidai  "  under  the  Pyralites,  though  he  says :  "  One 
little  group,  the  Nolidre,  is  by  many  recent  authors,  and  perhaps  with 
reason,  referred  to  the  Bombycina,  being  placed  with  family  Litbosidae." 

The  genus  is  now  generally  placed  among  the  Lithosiaus.  In  our 
Synopsis  of  Bombycidae  we  omitted  to  mention  it,  partly  on  account  of 
want  of  specimens  and  partly  perhaps  from  supposing  it  not  to  be  a 
true  Bombycid.  Mr.  Grote  was  the  first  American  author  to  enumerate 
it  in  his  New  Check  List  of  North  American  Moths,  1884,  and  to  in- 
clude it  among  the  Litbosise. 

Having  reared  Nola  ovilla,  my  attention  has  again  been  drawn  to  its 
systematic  position,  which  seems  without  much  doubt  to  be  properly 
among  the  Lithosiae  and  near  Clemensia. 

I  have  fouud  the  larva  frequently  on  the  oak  in  September  both  in 
Maine  and  Rhode  Island.  Its  habit  is  unmistakably  Lithosian;  it  dif- 
fers, however,  from  Arctian  and  Lithosian  lame  in  having  one  less  pair 
of  abdominal  legs,  having  but  four  pairs,  whereas  the  caterpillars  of 
the  Lithosiae  and  Arctians  have,  like  most  caterpillars,  an  additional 
pair,  i.  e.,  ten  abdominal  legs  in  all. 

When  I  first  discovered  the  larva  of  Nola  ovilla  I  supposed  it  to  be 
near  Orocota.  It  was  fouud  to  be  common  on  the  leaves  of  the  oak  in 
Maine,  September  6. 

September  14  to  16  the  caterpillars  made  singular  boat-shaped,  flat- 
tened, oval-cylindrical  cocoons  closely  attached  to  the  surface  of  the 
leaves;  they  were  spun  with  silk,  but  covered  closely  on  the  inside 
with  bits  of  oak  leaves.  The  pupa  appeared  as  soon  as  the  cocoon  was 
completed,  September  15.  The  moths  appeared  May  31  and  June  1  of 
the  following  year. 

Larva. — The  body  is  broad  and  much  flattened,  rather  short,  with  four  pairs  of  well 
developed  abdominal  feet,  the  first  pair  being  situated  on  the  fourth  abdomiual  seg- 
ment. The  head  is  not  very  large,  three-fourths  as  wide  as  the  body  :  black,  with  a 
few  paler  irregular  Hues.  The  body  is  dirty-whitish,  with  a  dark  linear  dorsal  line, 
a  dark  dorsal  discoloration  behiud  the  head,  auother  in  the  middle  of  the  body,  and 
a  third  near  the  end. 

The  body  is  hairy,  though  not  densely  so  ;  ou  each  segment  are  four  dorsal  tubercles 
from  which  radiate  short  dusky  hairs;  on  the  side  is  a  larger  and  longer  tubercle 
from  which  arise  lateral  very  long  hairs,  being  as  long  as  the  body  is  broad ;  some 
black  hairs  are  mixed  with  the  dirty-whitish  ones.  The  larger  and  most  of  the 
shorter  hairs  are  simple,  not  barbed,  but  theshortest,  smallest  hairs  are  finely  though 


slightly  barbed,  the  barbules  short.     The  tubercles  are  dirty-white,  concolorous  with 
the  rest  of  the  body.     Length,  13mm. 

Moth.—  A  small  frail  form,  withciliate  antennae,  no  ocelli,  and  long  dependent  palpi, 
their  second  joint  thickly  scaled.  Fore  wings  grayish- white,  with  the  inner  line  black, 
fine,  angulated.  Outer  line  denticulate,  followed  by  a  pure  white  shade.  A  pure 
white  shade  in  the  place  of  the  subterminal.  Hind  wings  dusty  white.  Beneath, 
the  fore  wings  are  pale  fuscous,  immaculate  ;  hind  wings  whitish,  with  a  discal  dot. 
Expanse  of  wings,  16mm.    (Grote,  Can.  Ent.,  vn,  221.) 

182.  Seirarctia  echo  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

This  is  a  southern  moth,  whose  caterpillar  lives  on  the  ground  oak, 
persimmon,  and  several  other  kinds  of  trees.  uIt  formed  its  web  May 
31;  one  came  out  the  23d  of  August,  but  the  rest  remained  in  chrysalis 
till  the  14th  of  April.     It  is  a  rare  species."    (Abbot.) 

The  moth  is  white,  the  veins  edged  with  black,  while  the  abdomen  is 
spotted  with  yellowish  and  black. 

183.  The  oak  tussock  caterpillar. 

Halesidota  maculata  Harris. 
Order  Lepidoptera  ;  family  Bombycid^e. 

It  may  be  found  feeding  in  September,  being  a  black,  very  hairy 
caterpillar,  with  yellow  and  black  tufts  and  yellow  on  the  sides  of  the 
body.  The  worm  spins  late  in  September  a  yellowish-gray  oval  cocoon, 
constructed  of  silk,  with  the  hairs  of  the  caterpillar  interwoven.  The 
moth  appears  the  first  week  in  June. 

Found  feeding  on  oak,  London,  Ont.,  July,  1870.  Body  black,  thickly  covered  with 
bright  yellow  and  black  hairs.  There  is  a  dorsal  row  of  black  tufts  from  the  fifth  to 
the  twelfth  segment.  Those  on  the  fifth,  eleventh,  and  twelfth  are  largest.  Seg- 
ments 5  and  12  have  an  extra  substigmatal  one  each  side. 

The  same  insect  was  found  August  19,  1875,  feeding  on  willow,  at  Detroit,  Mich. 
(Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

The  larva. — Cylindrical ;  1.30  inch  long.  Head  large,  slightly  bilobed;  black,  with 
a  faint  white  streak  down  the  front  as  far  as  the  middle,  where  it  becomes  forked. 
Body  above  black,  thickly  covered  with  tufts  of  bright  yellow  and  black  hairs.  On 
the  second,  third,  and  fourth  segments  the  hairs  are  mixed,  yellow  and  black,  those 
of  the  second  and  third  segments  overhanging  the  head.  From  the.  fourth  to  the 
eleventh  segments,  inclusive,  is  a  dorsal  row  of  black  tufts,  the  largest  of  which  are 
on  the  tenth  and  eleventh  segments ;  the  fourth  and  eleventh  segments  have  also  a 
black  tuft  on  each  side  near  the  base.  The  hairs  on  the  sides  of  the  body,  from  the 
fifth  to  the  tenth  segments,  inclusive,  are  all  bright  yellow,  while  those  on  the  sides 
of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  are  mixed  with  black.  On  the  third,  fourth,  eleventh, 
and  twelfth  segments  are  a  few  long,  spreading  yellow  hairs,  much  longer  than  those 
elsewhere.     (Saunders.) 

The  moth. — Light  ocher-yellow,  with  large  irregular  light-brown  spots  on  the  fore 
wings,  arranged  almost  in  transverse  bands.  It  expands  nearly  an  inch  and  three- 
quarters.     (Harris.) 

184.  Halisidota  edtvardsii  Packard. 

A  Californian  species ;  the  caterpillar  is  abundant  on  various  species 
of  oaks,  in  the  neighborhood  of  San  Francisco.     The  larva,  says  Mr. 


Stretch,  is  nocturnal  in  its  habits,  and  in  the  day-time  may  be  found 
crowded  into  holes  ami  cavities  (generally  in  families),  and  often  in 
places  where  it  seems  scarcely  possible  for  them  to  penetrate.  It  is 
full-fed  abont  the  end  of  June,  and  the  imago  is  disclosed  during  the 
latter  part  of  July.  The  cocoon  is  composed  chiefly  of  the  hairs  of  the 
larva,  and,  although  of  considerable  density,  is  but  slightly  bound  to- 
gether with  silk. 

Larva.  —  Head  dark  brown,  very  large ;  thoracic  legs  reddish  brown,  abdominal  legs 
tawny.  Body  stout,  depressed,  densely  clothed  with  moderately  long  rich-brown 
hairs  of  uniform  Length,  gi\  ing  the  larva  a  brush-like  appearance.  The  sides  of  the 
body,  as  well  as  the  head  and  anal  segment,  have  long  silky  scattered  hairs  of  a  tawny 

yellow.     Length,  1.50  inches.  (Stretch.) 

Moth. — Bicolorous,  bad-yellow  and  vermilion.  Fore  wiugs  with  rive  subhyaline 
smoky,  transverse  bands,  margined  with  black,  less  oblique  than  usual.  The  basal 
band  eonsists  of  a  small  costal  spot  and  an  outer  median  large  round  spot.  Second  band 
regularly  curved,  third  hardly  oblique,  waved.  The  outer  ones  nearly  parallel  with 
the  outer  margin.  Hind  wings  transparent  except  on  the  pilose  inner  margin,  which 
is  tinged  with  vermilion.  Abdomen  above,  iucludiug  the  base  of  the  anal  tuft,  ver- 
milion. Beneath,  pale  buff,  the  costal  spot  re-appearing.  On  the  costa  of  the  hind 
wiugsnear  the  apes  are  two  dusky  square  spots,  which  do  not  appear  on  the  upper 
side.  Legs  ringed  on  the  femora  and  tibiae.  One  ring  on  the  end  of  the  tibiae,  and 
each  tarsus  aunulated  on  the  basal  half  with  smoky  pale  brown.  Femora  vermilion 
beneath.     Expanse  of  wings,  2  20  inches. 

185.   Halesidota  tessellata  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

Found  August  29,  1872,  on  laurel  oak,  a  yellow,  white  tufted  Hal- 
esidota larva.  Others  that  were  found  on  hickory  are  probably  of  Uw 
same  species.  Both,  when  full  grown,  are  mouse  gray,  with  a  darker  dor- 
sal ridge.  Two  long  black  pencils  near  posterior  end  and  four  near  the 
head,  on  joints  one  and  two,  and  six  shorter  and  thinner  white  ones. 
(Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

1»6.  Org yia  gulosa  Hy.  Edwards. 

The  moth  closely  resembles  the  Californian  0.  vetusta.  0.  gulosa  is 
always  much  smaller  than  O.  vetusta;  the  white  spot  near  the  inner 
angle  is  less  distinct  and  the  lines  on  the  fore  wings  are  invariably 
more  clouded  and  confused.  Expanse  of  wings,  .7/3  inch.  The  cater- 
pillar feeds  on  the  oak  in  California,  while  0.  vetusta  feeds  on  the  lupine. 
(H.  Edwards.) 

The  larva. — Ground  color,  as  in  0.  vetusta,  velvety  black;  head  jet  black,  without 
the  yellow  frontal  line,  and  with  the  mouth-parts  dull  yellow;  secoud  segment  with 
the  usual  complex  series  of  black  hairs.  Between  them  are  two  dark,  brick-red 
tubercles:  third  has  two  orange  central  tubercles  and  two  brick-red  ones  on  the 
sides;  fourth  has  a  black  central  tuft,  with  two  brick-red  ones  on  the  sidesof  it  :  the 
fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh  have  each  a  white  central  tuft,  with  two  brick-red  tubercles 
on  each  side;  the  eighth,  ninth,  and  tenth  each  with  six  brick-red  tubercles:  the 
eleventh  has  a  central  tuft  of  black  hairs,  directed  posteriorly,  with  two  brick-red 
tubercles.  Anal  segment  black.  From  the  base  of  all  the  red  tubercles  arise  bundles 
of  black  and  white  hairs,  almost  wholly  white  on  the  sides.  Bet  ween  the  seventh  and 
eighth  segments  are  some  bright  orange  dashes,  which  marks  are  also  indistinctly  seen 
on  the  anterior  segments.     Food  plant.  Qaercas,  of  various  species.     (H.  Edwards.) 


187.   Orgyia  definita  Packard. 

Mr.  R.  Thaxter  informs  me  that  this  species  feeds  on  the  oak.  Mr. 
Otto  Seifert  has  also  bred  the  insect  in  all  its  stages,  but  as  far  as  I  am 
aware  has  not  published  his  description. 

Moth. — Female.  Umber-brown.  Head,  thorax,  base,  and  inner  margin  of  prima- 
ries more  testaceous.  A  faint,  basal,  dark,  straight,  transverse  line.  Beyond  and 
near  the  linear  lunate  discal  spot,  which  is  surrounded  by  the  testaceous  brown,  is  an 
indistinct  nearly  straight  line.  An  outer  very  distinct  curved  line,  being  straight 
from  the  costa  to  where  it  is  angulated  on  the  fifth  subcostal  nervule,  and  again  half 
way  between  the  discal  spot  and  internal  margin.  Beyond  this  line  on  the  costa  is 
an  oblong,  dark,  well-defined  spot,  succeeded  by  a  submarginal  row  of  dots,  ending 
in  a  white  spot  near  the  internal  margin.  Beneath,  lighter.  Lines  faintly  seen  be- 
neath, the  outer  one  extending  faintly  onto  the  secondaries,  which  have  a  discal  dot. 

The  markings  are  much  more  distinct  in  this  species  than  in  0.  leucosligma,  while 
the  outer  line  is  angulated  nearer  the  middle.  Length  of  body,  9  >  0.60  ;  exp.  wings, 
1.20  inches. 

188.  Parorgyia  achatina  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

In  their  great  work  on  the  Lepidoptera  of  Georgia,  Abbot  and  Smith 
state  that  this  caterpillar  feeds  on  various  species  of  oak  as  well  as  on 
the  hickory.  "  It  spun  on  the  3d  of  May  and  the  moth  came  out  on  the 
20th."  The  moths  of  both  this  and  the  next  species  are  very  rare  in  our 
collections,  though  the  caterpillars  may  be  more  commonly  met  with. 

18).  Parorgyia  parallela  Grote  and  Rob. 
(Larva  in  hibernation  stage.    Plate  xxxv,  Fig.  3.) 

Although  I  am  strongly  inclined  to  consider  this  species  as  a  syno- 
nym of  P.  achatina  Abbot  and  Smith,  yet  until  we  have  more  specimens 
in  all  stages  from  the  Southern  States,  the  present  specific  name  may 
be  retained.  I  have  a  single  small  female  from  Florida,  which  differs 
somewhat  from  Abbot's  figure  of  P.  achatina,  aud  yet  seems  to  belong 
to  that  species  and  to  agree  in  many  respects  with  a  series  of  females 
of  P.  parallela  in  my  collection. 

Our  northern  specimens  have  been  bred  by  Mr.  Otto  Seifert,*  of  New 
York,  and  I  have  received  some  from  Rev.  G.  D.  Hulst,  the  latter  of 
which  have  been  pronounced  to  be  P.  parallela  by  him,  by  Mr.  Graef, 
and  also  by  Mr.  Eoland  Thaxter.  I  have  also  raised  the  larva  from 
eggs  received  both  from  Miss  Morton,  of  Newburgh,  K  Y.,  and  from 
a  lot  of  eggs  received  from  Mr.  Thaxter  and  kindly  sent  by  him  from 
Aiken,  S.  C. 

The  males  of  what  I  take  to  be  P.  parallela  (%=P.  achatina)  and  P. 
clintonii  (=P.  leucophcea),  are  difficult  to  separate,  while  the  females 
are  readily  separable. 

In  the  male  of  P.  parallela  the  outer  or  extradiscal  line  curves  out- 
ward before  reaching  the  costa,  and  then  bends  inward  on  the  costa; 

*  See  Entomologica  Americana,  iii,  93. 


also  the  dark  blotch  between  this  line  and  the  apex  is  narrower  and 
much  less  distinct  than  in  the  male  of  P.  vlintonii  (leucophoea). 

The  females  are  readily  separated  from  those  of  P.  leucophoea,  as  they 
lack  the  large  brown  patch  near  the  apex  of  the  fore  wings. 

I  have  received  the  eggs  of  this  moth 
from  Miss  Emily  L.  Morton,  of  Newburgh, 
N.  Y.,  which  hatched  July  28th.  After- 
ward, the  same  season,  I  received  a  batch 
of  eggs  from  Mr.  Koland  Thaxter,  then  in 
Aiken,  8.  C,  where  they  were  laid  August 

Fig.  42.--Parorgyia parallela,  male 
(from  photographs). 

Fig.   43.— Parorgyia   parallela,   female 
(from  a  photograph). 

2d.    They  hatched  in  Maine,  August  9th  to  11th  and  molted  for  the 
second  time  August  26th. 

It  appears  that  the  larva?  before  the  last  molt  contract  in  length  and 
hibernate;  spin  a  cocoon  the  following  July,  the  moths  appearing  in 
the  end  of  July  in  New  York,  and  sometimes  not  until  late  in  August. 

Larva— Ut  stage.  July  2bth.  Length  2.5mm.  Head  rounded,  not  very  large,  black, 
retracted  within  the  very  wide  prothoracic  segment,  which  has  on  each  side  a  large 
black  tubercle,  larger  than  those  on  the  abdominal  segments;  between  the  two 
tubercles  is  a  median  dark  patch.  On  the  two  succeeding  thoracic  segments  the 
tubercles  are  small.  On  each  abdominal  segment  are  two  dorsal  and  two  lateral  black 
tubercles  on  each  side.  From  the  tubercles  arise  loose  tufts  of  tawny  brown  and  pale 
hairs,  of  unequal  length,  some  twice  as  long  as  the  body,  so  that  the  larva  looks 
somewhat  like  an  arctian  or  a  young  Clisiocampa  or  Gastropaeba,  and  quite  different 
from  a  young  Orgyia.  On  the  5th  abdominal  segment  is  a  clear  pale  dorsal  space,  the 
tubercles  being  absent.  The  thoracic  legs  are  dark,  while  the  abdominal  legs  are 
long,  pale,  like  the  body.  August  3d  and  4th,  shortly  before  the  first  molt,  the  body 
became  rather  wider  and  flatter,  and  the  hairs  not  so  dense.     Length,  3-4mm. 

2d  stage. — Aug.  6th  first  molt.  Length  4-5nim.  The  generic  characters,  i.  e.,  those 
peculiar  to  the  final  stage  of  the  caterpillar,  now  begin  to  reveal  themselves.  The 
hairs  arising  from  the  prothoracic  segment  extend  out  horizontally  over  the  head  and 
are  very  long  and  finely  parted,  so  as  to  be  feathery,  some  of  them  being  nearly  as 
long  as  the  body  ;  those  arising  from  the  end  of  the  body  are  as  long  as  those  in  front. 
The  lateral  outstretched  hairs  have  fine  long  barbs  so  as  to  be  beautifully  feathery, 
as  on  the  upright  dorsal  ones.  There  is  a  large,  dark,  irregular  dorsal  tuft  on  the 
second  and  third  abdominal  segments,  and  a  smaller,  but  still  large  and  dense,  one  on 
the  eighth  segment. 

On  the  6th  and  7th  abdominal  segments  is  a  single  median  white  tubercle,  situ- 
ated on  a  dark  ground.  These  two  tubercles  are  highly  retractile,  and  appear  to  be 
homologous  with  the  coral-red  retractile  tubercles  of  Orgyia.  They  are  each  situated 
slightly  in  advance  of  the  two  dorsal  tubercles  of  the  same  segments.     The  prothoracic 


segment  is  still  wide  in  front,  as  before.     Each  of  the  two  black  conspicuous  tubercles 
gives  rise  to  a  small,  black,  slender  pencil  of  hairs. 

3d  stage.—  After  2d  molt,  Aug.  10-12.  Length  ?mm.  The  distinctive  characters  of 
the  fully  grown  larva  are  now  apparent.  The  head  is  entirely  concealed  by  the 
overarching  hairs  arising  from  the  prothoracic  segment.  All  the  hairs  are  now  ash- 
gray  in  hue,  except  those  on  a  large  dark  area  forming  the  thoracic  tuft  and  a  naked 
area  on  the  posterior  third  of  the  body,  which  bears  the  two  whitish  retractile  papil- 
la. There  is  a  large,  black,  low,  dense  tuft  on  the  8th  abdominal  segment.  It  is 
now  a  wonderfully  beautiful  larva,  the  hairs  are  so  long,  soft,  and  feathery. 

4th  stage. — After  the  3d  molt,  Aug.  25.  Length  12-14mm.  not  including  the  protho- 
racic pencils,  which  are  now  one-half  as  long  as  the  body.  It  differs  in  this  stage 
chiefly  in  the  longer  and  larger,  more  distinct  black  pencils  arising  from  just  behind 
the  head. 

In  this  stage,  represented  by  Fig.  3  of  Plate  xxxv,  the  body  contracted  in  length 
and  the  larva  ceased  feeding  in  Maine  (the  eggs  having  been  mostly  laid  in  Aiken, 
S.  C),  and  most  of  them  died.  It  evidently  hibernates  in  this  stage,  not  probably 
completing  its  transformations  until  the  following  midsummer  in  the  Northern  States. 
In  the  Southern  States  it  is  probably  double-brooded.* 

bth  and  last  stage.— Length  of  body,  without  the  pencils,  35mm.  From  a  colored 
sketch  by  Mr.  Bridgham  of  a  larva  found  wandering  at  Providence  July  29,  a  pair  of 
long,  blackish  pencils,  but  little  shorter  than  those  in  front,  arises  from  the  9th  ab- 
dominal segment. 

Professor  Riley,  in  some  notes  on  the  eversible  glands  in  larvae  of 
Orgyia  and  Parorgyia,  and  on  the  synonymy  of  the  species  (Proc.  Ent. 
Soc.,  Washington,  vol.  I,  p.  88).  remarks : 

"  I  also  exhibit  blown  larvae  of  a  Parorgyia,  which,  from  the  bred  specimens,  I  be- 
lieve to  be  P.  leucophcea  Smith  &  Abbott.  I  have  bred  one  male  of  this  from  the  larva 
feeding  on  Persimmon.  In  an  endeavor  to  determine  my  bred  material  in  this  genus, 
I  have  concluded  that  there  are  fewer  species  than  have  been  made  by  Lepidopterists. 
The  imagos  vary  considerably  in  details  of  coloration  and  markings,  and  it  is  quite 
probable  that  obliquata  will  prove  to  be  synonymous  with  leucophcea.  The  larva,  as 
figured  by  Smith  and  Abbott,  is  probably  misleading,  in  having  the  dorsal  tufts  too 
conspicuously  shown  on  joints  8,  9,  and  10,  for  in  my  specimens  they  have  been,  as  in 
other  species  of  this  genus,  large  and  conspicuous  on  joints  4,  5,  6,  and  7,  inclusive, 
but  far  less  so  on  the  other  joints. 

"I  also  exhibit  various  blown  larvae  of  Parorgyia  clinionii  Gr.  These  vary  in  the 
color  of  the  tufts  according  to  state  of  growth,  and  there  is  also  individual  variation. 
My  original  specimens  were  found  feeding  on  honey  locust,  but  I  have  also  found  it 
on  various  other  plants,  as  wild  plum,  elm,  etc.  Both  these  Parorgyia  larvae  show 
the  same  eversible  glands,  though  they  are  less  conspicuous  than  in  Orgyia,  on  ac- 
count of  the  greater  density  of  the  hairs  surrounding  them.  As  to  the  synonymy  of 
this  species,  my  experience  with  the  adolescent  states  leaves  little  doubt  that  clinionii 
is  a  synonym  of  achatina  Sm.  &  Abb.,  and  I  question  whether,  with  more  complete 
knowledge,  parallela  and  basiflava  and  even  cinnamomea  will  not  prove  synonymous 
with-  the  same  species." 

190.  Parorgyia  leucoplma  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

According  to  Abbot  and  Smith,  the  caterpillar  feeds  on  the  live  oak 
and  other  species  of  oaks.  "It  spun  a  thin  pale  brown  web  April  20, 
in  Georgia,  and  came  forth  on  the  wing  the  9th  of  May." 

In  the  male  of  this  species,  of  which  I  now  regard  P.  clintonii  G.  and 

*  Compare  Dr.  Lintner's  statements  in  Entomological  Contributions,  in,  129. 


Rob.  as  undoubtedly  a  synonym,  the  extradiscal  line  is  nearly  straight 
near  and  on  the  costa;  and  there  can  be  Been  the  same  dark  brown 
streaks  in  the  brown  BUbapical  patch,  which  are  so  marked  and  dis- 
tinctive in  the  female.  I  can  recognize  this  patch,  with  the  points  sent 
outward  from  it,  in  Grote  and  Robinson's  excellent  colored  figure,  as 
well  as  in  oue  of  my  specimens.  The  females  of  /'.  leucoplHva  (and 
clintonii),  of  which  I  have  a  small  one  from  Florida,  are  at  once  dis- 
tinguished Irom  those  of  P.  achatina  by  the  outer  line  endiug  more 
obliquely  ou  the  costa.  Just  beyond  this  line  and  extending  towards 
the  apex  are  three  dark  brown  longitudinal  patches,  with  the  spaces 
between  filled  up  with  brown,  the  whole  forming  a  large,  conspicuous 
dark  brown  patch,  with  ragged  edges  or  points  extending  towards  the 
outer  margin  of  the  wing.  1  have  a  male  of  1\  clintonii  which  has 
been  compared  with  one  in  Mr.  Thaxter's  collection,  named  for  him  by 
Mr.  Grote;  also  one  so  labeled  given  me  by  Mrs.  C.  H.  Fernald;  also 
one  so  named  raised  by  Mrs.  A.  T.  Slosson  from  a  larva  found  at  Fran- 
conia,  N.  EL,  feediug  on  Hamamelis  the  second  week  in  June.  It  re- 
mained, she  kindly  informs  me,  nineteen  days  in  the  cocoon,  the  moth 
appearing  from  June  27  to  30.  It  seems  probable  to  me  that  P.  ban- 
flava  Pack.,  P.  obliquata  G.  and  R.,  and  P.  cinnamomea  G.  and  R.  are 
synonyms  of  P.  clintonii.  and  that  the  latter  is  the  same  as  P.  lencophaa 
of  Abbot  and  Smith.  Unfortunately  we  do  not  know  the  appearance 
of  the  larva  of  this  species  except  from  Abbot's  drawings,  as  it  has  not 
since  his  time  been  described  and  figured. 

191.  The  European  gipsy  moth. 

Ocneria  dispar  (Linn.). 

Plate  xxxvu. 

This  insect,  originally  introduced  from  Europe  through  an  accident 
by  Mr.  L.  Trouvelot  while  living  in  Medford,  Mass.,  about  the  year  1868 
or  1869,  has  become  acclimated,  and  during  the  summer  of  1889  caused 
u  very  great  alarm,"  being  "  very  destructive"  to  fruit  and  shade  trees, 
including  the  "  linden,  elm,  birch,  beech,  oak,  poplar,  willow,  hornbeam, 
ash,  hazel-nut,  larch,  fir,"  etc.  It  is  a  destructive  insect  in  Europe. 
The  information  here  given  is  taken  from  an  illustrated  pamphlet  pub- 
lished in  1889  by  Prof.  C.  H.  Fernald,  entomologist  of  the  Hatch  Ex- 
periment Station  at  Amherst,  Mass.,  who  recommends  showering  the 
trees  with  Paris  green  in  water  (1  lb.  to  150  gallons)  soon  alter  the 
hatching  of  the  eggs  in  spring. 

Eggs.-  -Globular,  about  ^Vincli  in  diameter,  salmon  colored,  smooth,  and  laid  often 
to  the  number  of  400  or  500,  early  in  July,  on  the  under  side  of  the  branches  or  on 
the  trunks,  or  on  fences  and  on  the  sides  of  buildings.  They  do  not  hatch  until  the 
following  spring. 

Larva, — Length,  1.75  inches.  Body  very  dark  brown,  or  black,  finely  reticulated 
with  pale  yellow.  There  is  a  pale  yellow  line  along  the  middle  of  tLe  back,  and  a 
Similar  one  along  each  side.  On  the  first  six  segments  behind  the  head  there  is  a 
bluish  tubercle  armed  with  several  black  spines  on  each  side  of  the  dorsal  line,  and 
on  the  remaining  segments  these  tubercles  are  dark  crimson  red.     Ou  the  middle  of 


the  10th  and  11th  segments  there  is  a  smaller  red  tubercle  notched  at  the  top.  The 
whole  surface  of  the  body  is  somewhat  hairy,  but  along  each  side  the  hairs  are  long 
and  form  quite  dense  clusters. 

Pupa. — From  £  to  1  inch  long,  varying  in  color  from  chocolate  to  reddish  brown. 

Moths. — The  male  is  very  much  smaller  than  the  female  and  with  broadly  pectinated 
antennae.  It  is  of  a  yellowish-brown  color,  with  two  dark  brown  lines  crossing  the 
fore-wings,  one  at  the  basal  third,  the  other  on  the  outer  third,  somewhat  curved, 
and  with  teeth  pointing  outwards  on  the  veins.  The  outer  end  of  all  the  wings  is 
dark  brown.  A  curved  dark  brown  spot  (reniform)  rests  a  little  above  the  middle  of 
the  wing,  and  a  small  round  spot  of  the  same  co?or  (orbicular)  is  situated  between 
this  and  the  base  of  the  wing,  just  outside  of  the  inner  cross  line.  A  similar  spot 
rests  near  the  middle  of  the  base  of  the  wing.  The  fringes  on  the  fore-wings  are 
dull  yellow  sh,  and  broken  by  eight  brown  spots.  The  antennae  are  strongly  bipec- 
tinated,  or  feather-like.     The  fore- wings  expand  about  an  inch  and  a  half. 

The  female  is  pale  yellowish  white,  with  dark  brown  cross-lines  and  spots  similar 
to  those  of  the  males.  The  cross-lines  in  both  sexes  are  much  darker  and  more  prom- 
inent on  the  forward  edge  of  the  wings  (costa)  than  elsewhere.  In  some  specimens 
there  is  a  faint  stripe  of  brown  across  the  middle  of  the  wing  (median  shade),  and  a 
toothed  line  across  the  wing  near  the  outer  edge  (subterminal  line).  The  fringes  of 
the  fore-wings  have  eight  dark  spots  between  the  ends  of  the  veins,  as  in  the  males, 
and  similar  but  fainter  spots  often  occur  in  the  fringes  of  the  hind  wings.  The  body 
is  much  stouter  than  in  the  males,  and  the  antennas  are  not  so  heavily  feathered. 
The  expanse  of  the  wings  is  from  If  to  2f  inches. 

192.  Lagoa  crispata  Pack. 

Although  this  caterpillar  has  been  raised  from  the  raspberry  by  the 
late  Mr.  G.  A.  Shurtleff,  near  Boston,  we  have  found  it  common  on  the 
scrub  oak  in  Providence  as  late  as  October  1,  some  specimens  before  the 
last  molt  occurring  September  20  to  27.  This  curious  woolly  caterpillar 
will  attract  attention  from  its  peculiar  appearance. 

As  we  have  elsewhere  stated,  the  cocoon  is  rather  long,  cylindrical ; 
its  texture  is  dense,  being  formed  of  the  hairs  of  the  larva,  closely 
woven  with  silk.  When  the  pupa,  which  is  very  thin,  is  about  to 
transform  it  escapes  from  the  cocoon,  as  the  cast  skin  is  found  with  the 
tip  of  the  abdomen  remaining  in  the  cocoon.  In  this  respect  the  moth 
is  a  connecting  link  between  the  groups  represented  by  Orgyia  and 

Full-grown  larva. — Body  short,  broad,  and  flat,  head  deep  honey-yellow;  jaws 
darker;  the  head  very  retractile  within  the  large  prothoracic  segment,  whichis  large 
and  fleshy,  produced  down  around  the  face  like  a  hood,  so  as  to  entirely  envelop  the 
head,  so  that  it  is  not  seen  while  eating,  with  a  large  V-shaped  incision  in  front.  The 
body  densely  covered  with  hairs,  so  that  the  caterpillar  appears  about  one-half  as 
broad  as  long,  rounded  at  each  end,  the  hairs  very  long  and  curly ;  those  on  the 
thoracic  segments  mouse-gray;  all  the  rest  behind  a  uniform  pale  fawn-brown,  some- 
times above  a  dark,  rich ;  a  slight  dorsal  broad  crest,  a  subdorsal 
broad  ridge,  and  the  hairs  spread  out  on  the  side,  but  everywhere  so  long  and  dense 
as  to  entirely  conceal  the  head  and  body.  The  sides  are  mouse-gray  as  above,  but 
the  lateral  hairs  are  not  to  be  seen  from  above.  The  body  is  pale  whitis'i  yellow,  the 
thoracic  and  abdominal  legs  also  pale  dull  yellowish  white.  The  first  pair  of  thoracic 
legs  are  smaller  and  nearer  together  than  the  others,  while  there  is  a  pair  of  rudi- 
mentary abdominal  legs  on  the  second  and  seventh  abdominal  segments.  Length, 
20-32mm;  breadth,  10-15,nm ;  height,  7mm. 


I. ana  before  laxt  molt.  —  Body  as  in  the  adult,  but  smaller,  and  the  hairs  are  thinner 
and  looser  and  about  twice  as  LoDg  and  very  much  finer.  The  body  can  be  seen 
through  them  and  the  fine  cottony  hairs  can  be  Keen  to  arise  in  dense  verticils  from 
small  mammilla),  which  ace  Borland  white  like  the  rest  of  the  body,  or  pale  tawny 
Oeherona,  a  bile  all  the  thoracic  segments  bear  slate-colored  hairs  above.  Behind  each 
Spiracle  is  an  erect  long  conical  acute  tlcshy  projection,  concealed  by  the  hairs;  the 
eighth  Segment  has  no  such  projection;  the  prothoracic  spiracles  are  on  the  suture 
very  near  the  inesothoracic  segment,  which  have  a  similar  but  rounded  and  slightly 
chitinous  projection  in  front  of  them.  Length,  'JO1'"";  breadth,  lO""" ;  height,  10mm. 
(Compare  also  the  full  account  of  the  transformations  of  this  moth  by  Dr.  Lintner, 
Ent.  Coutr.,  ii,  138.) 

193.  Lagoa  opercularis  (Abbot  and  Smith.) 

FlG.  ii.- Lagoa  opercularis,  larva.— After  Kiley. 


Fig.  45. — Lagoa  opercularis,  cocoon.— After 

Fig.  46.—  Lagoa  opercularis,  moth,  natural 
size. — After  Hubbard. 

The  following  account  of  this  interesting  insect  is  taken  from  Mr. 
Hubbard's  Keport  on  Orange  Insects: 

The  caterpillars  of  this  moth  are  covered  with  long,  siljey  hairs,  underneath  which 
are  concealed  shorter,  stiff  hairs,  exceedingly  sharp  at  the  points  and  powerfully 
nettling  when  they  penetrate  the  flesh.  Upon  some  persons  the  invisible  wounds 
made  by  these  hairs  produce  swellings  and  an  amount  of  irritation  equivalent  to  a 
sting;  the  larvae  are,  in  consequence,  popularly  supposed  to  be  very  poisonous.  When 
young  the  caterpillars  are  white  and  resemble  a  flock  of  cotton  wool.  They  undergo 
six  molts,  at  one  of  the  last  of  which  they  become  darker,  the  color  varying  in  indi- 
viduals from  red-brown  to  light-clay  color. 

Tht'  cocoon  is  placed  in  a  crotch  of  the  tree  or  upon  a  branch  of  considerable  size; 
it  is  20m,n  (eight-tenths  inch)  long,  oval,  convex,  flattened  on  the  side  next  the  tree, 
and  fastened  very  firmly  to  the  bark.  The  upper  end  is  abruptly  truncate,  and  fitted 
with  a  hinged  trap-door,  which  is  readily  pushed  open  from  within  by  the  escaping 
moth,  but  does  not  yield  to  pressure  from  without,  and  is  so  accurately  fitted  that  no 
tell-tale  crack  can  be  discerned.  Upon  the  back  of  the  cocoon  is  an  elevation  formed 
by  the  meeting  of  several  folds  and  ridges,  forming  a  marvelously  exact  imitation  of 
a  winter  bud.  The  ends  of  a  lock  of  hair  from  the  body  of  the  caterpillar  counterfeit 
the  down  which  in  nature  protects  the  dormant  bud.  The  substance  of  which  the 
cocoon  is  made  is  a  tough  parchment,  composed  of  agglutinated  silk,  in  which  is 
felted  the  loug,  hairy  covering  of  the  larva.  Its  color  is  a  neutral  brown,  closely  ap- 
proximating to  that  of  the  bark  upon  which  it  is  placed.  The  entire  arrangement  is 
a  most  successful  representation  of  the  stump  of  a  small  branch  broken  off  near  its 
junction  with  the  main  stem,  and  upon  which  is  plainly  shown  the  swelling  of  a  bud. 

Life-history. — The  larva  is  a  very  general  feeder,  and  although  the  oak  appears  to 
be  its  principal  food  plant,  it  is  occasionally  injurious  to  the  orange.  It  never  injures 
the  bark  or  tender  shoots,  but  subsists  only  on  the  mature  leaves. 

There  are  two  broods,  one  in  early  summer  and  the  other  in  the  fall.  The  larvae  of 
the  second  brood  form  their  cocoons  in  November  or  December,  and  in  them  pass  the 


winter,  not  changing  to  pupa  until  the  following  March  or  April,  or  about  two  weeks 
before  the  moths  appear. 

The  same  parasites  have  been  bred  from  Lagoa  as  from  the  Orange  Dog.  Tachina 
flies  have  issued  in  June  from  a  cocoon  found  on  the  orange  in  March.  The  hymenop- 
terons  parasite  Chalcis  robusta  issued  September  15  from  a  cocoon  collected  August  27. 

Larva. — The  larva  presents  the  singular  appearance  of  a  lock  of  hair  possessing 
sluggish  life  and  a  gliding,  snail-like  motion.  It  is  1£  inches  long,  bluutly  rounded 
in  front  and  diminishing  rapidly  to  a  point  behind.  The  hair  rises  in  a  sharp  ridge 
upon  the  back,  and  forms  several  tufts  of  rust-red  color. 

Moth. — Body  very  woolly,  pale  yellow,  tinged  with  brown.  The  fore-wings  are  um- 
ber-brown at  the  base,  fadiug  to  pale  yellow  outwardly ;  the  surface  is  marked  with 
fine  wavy  lines  of  silver  gray,  and  the  fore  margins  are  nearly  black.  The  legs  are 
yellow,  with  dusky  feet.  The  wings  of  the  male  moth  spread  about  one  inch  ;  those 
of  the  female  an  inch  and  a  half. 

194.  Lacosoma  chirodota  Grote. 

The  following  account  of  this  insect  is  copied  from  Professor  Riley's 
notes.  It  is  very  rare  and  of  curious  habits,  and  like  the  succeeding 
species  never  likely  to  abound  sufficiently  to  be  injurious. 

Larvae  of  this  insect  were  found  in  Virginia  in  September,  feeding  on  the  oak.  It 
is  a  true  case-bearer,  resembling  very  much  Perophora  melsheimerii,  differing,  however, 
principally  in  the  absence  of  the  long  antennae-like  horns.  Its  general  color  is  yellow- 
ish-green; the  head  is  brown,  with  yellow  markings,  and  is  coarsely  rugose  and 
punctured.  Each  side  of  the  thoracic  segments  are  two  more  or  less  confluent,  brown, 
subdorsal  lines,  and  on  the  last  segment  are  some  rather  indistinct  pale-brownish 
markings.  Thoracic  legs  reddish-yellow.  Stigmata  black,  with  pale  center.  The  case 
is  constructed  of  a  single  leaf,  which  is  bent  longitudinally,  the  edges  turned  upward 
and  held  in  place  by  a  strong  white  web.  This  case  is  suspended  by  some  threads  and 
fastened  to  the  surrounding  leaves,  and  the  larva  issues  partly  when  feeding,  but 
retreata  suddenly  when  disturbed.  The  case  is  open  at  both  ends,  so  that  the  larva 
can  turn  and  feed  from  which  end  it  pleases. 

Since  the  last  of  November  they  have  ceased  feeding,  but  did  not  transform  to  the 
pupa  till  the  28th  of  the  following  January,  when  they  were  noticed  to  change  the 
position  of  their  case  and  to  suspend  it  in  another  place.  The  moth  issued  the  10th 
of  February.  The  same  insect  was  also  received  from  Miss  M.  Murtfeldt,  Kirk  wood, 

It  is  interesting  to  compare  this  larva  with  that  of  Perophora,  and  the 
following  description,  in  addition  to  that  given  above,  I  have  drawn  up 
from  Professor  Riley's  alcoholic  specimen  : 

Larva. — Head  large,  about  as  wide  as  the  prothoracic  segment,  but  not  so  wide  as 
the  body,  which  is  thickest  in  the  middle.  Head  brown,  slightly  marbled  with  a  paler 
hue.  Prothoracic  segment  with  a  lateral  reddish-brown  stripe,  which  is  continued 
upon  the  succeeding  segment,  but  becomes  more  diffuse  ;  below  are  two  short  unequal 
reddish  lines;  there  are  no  markings  on  the  rest  of  the  body.  Body  moderately  long 
and  obtuse  at  the  end ;  the  supra-anal  plate  unusually  large,  broad  and  rounded, 
with  six  long  marginal  hairs.  All  the  abdominal  legs  short  and  thick.  Spiracles 
very  distinct  and  visible  from  above.  Antennae  minute,  of  the  usual  size,  not  elon- 
gated as  in  Perophora;  otherwise  the  larvae  of  the  two  insects  are  very  similar. 
Length,  23mm. 

Moth. — This  moth  seems  to  connect  the  true  Psychidae  with  Perophora.  It  resembles 
this  last  named  genus  in  its  broad  head,  the  broadly  pectinated  antennae,  the  general 
form  of  the  subfalcate  wings,  aud  in  its  coloration.     As  in  Perophora,  it  has  but  a 


single  outer  line  common  to  both  wings,  and  a  disc*]  dot  upon  each  wing.  Wings  and 
body  dark  yellowish-brown;  fore  wings  with  two  undulating  blackish  median  bands. 
theoater  the  broader  ami  more  distinct,  both  extending  across  the  hind  wings;  a 
round  black  disosJ  dot.     Expanse  Of  wings,  -J.")  to  ^U'1"". 


Perophora  meteheimerii  Harris. 

This  rather  singular  insect  ranges  from  Massachusetts  to  Missouri 
and  southward  to  Georgia,  as  I  possess  a  colored  drawing  of  it  made 
in  that  State  by  the  elder  Le  Conte.  1  have  observed  it  in  Providence 
early  in  October.  It  has  been  figured  in  its  larval  and  adult  state  by 
Harris,  who  has  given  an  extended  and  interesting  account  of  it.  The 
following  additional  notes  are  copied  from  Riley : 

August  28,  a  larva  of  this  moth  was  found  feeding  on  oak  in  Missouri ;  others  were 
taken  iu  southern  Illinois.  The  larva  is  very  active  and  savage,  when  disturbed] 
turning  with  great  ease  in  its  case  and  attacking  the  intruder.  Moth  from  larva 
received  iu  fall  of  18/4  issued  February  25,  1875,  and  laid  eggs.  The  eggs  are  bright 
yellow,  quite  large  for  the  insect,  and  very  slightly  glued  to  the  sides  and  cover 
of  the  cage  in  which  the  moth  was  confined.  At  first  the  eggs  are  very  soft,  but 
in  a  few  days  become  very  tough.  They  were  unfertilized.  (Riley's  unpublished 

Larva. — Head  with  long,  slender  clavate  appendages,  bulbous  at  the  end;  the 
head  is  large,  full,  rounded,  as  wide  as  the  prothoracic  segment.  Body  thicker  than 
usual,  somewhat  sack-like,  thickest  a  little  behind  the  middle,  and  truncated  at 
the  end  ;  the  unusually  large  supra-anal  plate  is  rounded  and  convex  on  the  dorsal 
surface.  Spiracles  so  situated  as  to  be  visible  from  above,  large  and  distinct ■;  five 
pairs  of  short,  almost  rudimentary,  abdominal  feet ;  much  shorter  than  in  Lacosoma. 
Head  dark  brown,  as  is  the  prothoracic  segment,  the  two  hinder  segments  paler;  a 
diffuse  lateral  stripe  along  the  thoracic  segments;  rest  of  the  body  pale  brown. 

Pupa. — Very  stout  and  thick,  of  the  usual  shape,  but  with  no  cremaster,  this  being 
represented  by  two  short,  flattened  projections;  across  the  abdominal  segment  a 
double  dorsal  row  of  spines.     Length,  21mm. 

Moth. — Rather  large,  in  shape  and  size  like  the  Chinese*silk-worm ;  male  with 
broadly  feathered  antenna1  :  reddish-gray,  finely  sprinkled  with  black  dots;  hinder 
edge  of  hind  wings  and  the  under  side  of  the  fore  wings  tinged  with  tawny  red.  A 
small  black  dot  near  the  middle  of  the  fore  wings,  and  both  the  tore  and  hind  wings 
crossed  by  a  narrow  blackish  band,  beginning  with  an  angle  on  the  front  edge  of  the 
former  and  passing  obliquely  backward,  ending  a  little  beyond  the  middle  of  the 
inner  edge  of  the  hind  wings.     It  expands  about  2  inches. 

196.  The  cylindrical  baskkt  worm. 
Psyche  confederate  Grote  and  Robinson  ? 

The  following  notes  on  this  insect  have  been  given  us  by  Professor 
Riley.     We  append  the  original  description  of  the  moth. 

A  rather  curious  bag  worm,  carrying  its  case  almost  perpendicular,  was  found  on 
the  oak,  June  14.  Fastened  to  cover  of  breediug-case  preparatory  to  transforming 
June  24,  and  emerged  as  moth  July  16. 

The  case  differs  from  that  of  Platoeceticus  (jlovcrii  Pack,  of  Florida,  in 
being  cylindrical,  not  oval.     (See  Glover's  figures,  in  Packard's  Guide 



to  the  Study  of  Insects,  on  which  our  description  was  based.)     From 
specimens  of  P.  gloverii  it  seems  to  differ  in  the  hind  wings  being  less 
rounded,  more  produced  towards  the  apex.     They  ap- 
pear to  be  of  nearly  the  same  size. 

Moth. — Male  entirely  deep  smoky  black.  Antennae  plumose. 
Wiugs  ample,  closely  scaled,  rounded  and  full.  Neuration  of  pri- 
maries :  costal  nervure  simple  ;  slight,  joining  the  costa  before  the 
apex :  S.  c.  nervure  throwing  off  first  and  second  s.  c.  nervules  from 
its  upper  side  ou  to  the  costal  margin  ;  third  s.  c.  nervule  at  the  up- 
per extremity  of  the  discal  cell  furcate,  throwing  off  the  fourth  s. 
c.  nervule  from  its  lower  side  on  to  the  apex;  fifth  simple,  thrown 
off  from  a  short  tr  insverse  stem  on  to  the  external  margin  ;  discal 
cell  equilateral,  longitudinally  cordate,  not  closed  by  a  true  vein, 
but  by  a  vein-like  fold  depressedly  medially  augulated;  a  slight  crease  in  the 
membrane  divides  the  cell  into  two  equal  parts,  running  from  the  point  of  angu- 
lation of  the  fold,  closing  the  cell  to  the  base  of  the  wing;  median  nervure  four 
branched,  first  median  thrown  off  upon  external  margin  from  a  point  opposite  the 
fifth  s.  c.  nervule;  internal  nervure  sending  off  an  augulated  nervule  from  its  upper 
side,  at  about  its  center,  to  iuternal  angle  ;  the  nervure  itself  joins  the  margin  before 
the  angle,  and  is  straight.  The  male  cocoonet  with  agglutinated  fragments  of  con- 
iferous plauts,  and  with  the  extruded  skin  of  the  chrysalis  after  the  escape  of  the 
male  moth,  accompanied  a  number  of  specimens  of  this  species  received  from  the 
South.     Expanse  of  wings,  male  19mm.     Length  of  body,  7mm.     (Grote  and  Rob.) 

Fig.  47.— Case  of 
Psyche  confederate 
(after  Grote). 

197.  The  eight- flapped  slug-worm. 

Phobetrum  pithecium  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

Order  Lepidoptera  ;  Family  Bombycid^e. 

A  singular  dark-brown  short,  broad,  ovate,  flattened  caterpillar,  with  eight  long 
tongue-like,  slender,  fleshy  lateral  appendages,  sometimes  feeding  ,pn  the  oak. 

This  siugular  caterpillar,  usually  found  ou  the  plum,  cherry,  and 
apple,  changes  to  a  brown  moth  with  very  narrow  wiugs.  In  the  male 
the  antenna)  are  very  broadly  pectin- 
ated, and  the  remarkably  long  nar- 
row fore  wiugs  are  partly  transparent. 
Mr.  Lintner  has  bred  it  from  the  oak, 
and  Mr.  S.  Lowell  Elliott  tells  me  that 
it  is  almost  exclusively  an  oak-feeder? 
though  occurriug  on  the  wild  cherry 
and  chestnut.  The  following  ac- 
count is  copied  from  Mr.  Hubbard's 
"  Orange  Tnse  ts." 

This  insect  receives  its  name  from  the  curious  hairy  appeudages  which  cover  the 
back  and  project  from  the  sides  of  the  larva,  and  have  a  backward  twist,  like  locks 
of  disheveled  hair.  These  are,  in  fact,  fleshy  hooks,  covered  with  feathery,  brown 
hairs,  among  which  are  longer,  black,  stinging  hairs.  The  cocoon  is  almost  spherical, 
like  that  of  the  Saddle-back  caterpillar,  and  is  defended  by  the  hairy  appendages 
which  the  larva  in  some  way  contrives  to  leave  upon  the  outside.  These  tufts  give 
to  the  bullet-shaped  cocoon  a  very  nondescript  appearance,  and  the  stinging  hairs 
afford  a  very  perfect  protection  against  birds  and  other  insectivorous  animals. 

Fig.  48—  P.  pithecium  (after  Riley);    A.  co- 
coon— natural  size  (after  Hubbard). 


Unlike  the  preceding  species,  the  Hag-moth  larva}  do  not  seek  to  hide  away  their 
cocoons,  but  Attach  themto  leaves  and  twigs  fully  exposed  to  view,  with,  however, 
such  artful  management  as  to  surroundings  and  harmonizing  colors  that  they  are  of 
all  the  group  the  most  difficult  to  discover.  A  device  to  which  this  iosect  frequently 
resorts  exhibits  the  extreme  of  instinctive  sagacity.  If  the  caterpillar  can  not  find 
at  hand  a  suitable  place  in  whic  h  to  weave  its  cocoon  it  frequently  makes  for  itself 
more  satisfactory  surroundings  by  killing  the  leaves,  upon  which,  after  they  have 
become  dry  and  brown  in  color,  it  places  its  cocoon. 

Several  of  these  caterpillars  unite  together,  and  selecting  a  long  and  vigorous  im- 
mature shoot  or  leader  of  the  orange  tree  they  kill  it  by  cutting  into  its  base  until  it 
wilts  and  bends  over. 

The  leaves  of  a  young  shoot,  in  drying,  turn  a  light  tan-color,  which  harmonizes 
most  perfectly  with  the  hairy  locks  of  the  caterpillar  covering  the  cocoon.  The  lat- 
ter is,  consequently,  not  easily  detected,  even  when  placed  upon  the  exposed  and 
upturned  surface  of  the  leaf. 

Larva.— The  larva  is  15mm  (six-tenths  inch)  long  and  has  an  oval  body,  over  which, 
however,  the  flattened  and  closely  applied  appendages  form  a  nearly  square  shield. 

Moth. — The  moth  has  body  and  legs  of  purple-brown,  with  ocherous  patches  on  the 
back  and  a  light  yellow  tuft  on  the  middle  pair  of  legs.  The  abdomen  is  sable,  end- 
ing in  a  tuft  of  ocherous  scales.  The  fore  wings  have  the  colors  of  the  thorax  finely 
mingled,  as  in  graining.  The  hind  wings  are  sable,  bordered  with  ochreous  in  the 
female.  The  fore  wings  of  the  male  are  long  and  narrow,  the  hind  wings  short  and 
very  triangular.     Both  pairs  are,  in  this  sex,  partly  transparent. 

The  spread  of  wings  varies  in  this  moth  from  20  to  24mm  (eight-tenths  inch  to 
ninety-six  hundredths  inch.     Hubbard). 

198.  Euclea  querceti  (Herrich-Schaeffer).     (Limacodes  cippus  Harris). 

This  is  said  by  Abbot  to  feed  on  the  oak,  the  dog- wood,  and  other  trees. 
It  makes  its  cocoon  in  September,  the  moth  appearing  the  next  July. 

Larva. — Body  oblong-oval,  with  a  broad  dorsal  flat  ridge,  bearing  on  the  edge  in 
front  four  large,  and  near  the  end  of  the  body  the  same  number  of  large,  spinulated, 
fleshy,  loug  conical  green  tubercles,  and  between  them  four  pairs  of  short  ones.  Be- 
tween them  are  four  black  square  spots,  giving  a  checkered  appearance  to  the  ridge. 
The  sides  of  the  ridge,  the  surface  of  which  is  not  hollowed,  fall  away  rapidly  to  the 
lateral  row  of  eleven  fleshy  tubercles.  At  the  end  of  the  bmly  are  four  stout  black 
subcorneal  dense  tufts  of  dark  brown  spinulated  hairs.  Body  of  a  peculiar  pale 
glaucous  green  ;  between  the  two  rows  of  tubercles  is  a  rowr  of  nine  roundish  polygo- 
nal contiguous  spots  of  the  same  hue  as  the  rest  of  the  body,  but  edged  with  blackish. 
Length,  15mm. 

Moth. — Cinnamon  brown  ;  upon  and  beneath  the  median  vein  are  two  confluent 
green  spots  margined  with  a  row  of  white  and  brown  scales;  between  them  is  a  large 
notch  filled  in  with  rust-red.  These  two  spots  are  contiguous  to  three  subapical 
spots,  the  middle  one  of  which  is  triangular  and  largest,  and  beyond  it  is  a  rather 
narrow  rust-red  blotch.     Discal  dot  very  distinct,  ovate,  brown. 

199.   Parana  chloris  (Herrich-Schaeffer). 

The  larva  of  this  fine  moth  was  first  found  by  Beakirt  on  the  chest- 
nut in  September.  According  to  Andrews  (Psyche,  ii,  271),  it  feeds  on 
the  oak  (Quercus),  on  the  pear  tree,  on  wild  cherry  (Prunus),  and  on  the 
wax  myrtle  (Myrica  cerifera)  in  September.  Mr.  Elliott  has  reared  it 
from  the  elm,  and  Mr.  Wetherby  mentions  the  following  as  its  food 
plants:  Oak,  pear,  cherry,  and  tartarean  honeysuckle.  The  moth  ap- 
pears in  May  and  June,  according  to  latitude. 


Larva.— Onisciforni,  19mm  long.  Head  purplish-brown.  Four  purple  and  three 
white  lines  drawn  very  close  together  form  a  dorsal  band  running  the  length  of  the 
body.  Subdorsal  line  bright  red,  from  which  arise  six  red  spines  (longest  on  central 
segments)  studded  with  yellowish-red  spinelets;  betweeu  the  spines  and  on  the  fifth, 
sixth,  eighth,  and  ninth  segments  are  reddish  spiny  warts.  The  spines  and  warts 
are  on  elevated  ridges.  Beueath  the  subdorsal  line  are  two  pairs  of  purple  longi- 
tudinal lines  on  a  yellowish  ground  ;  the  pairs  divided  by 
a  red  line.  The  breathers  [spiracles]  are  on  a  similar  red 
line,  and  are  guarded  or  ornamented  by  spiuy  warts,  like 
those  meutioned  above.  Legs  of  a  sort  of  yellowish-olive 
color,  prolegs,  or  rather  tubercles,  and  under  side  of  body 
of  a  reddish  tinge.     Varies  considerably;  one  very  beau-  T'    ^J 

tiful  variety  has  all  the  red  of  the  typical  larva  replaced  by     Fig.  49.— Parasa  chloris. 
brimstone  yellow.     (W.  V.  Andrews.) 

Cocoon. — About  half  an  inch  long,  spun  on  the  midrib  of  a  leaf,  oval,  shining  brown- 

Moth. — In  general  shape  like  Euclea,  but  yet  quite  distinct  from  it.  The  species 
may  be  known  by  its  grass-green  thorax  and  the  broad  grass-green  band  which 
separates  the  brown  margin  of  the  wing  from  its  base.  Ground  color  pale  cinnamon- 
brown.  A  broad,  short,  vertical  tuft  between  the  bases  of  the  antennae.  Thorax 
above,  grass-green.  Middle  green  band  on  the  fore  wings  straight  on  the  outer  edge; 
within  it  is  slightly  excavated  and  follows  the  inner  edge  to  the  base  of  the  wing. 
The  hind  wings  are  concolorous  with  the  body,  and  above  are  a  little  paler  within  the 
outer  edge.     Expanse  of  wings,  .94  inch. 

200.  Parasa  f rater na  Grote. 

This  interesting  species,  according  to  MS.  notes  by  the  elder  Le 
Conte,  feeds  in  Georgia  on  the  oak,  chestnut,  aud  wild  cherry. 

Larva. — Length,  16mm ;  September  3  aud  4.  The  body  is  oblong-square,  and  seen  in 
section  subtrapezoidal,  the  dorsal  surface  being  in  general  flattened,  though  still 
somewhat  convex;  the  dorsal  area  being  from  one-half  to  two-thirds  as  wide  as  the 
creeping  disk  or  uuderside  of  the  body.  The  body  ends  in  a  long,  slender,  fleshy 
projection  or  tail,  which  is  somewhat  spinose  and  slightly  forked  at  the  end.  Along 
each  side  of  the  dorsal  surface  is  a  row  of  short,  thick,  retractile  tubercles,  bearing 
peculiar  stout  spines,  which  are  whitish  tipped  with  brown  at  the  end.  The  third  pair- 
from  the  head  is  situated  apparently  on  the  second  abdominal  segment,  and  is  twice 
as  large  as  the  others ;  those  on  the  eighth  abdominal  segment  are  much  larger  than 
the  other  abdominal  tubercles,  which  are  minute;  the  short  spines  on  this  pair  are 
whiter  than  those  on  the  other  tubercles.  A  brown  line  externally  washed  with  a 
paler  hue  bounds  the  sides  of  the  back.  There  is  a  lateral  row  of  small  spine-bear- 
ing tubercles  arouud  the  edge,  the  middle  of  each  tubercle  being  raised  or  convex. 
The  spiracles  are  minute,  white,  somewhat  elevated,  and  situated  on  a  darker  round 
area.  Low  down  between  the  two  rows  of  tubercles  is  a  row  of  smooth  kidney- 
shaped  depressed  spots.  The  head  is  of  a  chestnut  color,  the  labrum  paler.  The 
under  side,  or  disk,  is  pale  flesh  color,  edged  above  with  a  reddish  stripe,  which 
becomes  reddish-brown  above.  The  body  still  higher  up  is  of  a  rich  velvety,  dark 
flesh-red  brown,  some  individuals  being  much  darker  than  others.  The  under  side 
of  the  "tail"  is  carneous,  becoming  reddish  above,  and  dorsally  of  a  rich  brown, 
with  the  spinules  blackish,  or  pale  at  the  base  and  brown-black  at  the  tips. 

Moth. — P.  f rate  ma  differs  from  P.  chloris  in  being  smaller,  while  the  prolongation 
of  the  broad  green  band  in  the  fore  wings  along  the  inner  margin  to  the  base  of  the 
wing  is  very  much,  at  least  two-thirds,  narrower.     The  larva,  judging  by  several 
5  ENT 10 


specimens  belonging  to  the  two  last  stages,  differs  remarkably  from  that  of  chlori8y 
baring  almost  nothing  in  common  ;  as  regards  the  larvie  alone,  the  two  species  would 
wen  to  be  genexfenlly  separated. 

The  preceding  description  was  drawn  up  from  specimens  kindly  sent 
by  Miss  Morton. 


201.  E/mpretia  8timulea  Clemens. 

While  the  singular  caterpillar  of  this  moth  feeds  on  a  variety  of 
.  it  has  been  found  by  Mr.  S.  L.  Elliott  to  occur  on  the  oak,  though 
it  is  nowhere  a  particularly  common  insect. 

According  to  Clemeus,  it  feeds  on  a  great  variety  of  plants;  i.  e., 
fruit-trees,  the  rose,  Iudiau  corn,  etc. 

The  caterpillar  is  of  strange  form,  being  short  and  thick,  with  two 
large  spiny  tubercles  iu  front  and  two  behind.  On  the  back  is  a  large 
square  greeu  patch  like  a  saddle-cloth,  while  the  saddle  is  represented 
by  au  oval  purplish-brown  spot.  The  hairs  fringing  the  sides  of  the 
body  sting  severely.  Clemens,  who  describes  this  insect  (Proc.  Acad. 
Nat.  Sci.  Phila.),  says  that  the  caterpillars  "  produce  an  exceedingly 
painful  sensation  when  they  come  in  contact  with  the  back  of  the  hand, 
or  any  portion  of  the  body  ou  which  the  skin  is  thin."  The  larva'  do 
not  seem  to  seek  cover,  and  are  probably  distasteful  to  birds  ou  account 
of  their  nettling  hairs. 

Fig.  50.— Empretia  stimulea :  a.  moth  (after  Hubbard):  b.  larva  (after  Riley)  (all  hauual  size). 

"The  cocoons  are  short,  oval,  almost  globular,  flattened  against  the 
branch  to  which  they  are  attached,  and  are  of  the  same  tough,  parch- 
ment-like material  and  brown  color  as  in  Lagoa.  They  are  usually 
placed  in  concealment,  often  against  the  main  trunk  of  the  tree,  at  or 
near  the  surface  of  the  ground.  The  larva  before  pupating  cuts  a  cir- 
cular flap  at  the  end,  making  an  opening  nearly  equal  to  the  entire 
diameter  of  the  cocoon,  through  which  the  moth  makes  its  escape  by 
pushing  open  the  door  from  within."     (Hubbard's  Orange  Insects.) 

Larva. — Very  short  and  broad,  about  an  inch  long  and  one-third  as  broad  ;  with 
a  pair  of  short  tubercles  on  two  of  the  thoracic  segments,  and  four  short  ones  at  the 
end  of  the  body;  a  pair  of  very  large,  fleshy  tubercles  like  horns  on  the  first  and 
eighth  abdominal  segments,  which  are  longer  before  the  last  molt  than  after- 
wards. Body  brown,  but  green  above  between  the  two  pairs  of  lar«:e  tubercles,  in- 
closing a  central  purplish  or  reddish-brown  spot,  bordered  with  white,  the  latter 
edged  with  a  black  line. 

JC  X  LLC       OCgUACLlLO       dl 


J/of/j. — The  shape  of  body  aud  wings  are  well  represented  by  Fig.  50.  The  general 
color  is  a  rich,  dark,  velvety  reddish-brown.  The  only  markings  on  the  fore  wings 
are  two  twin  golden  dots,  nearly  united  to  form  a  short  line  near  the  apex  of  the 
female,  while  in  the  male  there  are  two  more  near  the  base  of  the  wing  beneath  the 
median  vein.     Hind  wings  pale  reddish-brown  :  expanse  of  wings,  36mm. 

202.  The  skiff  caterpillar. 
Limacodes  scapha  Harris. 

This  is  a  singular  boat-shaped  triangular  caterpillar,  green,  spotted 
above  with  browD,pale  beneath,  the  sides  raised  and  the  dorsal  surface 
flattened  ;  forming  in  the  autumn  a  tough  rounded  oval  cocoon,  covered 
by  an  outer  thin  envelope ;  the  moth  appears  in  June.  It  also  occurs  on 
tbe  hickory  and  wild  cherry. 

Larva. — Gronnd-color  pale  apple  green.  The  segments  extended  laterally  in  the 
middle  of  the  body,  and  raised  into  an  elevated  ridge,  sharp  and  angular  at  the 
edges.  The  flattened  portion,  which  includes  the  dorsal  region,  is  chestnut  browu^ 
darker  on  the  margins.  There  is  also  a  darker  dorsal  stripe.  The  segments  are 
arranged  like  the  plates  of  a  tortoise.  The  latter  region  is 
of  a  pale  yellowish-green,  with  an  oval  white  spot  on  seg- 
ments 9  and  10.  Spiracles  pale  brown,  mouth-parts  also 
brown.  In  some  specimens  the  brown  color  of  the  back 
*s  reduced  to  small  patches,  and  occasionally  a  yellow  dor- 
sal line  is  present,  the  grouDd  color  (.pale  green)  then  pre. 

vailing.    Length,  0.85  ;  width,  0.25  inch.    Food-plant,  wild     _.  r.*" 

°  °  '  '  r  Fig.  51.— Limacodes  gcapha. 

cherry.     (H.  Edwards  and  Elliott.)  ^at  8ize 

Moth. — It  is  light  cinnamon  brown  ;  on  the  fore  wings  the 

costo-median  region  is  filled  in  wirh  a  large  tan-brown  triangular  spot,  ending  on  the 

tip  of  the  wing,  and  is  lined  externally  with  silver.     Expanse  of  wings,  26  to  28mm. 

203.  Limacodes  biguttata  Packard. 

We  have  bred  this  species  from  a  larva  found  upon  the  oak,  October 
7,  at  Providence,  E.  I.  The  caterpillar  agreed  with  Harris'  description 
and  figure  of  L.  scapha  in  his  Correspondence,  and  I  referred  it  to  that 
species,  but  the  moth,  which  appeared  June  1,  proved  to  be  the  present 
species.  There  also  occurred  on  the  oak  at  Brunswick,  Me.,  a  larva 
like  that  of  L.  scapha,  but  the  elevated  ridges  were  white ;  the  body  was 
green,  with  no  other  color.  It  spun  a  cocoon  August  27,  but  afterwards 

Moth.— A  little  smaller  than  L.  scapha;  of  a  soft  velvety  buff-brown ;  a  whitish 
line  reaches  from  the  middle  of  the  internal  margin  across  and  outward  to  the  mid- 
dle line.  A  short  corresponding  one  from  near  the  costa  goes  to  the  middle  of  the 
outer  margin,  thus  making  an  inverted  broad  A,  inclosing  at  the  internal  angle  a 
roundish  red  spot ;  apex  red.  Hind  wings  and  under  side  of  the  hind  body  uniform 
obscure  buff  brown.  It  is  a  soft,  woolly  species  with  thick  scales  concealing  the 
veins.     Expanse  of  wings,  25mm. 

204.  Sisyrosea  inornata  Grote. 

This  singular  and  beautiful  slug- worm  was  first  described  and  figured 
in  Harris'  Correspondence  (PI.  II,  fig.  7 ;  III,  fig.  6).  It  also  occurred  at 
Providence  on  Quercus  alba,  October  7-9;  October  10  it  spun  a  round, 


deuse  cocoon,  but  afterwards  died.  Another  was  bred,  the  moth  ap- 
pearing June  IS.  It  was  a  female,  and  when  at  rest  sat  with  its  tail  in 
the  air,  as  if  standing  on  its  head. 

Mr.  S.  Lowell  Elliott  assures  me  that  he  has  bred  the  moth,  which  he 
has  kindly  shown  me.  from  this  larva.*     He  tells  me  that  it  feeds  not 
only  on  the  oak,  but  also  on  the  v>ild  plum  and  cherry,  and  that  it 
low  feeder. 

The  following  notes  on  this  species  have  been  given  by  Proft 
Riley,  who  has  bred  it: 

October  *24.  1868:  Found  to-day  in  Maryland  three  conchiiopod  larva1   feeding  on 
oak  and  agreeing  with  figure  in  Harris'  Correspondence    n.  T  .     November  '2,  i- 
Found  several  of  thaw  larva-,  while  sugaring  at  night,  feeding  on  various  plant>. 
June  30,  1883:    One  of  the  moths  issued  to-day.     July  16, 1683:    One  more  issued. 
October  4.  l«83:  Found  two  larva.-  in  Virginia  feeding  on  Q.  alba.     October  5.  188 
Several  more  were  found  on   Q.  alba,  Q.  rubra,  and  Alnus  incana.     October  10,  18G 
Two  of  the  larva-  have  spun   up.     Found  a  few  more  on  oak.     There  is  but  little 
variation  in  the  color  of  this  larva,  only  in  the  red  spots  on  the  dorsal  space ;  some  of 
them  are  very  pale  and  sometimes  the  posterior  one  is  absent.     From  one  of  the 
larva-  a  Gordius  issued.     September  29,  1885  :  Found  one  of  the  larva?  on  oak  :  it  was 
parasitized  by  a  tachiuid,  which  pupated  October  11,  1885,  the  fly  issuing  October  16, 
1886.       Tupublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Body  broad  and  flat,  the  prothoracic  overhung  by  the  mesothoraeic  seg- 
ment; the  V-shaped  iucision  so  broad  as  to  be  almost  obsolete,  the  body  bring  very 
broad:  head  pale  green,  a  rather  narrow  median  dorsal  ridge,  contracting  in  the 
middle  and  widening  a  little  towards  each  end  :  it  is  hollow  in  the  middle,  and 
along  the  sides  are  ten  small,  narrow,  flattened  acute  conical  flaps,  edged  with  green 
'sharp  spinules.  The  first  pair  are  short,  blunt  and  red  :  of  the  other  nine  pairs  the 
anterior  ones  are  the  larger.  The  front  edge  of  the  body  is  thickened,  somewhat 
revolute,  and  tinged  with  red.  Along  the  side  of  the  body,  on  the  thin  projecting 
edge,  is  a  row  often  flat,  fleshy,  triangular  flaps,  the  edges  with  white,  uneven  fa 
From  in  front  of  the  base  of  each  flap  an  oblique  sinuous  trausverse  ridge  passes  to 
the  submediau  dorsal  ridge.  There  are  two  rows  of  scar-like  round  spots  in  the 
depressions  between  the  lateral  ridges,  two  scars  in  each  depression.  The  spir 
are  not  visible  seen  sideways :  the  larva  has  to  be  turned  over  to  discover  them: 
they  are  slightly  marked  and  situated  under  the  projecting  ridges  of  the  side  of  the 
body.  Behind  the  middle  of  the  dorsal  ridge  are  two  red  conical  tubercles,  whose 
6harp  points  nearly  touch  each  other  in  the  median  line  of  the  body.  Another  but 
smaller  pair  of  red  warts  is  situated  half  way  between  the  first  pair  and  the  end  of 
the  body.  The  body  is  pea-green — a  little  brighter  green  than  the  glaucous  under 
side  of  the  oak  leaf  on  which  it  feeds— and  a  little  paler  beneath  than  above. 
Length,  15mm:  width,  Tmm,  not  including  the  projections;  height,  3..">mm.  Described 
from  a  larva  found  in  Providence,  R.  I. 

Moth. — Body  rather  stout :  fore  wings  with  transverse  waves  or  creases  due  to  the 
arrangement  of  the  scales,  but  with  no  markings  ;  dull.  pale,  cinnamon-brown,  the 
hind  wings  slightly  darker;  the  fore  wings  are  not  so  wide  as  in  Limaeodes.  aud  they 
are  very  slightly  subfalcate.     Expanse,  .90  to  1.20  inches. 

■  This  and  other  Limaeodea  Lure,  most  of  them  colored  conspicuously,  sutler  little 
from  the  attacks  of  birds,  since  they  are  protected  by  their  nettling  hairs,  rendering 
them  distasteful.  Others,  like  Lithacodes  Jasciola,  which  feed  on  the  under  side  of 
leaves  and  are  entirely  grei -n.  escape  the  observation  of  their  enemies.  Phobetron 
pithtcimn,  on  the  other  hand,  mimics  a  brown,  irregular  dead  patch  of  a  leaf.  Another 
aid  to  or  means  of  safety  in  the  smooth-bodies  species  is  their  slow  gliding  motion, 
which  renders  them  less  liable  to  be  observed  by  passing  birds. 


205.  Adoneta  spinuloides  (Herrich-Schaeffer). 
(Larva,  Plate  in,  Fig.  7.) 

This  insect  in  its  larval  state  is  a  general  feeder,  as  Mr.  Elliott  in- 
forms me,  occurring  on  the  oak,  wild  plum,  cherry,  and  birch,  while 
Dr.  Clemens  reared  it  from  a  larva  found  in  September  on  the  apricot. 
Miss  Morton  has  found  it  feeding  on  the  oak,  chestnut,  English,  and 
probably,  wild  cherry. 

I  am  indebted  to  Miss  Emily  L.  Morton,  of  Newburgh,  N.  Y.,  for  the 
use  of  the  colored  figure  of  the  larva. 

Larva. — Body  semi-cylindrical,  tapering  posteriorly,  and  rounded  obtusely  in  frout. 
Nearly  smooth,  but  with  a  subvascular  row  of  small,  fleshy,  minutely  spined  papulae 
on  each  side  of  the  vascular  lines,  three  of  which  placed  anteriorly  are  separated  and 
distinct,  and  three  approximated  on  the  last  rings ;  the  intermediate  ones  are  minute. 
The  outline  of  the  body  above  the  ventral  surface  is  furnished  with  a  row  of  minutely 
spined  papulae. 

Bright  green,  with  a  broad  dorsal  yellow  band,  containing  a  reddish  purple  one, 
which  is  constricted  opposite  the  second  and  third  pairs  of  anterior  papulae  and  di- 
lated into  an  elliptical  patch  in  the  middle  of  the  body.  This  is  almost  separated  from 
a  smaller  elliptical  patch  which  is  constricted  opposite  the  third  pair  of  posterior 
papulae  and  ends  in  a  small  round  patch.  The  anterior  and  posterior  papulae  are 
crimson  and  the  intermediate  ones  green.  The  superventral  row  of  spined  papulae  are 
green.     (Clemens.) 

Moth. — Reddish-brown,  somewhat  paler  in  the  female  than  in  the  male.  Fore  wings 
with  a  dingy  yellow  streak  along  the  base  of  the  inner  margin,  extending  toward  the 
disk  above  the  middle  of  the  wing,  and  on  this  portion  are  two  or  three  blackish 
dots  On  the  hind  portion  of  the  disk  is  a  short  black  streak.  In  the  male  there  is 
another  short  black  streak  along  the  median  nervure  and  its  last  branch,  with  a  curved, 
row  of  three  black,  submarginal  spots.  The  lower  streak  and  the  spots  are  as  distinct 
in  the  female  as  in  the  male.  In  both  sexes  there  is  a  subapical  dingy  yellow  patch, 
lightly  bordered  behind  with  whitish.  Hind  margin  spotted  with  black.  Hind  wing 
pale  reddish  brown.     (Clemens.) 

206.  Packardia  nigripunctata  Goodell. 

The  caterpillar  of  this  moth  was  found  on  the  oak  by  Mr.  L.  W.  Goodell, 
of  Amherst,  Mass.  According  to  his  recollection  it  was  oval  or  boat- 
shaped  in  form,  green,  with  several  longitudinal  rows  of  minute  white 
papillae  or  spots.  The  cocoon  was  round  and  hard,  and  the  moth 
emerged  June  20.     (Can.  Ent.  XIII,  30.) 

The  moth. — Female:  Fore  wings  light  bronzy  brown;  a  narrow,  oblique,  nearly 
straight,  dark  brown  band  runs  from  near  the  inner  margin  outward  to  a  little  be- 
yond the  middle  of  the  costa,  where  it  is  joined  at  a  right  angle  by  another  band, 
which  is  short  and  curved,  terminating  at  about  one-third  of  the  distance  from  the 
costa  to  the  inner  angle.  Between  the  end  of  the  short  band,  and  a  little  outward 
and  above  the  internal  angle,  is  a  curved  row  of  three  roundish  black  dots,  of  which 
the  marginal  one  is  three  times  larger  than  the  inner,  and  twice  as  large  as  the  inter- 
mediate one.  The  bands  aud  spots  form  a  distinct  inverted  V.  Within  the  area  thus 
formed  and  parallel  with  the  inner  is  a  brown  line,  which  extends  from  the  inner  mar- 
gin to  the  discal  end  of  the  short  curved  band.  This  line  is  a  shade  lighter  in  color 
than  the  bands,  and  is  edged  outwardly  with  very  pale  or  whitish  brown.  There  is 
a  band  of  the  same  pale  brown  or  whitish  color,  which  included  the  black  dots  and 


extends  outside  of  the  short  curved  band  to  the  costa.  It  is  constricted  near  the  inner 
dot,  widening  rapidly  towards  the  costa,  along  which  it  extends  towards  the  base 
to  a  little  beyond  the  middle.  Hind  wings  paler,  the  apex  and  outer  margin  concol- 
orous  with  the  fore  wings,  fringe  of  all  the  wings  pale  silky  brown,  interlined  near 
the  base  with  darker  brown,  and  with  a  black  spot  on  the  apex  of  the  fore  wings. 
Fore  wings  beneath  uniformly  a  little  darker  than  above.  Hind  wings  beneath  innch 
as  above,  but  the  darker  shade  of  the  exterior  margin  and  apex  is  not  so  distinct. 
The  wings  above  and  beneath  have  the  peculiar  silken  luster  common  to  the  genus. 
Head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  ocherous  brown.  Legs  grayinh  brown,  the  tarsi  a  little 
paler.  Length  of  body,  ?"""  ;  expanse  of  wings,  20mm.  The  wings  are  not  so  broad 
as  iu  P.  geminata  and  albipunctuta.     (Goodell.) 

207.  Kronwa  minuta  Reakirt. 

According  to  Reakirt  the  caterpillar  feeds  on  the  oak  and  chestnut 
in  August  and  September,  the  moth  appearing  iti  June  at  Philadel- 
phia. The  caterpillar  is  closely  related  to  the  European  slug-worm 
Limacodes  asellus. 

Egg. — Length,  £  line,  pale  green,  a  black  ring  near  one  end,  oblong. 

Larva. — Length,  2  to  2£  lines ;  basal  outline  elliptical ;  a  flattened  ridge,  widened  in 
the  center,  extends  from  head  to  tail,  curving  over  vertical  elevations  at  the  sides, 
which  gradually  diminish  before  and  behind,  and  terminate  at  both  ends  iu  a  rounded 
margin.  Around  the  base  a  row  of  small,  densely  spined  papula?,  two  of  which,  on 
the  head,  are  the  most  prominent,  and  colored  yellow.  The  body  is  smooth,  but  the 
ridge  is  thrown  into  thick,  fleshy  folds  ;  it  is  thickest  in  the  middle,  whence  it  dimin- 
ishes anteriorly  and  posteriorly.  Greeu  ;  two  bright  red  lines,  of  equal  length,  cross 
each  other  at  right  angles  on  the  central  portion  of  the  upper  ridge. 

Moth. — Male  and  female  are  alike  in  color,  the  last  being  the  largest.  Fore  wings 
lustrous,  brownish-yellow  ;  hind  wings  blackish-brown.  Below,  testaceous,  with  a 
black  shade,  and  roseate  along  the  costa  of  primaries.  Antennas,  thorax,  abdomen, 
and  legs  ocherous-yellow.     Expanse:  Male,  5  lines;  female,  5£  lines.     (Reakirt .) 

208.  Datana  integerrima  Grote  and  Robinson. 

This  insect,  says  Riley  in  his  unpublished  notes,  like  several  other 
species  of  Datana,  is  not  confined  in  its  attacks  to  any  one  food-plant, 
but  is  injurious  to  a  variety  of  trees,  i.  e..  the  willow,  honey-locust, 
thorn,  and  apple. 

The  larva. — Length  1.8  to  2  inches  and  very  similar  in  appearance  to  D.  angusii. 
The  general  color  is  dull  black,  of  the  appearance  of  India  rubber.  Sparsely  covered 
with  soft  dirty  white  hair.  Four  thin  sulphur-yellow  lines  along  each  side,  the  lower 
one,  which  is  just  under  the  stigmata,  being  somewhat  indistinct  on  the  latter  half  of 
the  body,  and  all  being  more  or  less  so  on  the  last  segment.  Venter  same  color  as 
above,  with  three  yellow  lines,  the  middle  one  uninterrupted,  except  by  the  prolegs; 
the  outer  ones  interrupted  in  the  middle  of  each  segment  by  a  rust-yellow  spot, 
largest  on  the  feet-bearing  segments.  Head  rather  larger  than  first  segment,  polished 
coal-black,  with  a  suture  down  the  middle  and  a  V-shaped  indentation  in  the  center  of 
the  front.  The  first  segment  (which  is  the  most  striking  feature)  is  of  a  gamboge  or 
wax-yellow  color,  the  cervical  shield  being  darker  and  more  shiny.  The  black  be- 
tween the  second  and  third  yellow  lines  extends  about  half  way  on  this  segment  :  that 
between  third  and  fourth  more  than  half,  aud  under  the  fourth  is  a  black  line. 
Candal  plate  almost  rouqd  and  shiny  black  like  the  head.  Thoracic  legs  black,  with 
gamboge  or  wax-yellow  base  ;  abdominal  prolegs  same  color,  with  a  shiny  black  spot 


on  the  outside;  anal  inferior  and  of  little  use  to  the  worm,  small,  thin,  and  shiny 

When  young  the  larvse  are  brown  or  tawny  yellow,  with  white  stripes  and  more 

The  larvae  go  into  the  ground  the  latter  part  of  August,  and  in  less  than  thirty 
hou.-s  change  to  a  chrysalis. 

Pupa. — Eight-tenths  of  an  inch  and  upwards  in  length,  of  the  same  form  and 
appearance  as  that  of  D.  angusii,  but  neither  so  dark  nor  so  thickly  punctured,  and 
the  four  spines  at  the  end  are  smaller  in  proportion.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

^foth. — Dark  reddish-brown.  Anterior  wings  entire  along  external  margin,  thickly 
and  evenly  covered  with  fine  scattered  irrorations,  with  a  bright  shade  extending 
along  costa  centrally  and  above  apical  streak.  Five  transverse  dark-brown  lines. 
The  first  moderately  arcuate,  margined  within  by  a  paler  shade.  A  central  discal 
dot.  The  space  between  the  first  and  second  transverse  lines  darker.  The  second 
line  covers  the  outer  discal  dot  and  is  margined  outwardly  by  paler  scales,  as  are  the 
third,  fourth,  and  fifth  lines.  The  position  of  all  these  lines  is  subject  to  variation. 
The  fourth  is,  as  usual,  faiuter  than  the  rest  and  very  contiguous  to  the  fifth.  Pos- 
terior wings  very  pale,  crossed  by  a  rather  broad,  pale,  median  shade.  Under  sur- 
face paler  than  upper,  deepening  in  color  towards  external  margin;  fringes  dark. 
The  scales  which  clothe  the  head  and  form  the  thoracic  patch  are  dark  tawny- 
brown,  deepening  in  color  towards  the  edges  of  the  thorax.  The  metathoracic  and 
lateral  hairs  are  very  pale.  Abdomen  pale,  testaceous;  and  segment  concolorous  with 
the  rest.  Expanse,  male  and  female,  1.80  to  2.30  inches.  Length  of  body,  0.78  to  1.10 
inches.     (Grote  and  Robinson.) 

209.  Datana  contracta  Walker. 

Mr.  James  Angus  has  bred  this  species,  which  is  confined  to  various 
species  of  oak,  not  feeding  on  other  kinds  of  trees. 

Larva.— Head  black,  shining.  Body  black,  with  four  lateral  broad  yellowish-white 
stripes ;  a  fifth  is  interrupted  centrally  by  the  legs,  as  in  D.  ministra,  but  in  this  latter 
species  the  stripes  are  darker  and  slightly  narrow,  while  the  larva  is  larger  than 
that  of  D.  contracta.  The  body  is  clothed  with  longer  hair  and  is  of  a  deeper  black 
than  in  D.  ministra.  The  dorsal  swelled  portion  of  the  prothoracie  ring  is  similarly 
colored,  but  less  prominent  and  exserted  than  in  its  congener.     (Angus.*) 

Moth. — Luteous  tawny.  Anterior  wings  entire,  with  a  brighter  shade  extending 
along  the  costa  centrally  and  above  the  apical  streak.  Profusely  and  distinctly 
irrorate  with  dark  brown  scales.  Five  transverse  brown  lines.  The  first  oblique, 
very  slightly  arcuate,  and  margined  inwardly  with  lighter  scales.  A  central  discal 
dot.  The  second  line  curved  outwardly  at  costa,  thence  running  inversely  obliquely 
to  internal  margin.  This  line,  which  is  margined  outwardly  with  paler  scales,  joins 
the  first  at  internal  margin  in  a  single  specim  en  before  us.  A  second  discal  spot. 
The  third  line  slightly  arcuate  at  costa,  thence  running  parallel  with  fourth  and  fifth 
lines  to  internal  margin.  The  third  and  fifth  distinctly  margined  outwardly  with 
paler  scales.  The  fourth,  which  is  quite  contiguous  to  the  fifth,  is  indistinct,  and, 
in  some  instances,  almost  obsolete.  Apical  streak  obsolete  superiorly,  indistinct. 
Fringes  bright  reddish-brown,  the  same  with  the  thoracic  patch.  Posterior  wings 
very  pale,  with  a  paler  median  shade.  Under  surface  paler  than  upper,  shading  to 
reddisn-brown  towards  external  margin  on  anterior  wings.     The  scales  which  clothe 

*  The  exact  references  to  the  place  of  publication  of  descriptions  (published  before 
1889)  of  this  and  nearly  all  the  other  caterpillars  noticed  in  this  report  may  be  found 
by  the  reader  in  Mr.  Henry  Edwards'  useful  Bibliographical  Catalogue  of  the  described 
Transformations  of  North  American  Lepidoptera,  forming  Bulletin  No.  35  of  the  U.  S. 
National  Museum,  Washington,  18-9. 

152       I'll  ill    BEPOBT    OF    THE    ENTOMOLOGICAL    COMMISSION. 

the  head  and  form  the  thoracic  patch  are  bright  tiiwiiv-hniwn,  becoming  darker 
towards  the  edges  on  the  thorax.  Ifetathoraeio  and  lateral  hairs  concolorous  with 
posterior  wings.  Abdomen  pale  tawny,  anal  segment  darker.  Expanse,  male  and 
female,  1.85  Inches.    (Grota  and  Robinson.) 

'210.   Edtina  ulbifron8  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

This  is  perhaps  the  most  common  iiotodontian  caterpillar  to  be  found 
on  the  oak.  At  first  the  caterpillars  are  gregarious,  but  after  the  tirst 
or  second  molt  they  begin  to  scatter  over  the  tree.  In  Georgia,  ac- 
cording to  Smith  and  Abbot,  the  caterpillar  "spun  itself  up  in  a  thin 
white  web  between  the  leaves  October  28,  and  came  out  on  the  wing 
the  18th  of  February.  Others  spun  on  the  29th  of  March,  and  came 
out  on  the  2d  of  May.  The  whole  brood  feeds  together,  especially  when 

Mr.  James  Fletcher  reports  that  in  1884  the  caterpillars  appeared  in 
great  numbers  and  were  most  injurious  to  both  oaks  and  maples  at 
Ottawa,  Canada.     (Rep.,  32.) 

It  is  common  on  white  oaks  in  Rhode  Island  and  Maine  late  in  August 
and  through  September  ;  those  observed  at  Providence  spinning  a  thin 
cocoon  between  the  leaves  early  in  October  and  until  October  20-28. 
October  5  I  found  some  small  larva?  (probably  next  to  the  last  molt) 
with  the  stripes  straw-yellow  instead  of  orange.  The  moth  appears  in 
June  in  the  Northern  States. 

Larva. — Head  large,  orange-red,  swollen,  raised  towards  the  apex ;  wider  than  the 
thoracic  segments,  the  body  increasing  in  width  towards  the  end,  which  has  a  large 
swollen  orange-red  hump  on  the  eighth  segment.     The  body  smooth  and  shining, 

with  no  hairs  ;  a  pair  of  broad  subdorsal  yellow  lines 
inclosing  five  median  black  lines  on  a  pale  lilac  ground. 
Below  the  yellow  line  are  three  black  lines,  with  a 
second  yellowish  spiracular  line.  Anal  legs  pale  or- 
ange-red ;  all  the  legs  pale  orange. 

Pupa. — Of  the  usual  form ;  the   cremaster  is  very 
characteristic ;  it  is  flattened  from  above,  deeply  cleft, 
\J  with  tubercles  from  which  arise  three  or  four  curved 

Fig.  52.— Edema  albi/rons  (from     seta  on  each  side.     Length,  0.73  inch. 

Packard).  Moth. — It   is    easily  recognized  by  its  whitish  ash 

color,  the  square  apex  of  the  fore  wings  aud  the  broad 
white  costal  margin  on  the  outer  two-thirds  of  the  wings;  this  white  band 
sends  a  tooth  backwards,  bounding  the  upper  and  outer  side  of  the  discal  brown 
ring,  and  there  is  an  obtuse  tooth  between  that  and  the  apex :  the  inner 
brown  line  is  curved  and  sinuous;  there  is  a  faint  deeply-toothed  outer  line  and  a 
distinct  narrow  deeply-scalloped,  rich,  deep-brown  marginal  line,  the  scallop  rilled 
in  with  whitish  ash  scales.  Base  of  the  wing  inside  of  the  middle  line  whitish  ash  ; 
hind  wing  and  abdomen  uniform  ash-slate  color;  wings  beneath  of  the  same  color; 
costal  edge  slightly  bathed  with  whitish,  with  traces  of  a  curved  submargiual  band, 
broadest  on  the  costa  and  broken  up  behind.     Expanse  of  the  wings,  47mm. 

While  in  Florida  in  April  I  collected  at  Crescent  City  on  the  live  or  water  oak  a 
fully  grown  caterpillar  which  I  supposed  to  be  Edema  albi/rons.  Bringing  it  to  Provi- 
dence in  a  tin  box,  it  spun  a  slight  cocoon  between  the  leaves  late  in  April.  Dot  the 
moth  did  notemerge  until  September  30.  Although  the  summer  was  a  warm  one.  and- 
the  room  iu  which  it  was  kept  had  a  warm  exposure,   the  moth  was  evidently  re- 


tarded  in  its  appearaDce  by  a  change  to  a  cooler  climate.  Unfortunately  I  did  not 
make  a  description  of  the  larva. 

The  moth  seems  to  represent  a  southern  or  local  variety  of  this  species.  It  differs 
from  several  specimens  of  E.  albifrons  slightly  but  distinctly;  it  is  smaller  and  the 
white  costal  band  is  a  Little  shorter  and  broader;  inside  of  the  discal  spot  it  is  not 
oblique,  but  straight,  and  the  tooth  bounding  the  outer,  costal  side  of  the  discal 
spot  is  larger,  rounder,  and  fuller,  less  conical  than  in  E.  albifrons.  The  submarginal 
scallops  are  less  curved,  and  the  space  in  front  of  the  discal  spot  is  filled  in  more 
densely  with  reddish  brown.     Expanse  of  wings.  35mm. 

The  pupa  differs  in  the  cremaster  being  consolidated,  not  forked,  and  the  setse  are 
well  developed.  Length,  18mm.  In  a  Providence  pupa,  however,  the  cremaster  is 
partly  consolidated,  only  forked  at  the  end,   and  the  six  setse  are  well  developed. 

The  following  notes  on  the  early  stages  of  the  caterpillar  are  from 
Professor  Riley's  notes : 

When  young  the  larvae  feed  in  a  phalanx,  as  it  were,  lying  parallel  on  the  leaf 
and  as  close  together  as  they  can. 

Found  at  Woodstock,  September  19,  1867,  on  the  burr  oak  (Q.  macrocarpa)  some 
full  grown  and  others  just  undergoing  the  third  molt.  When  full  grown,  1.45  inch 
in  length,  the  body  being  larger  on  the  abdominal  than  thoracic  segments.  Ground 
color  white  with  a  very  slight  corneous  tint,  which  with  the  highly  polished  surface 
gives  it  the  appearance  of  delicate  porcelain.  A  subdorsal  and  stigmatal  chrome- 
yellow  band  on  each  about  .03  diameter.  The  subdorsal  lines  are  not  only  thicker  but 
wider  apart  on  the  abdominal  than  the  thoracic  segments,  and  between  them,  i.  e.f 
along  dorsum,  are  five  polished  black  longitudinal  lines,  interrupted,  however,  at  the 
sutures  and  merging  into  but  three  on  the  anterior  five  segments.  Between  the  two 
yellow  bands  laterally  are  three  other  finer  polished  black  lines  and  below  the  stig- 
matal yellow  band  several  other  longitudinal  black  marks,  and  one  each  side  of  venter. 
Stigmata  in  the  yellow  band,  but  being  concolorous  with  it  are  scarcely  noticed. 
Venter  of  the  same  dull  shiny  white  as  the  ground  color,  but  a  little  more  glaucous. 
Legs  and  prologs  immaculate  and  also  of  the  same  color,  the  abdominals  being  large 
and  swollen  above,  while  the  anal  legs  are  small.  Head  larger  than  segment  one, 
free,  perpendicular,  immaculate,  glassy,  and  of  a  mixture  of  coral  and  yellow. 

Distinguishing  feature. — Segment  eleven  with  a  transverse  ridge  above,  of  the 
ground  color  with  a  band  of  the  same  color  as  the  head,  with  a  slight  corneous  mixt- 
ure running  transversely  along  its  middle. 

Before  the  last  moult  it  has  lost  the  polished  appearance  ;  the  abdominal  segments 
are  not  noticeably  larger  than  the  thoracic  ;  the  ground  color  is  pure  white,  while 
dorsal  and  stigmatal  bands  are  sulphur-yellow,  and  the  ridge  on  segment  eleven  is 
more  elevated  dorsally  and  entirely  corneous. 

Entered  the  ground  during  the  latter  part  of  September  and  transformed  to  chrys- 
alids,  appearing  as  moths  the  following  April. 

211.  Nadata  gibbosa  Walker. 
(Larva,  Plate  xi,  Fig.  6.) 

The  caterpillar  is  not  uncommonly  found  on  the  oak.  By  the  mid- 
dle or  last  of  September,  in  New  England  (Maine  and  Rhode  Island), 
it  begins  to  pupate,  not  spinning  a  cocoon,  and  probably  entering  the 
ground  before  assuming  the  chrysalis  state.  In  Providence  it  occurred 
on  the  white,  in  Maine  on  the  red  oak.  In  Georgia,  according  to  Smith 
and  Abbot,  it  "  feeds  on  the  chestnut  oak,  and  other  oaks.  It  went  into 
the  ground  October  10  and  came  out  March  15.    Another  went  in  June 


1  and  came  out  the  19th  of  the  same  month."  It  is  therefore  double 
brooded  in  the  Gulf  States  and  single  brooded  in  the  North.  The  fol- 
lowing notes  on  its  habits  have  been  given  by  Professor  Riley: 

A  pair  of  this  moth  were  taken  May  2.  1882,  from  the  eggs  of  which  larvae  hatched 
oil  the  9th.  They  went  through  their  first  moult  May  15;  second,  May  22;  third, 
M;iv  26,  and  fourth,  May  31.  Pupated  June  12  to  14.  The  moths  issued  from  June 
26  to  July  10.  Several  larvai  of  this  moth  were  found  by  heating  on  oak  June  26, 
July  10,  1882.  This  larva  is  now  very  plentiful  and  of  all  sizes,  on  several  oaks.  (Ri- 
ley's unpublished  notes.) 

Dr.  Lintner  has  bred  the  moth  from  a  larva  found  feeding  on  the 
maple  in  New  York.  The  figure  on  Plate  XI  was  kindly  loaned  by 
him,  and  is  probably  the  original  of  the  wood-cut  in  his  Eut.  Coutr., 
iii,  150. 

Larva. — Body  green,  large,  head  very  large,  full,  rounded,  high  towards  the  ver- 
tex, as  wide  as  the  body,  deep  pea-green;  the  labruin  whitish  green;  mandibles 
bright  yellow,  tipped  with  black,  making  them  very  conspicuous.  Body  glaucous 
pea-green,  thick,  full,  soft,  tapering  towards  the  end,  and  the  surface  with  minute 
raised,  flattened,  more  or  less  confluent  granulations.  A  lateral  yellow  line  formed 
of  coarse  yellow,  raised,  flattened  areas.  Spiracles  deep  red.  Supra-anal  plate  con- 
ical, flattened,  apex  much  rounded,  the  edge  colored  bright  yellow.  Thoracic  and 
abdominal  feet  pale  pea-green ;  all  concolorous.     Length,  33mm,  thickness,  6mm. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  broad,  apex  pointed;  male  antenna?  pectinated  to  the  end. 
Body  and  wings  reddish,  reddish  yellow-brown ;  thorax  with  a  high,  large,  loose 
crest.  Fore  wings  with  two  white  twin  discal  dots,  rather  widely  separated.  An 
inner  and  outer  narrow,  oblique  reddish-brown  line  ;  the  outer  parallel  with  the  outer 
margin  of  the  wing,  which  is  slightly  scalloped.  Fringe  dark,  the  scallops  filled  in 
with  white.  Hind  wings  whitish,  with  a  faint  outer  line.  Beneath,  uniformly 
whitish ;  a  faint  outer  line  common  to  both  wings ;  the  costal  edge  dusted  with  red- 
dish-brown.    Abdomen  yellowish-brown.     Expanse  of  wings,  48mra. 

212.  Lophodonta  angulosa  (Abbot  and  Smith.) 

It  occurred  on  Quercus  alba  October  7,  at  Providence,  when  it  began  to 
pupate,  the  moth  appearing  the  following  June.  Abbot  and  Smith  re- 
mark that  in  Georgia  it  u  feeds  on  the  over  cup  oak  and  other  kinds  of 
the  same  genus.  Some  went  into  the  ground  May  30,  and  came  out  the 
loth  of  June.  Others  that  went  iu  the  16th  of  October  remained  till 
the  20th  of  April."  From  this  it  appears  that  in  the  Southern  States 
this  species  is  double  brooded. 

Larvae . — Somewhat  like  Nadata  gibbosa,  but  the  head  is  smaller,  and  it  has  no  such 
supra-anal  plate,  while  the  body  is  smooth,  not  granulated.  Head  nearly  as  wide  as 
the  prothoracic  segment,  but  not  so  wide  as  the  body;  full  and  rounded;  though  a 
little  flattened  above,  deep  pea-green,  but  concolorous  with  the  body.  On  the  side  a 
pink  line  edged  above  with  white  extending  to  base  of  the  antennae.  Mandibles  green 
at  base  with  an  orange-red  line  along  upper  edge;  tips  black.  A  short  black  line 
above  at  base  of  antennas.  Body  noctuiform,  tapering  towards  the  anal  legs,  which 
are  short  and  small,  no  larger  than  the  other  abdominal  legs,  supra-anal  plate  small, 
rounded  at  the  end,  not  large  and  conspicuous  as  iu  Xadata  gibbosa.  Segments  not 
convex,  but  the  sutures  distinct.  A  faint  double  median,  whitish,  somewhat  broken 
line,  the  two  lines  converging  and  forming  oue  on  the  middle  of  the  supra-anal 
plate  and  tinged  slightly  with  pink.  A  distinct  lateral  pink  line  begins  on  the  side  of 
the  head  and  extends  to  the  eud  of  the  body  along  the  edge  of  the  supra-anal  plate. 
The  line  is  somewhat  finely  bordered  with  brown,  and  is  edged  below  with  white. 


The  whole  body  and  legs  pea-green,  slightly  darker  below  than  along  the  back. 
Thoracic  feet  greenish-amber,  spotted  externally  with  black.     Length,  .40mm. 

Pupa. — Body  full  and  plump.;  of  the  usual  form  and  color;  the  end  of  the  abdomen 
very  much  rounded  and  obtuse,  with  no  rudiment  of  a  cremaster  (as  it  goes  into  the 
ground,  not  spinning  a  web),  only  a  rounded  knob.     Length,  18mm. 

Moth. — Thorax  and  body  dark  grayish-brown  ;  thorax  with  a  round  black  spot  on 
the  hinder  edge,  encircled  by  a  yellowish-brown  line ;  abdomen  yellowish  brown. 
Fore  wings  rounded  at  the  apex,  of  a  quite  uniform  umber  brown ;  basal  line  with  a 
sharp  distinct  angle  in  the  median  space,  the  line  reddish-brown,  broadly  shaded  ex- 
ternally with  much  paler  tawny  brown  ;  on  the  costa  the  line  is  straight,  with  a 
broad  external  whitish  gray  shade.  Middle  line  sharply  scalloped,  -becoming 
straight  on  the  costa,  with  a  sharp  tooth  on  the  discal  fold  and  a  sharp  tooth  occu- 
pying the  entire  submedian  space;  the  last  scallop  short,  indistinct,  ending  in  a 
dark-brown  tuft  on  the  middle  of  the  hinder  edge  of  the  wing.  Outer  line  wavy  but 
indistinct.  A  marginal  wavy  line.  A  broad  whitish  patch  exterior  to  the  middla 
line  extending  from  the  costa  to  the  median  vein.  Hind  wings  sable  brown,  with  a 
marginal  shade  and  a  dark  broken  band  at  the  base  of  the  fringe.    Expanse  of  wings 

213.  Schizura  ipomece  Doubleday  (Coelodasys  biguttatus  Pack.). 

The  following  notes  and  descriptions  are  based  on  an  examination  of 
the  material  in  Professor  Riley's  collection.  The  larva  occurred  on  the 
oak  September  24.  In  Virginia  one  was  found  by  Mr.  Koebele,  on  the 
birch,  September  14,  and  it  has  also  been  bred  from  the  blackberry. 
The  larva  makes  an  earthen  cocoon,  regularly  oval  in  shape,  covering 
it  with  sand  on  the  outside,  so  that  it  closely  resembles  that  of  Janassa 
lignicola.  G.  unicornis  spins  a  silken  cocoon,  with  debris  collected  and 
adhering  to  the  exterior.  It  is  evident  that  C.  cinereofrons  Pack,  is 
only  a  variety  of  biguttata,  there  being  a  series  of  connecting  forms  in 
Riley's  collection.  The  moth  occurred  at  Cambridge,  Mass.,  June  16, 
and  in  July  and  August.     (Harris.) 

Larvae  of  this  species  are  found  from  May  to  October  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  feeding 
on  the  different  kinds  of  oak  and  on  maple.  The  moths  issued  in  April  and  August. 
The  coloration  of  the  larvae  is  quite  variable,  though  the  most  uniform  marking  is 
as  follows:  Color,  green  speckled  with  purple.  A  faint  substigmatal  sulphur  yel- 
low line,  most  distinct  on  thoracic  joints.  A  broad  pale  subdorsal  line,  between 
which  the  dorsum  is  pale  lilaceous,  but  thickly  mottled  with  rich  purple  brown  and 
ferruginous,  leaving  a  narrow  dorsal  line  distinctly  marked.  Two  elevated  ferrugi- 
nous warts  on  top  of  joints  4  and  11.  Head  large,  pale  green,  with  a  distinct  lateral 
black  and  white  stripe.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Differs  from  C.  unicornis  in  the  head  being  purple  and  having  four  dark 
narrow  lines  extending  from  the  base  of  the  jaws  to  the  vertex ;  the  dorsal  spine  on 
the  first  abdominal  segment  is  nearly  three  times  as  large  and  high  as  in  C.  unicornis, 
and  ends  in  a  deep  fork,  each  tine  of  which  bears  a  stiff  truncated  spine.  A  pair  of  dor- 
sal, rounded,  small  tubercles  on  each  abdominal  segment  1-8,  those  on  the  5th  and  8th 
segments  being  much  larger  than  the  others  and  coral  red  in  color.  Coloration  much 
as  in  C.  unicornis,  but  the  branches  of  the  V  iQ  front  of  the  tubercle  on  the  8th  seg- 
ment are  wider  and  inclose  a  broken  red  line.  Meso-  and  meta-thoracic  segments 
green ;  body  brick-reddish,  slashed  with  pale  lines,  with  a  broad  dorsal  band  forked 
on  the  prothoracic  segment  and  extending  upon  the  horn  on  the  1st  abdominal  seg- 
ment; behind  the  horn  are  four  dorsal  oval  light  patches,  each  inclosing  three  red 
lines.    Leugth  33mm. 


Pupii. — Moderately  itoul  ;  end  of  abdomen  obtuse.  The  cremaster  deeply  cleft, 
each  spine  well  developed,  rather  Long,  DOt  mneb  flattened,  ending  in  a  point  and 
throw  tag  off  near  the  end  a  short  branch  which  nearly  meets  its  fellow  with  opposite 
•pine.     Length  21""". 

Mnth.  —  llviid  gray,  vertical  tuft  above  black.  Thorax  reddish-brown,  patagia 
blackish  above.  No  distinct  line  on  the  prothoimx.  Primaries  reddish-brown,  ner- 
vulcs  black.  Base  of  the  costa  dark,  beyond  cinereous  with  brown  scales  along  the 
edge,  which  become  indistinct  waved  lines  continued  across  the  wing  and  are  more 
obliqne  beyond  the  dieoal  dot.  The  linear  reddish  discal  dot  is  surrounded  by  gray, 
and  below  and  beyond  is  a  dark  rather  broad  discoloration  curved  around  it.  Beyond 
this  the  black  uervuhs  are  interrupted  by  gray  scales.  There  are  two  obscure  series 
of  reddish  dots  near  the  margin  in  the  interspaces.  Opposite  theouter  series  of  these 
spots  the  fringe,  otherwise  ferruginous,  is  of  a  dirty-white.  Secondaries  white,  dis- 
colored with  smoky  at  inner  angle.  The  large  tuft  beneath  the  head  is  lilac-ashen. 
Beneath,  the  fore-wingl  are  white,  smoky  in  the  middle.  Costo-apical  dots  distinct. 
Fringe  white,  black  at  the  ends  of  the  nervules,  at  the  base  are  white  dots  in  the 
interspace.  Secondaries  entirely  white,  except  the  dusky  spot  on  the  inner  angle. 
Legs  ashen,  ends  of  the  scales  dark,  tarsi  broadly  anunlated  with  dark.  Abdomen 
slender,  whitish,  a  narrow  mesial  line  beneath.  In  the  female  the  markings  are 
more  distinct.  The  two  series  of  ferruginous  waved  lines  on  each  side  of  the  median 
region  are  more  distinct.  The  submarginal  ferruginous  region  is  more  broken  up  by 
ashen  »cales.  The  secondaries  and  abdomen  above  smoky.  There  are  faint  traces  of 
a  slight  mesial  fascia  across  the  wing.  Beneath,  both  wings  are  dark  smoky.  Alight 
ferruginous  line  on  the  abdomen,  which  is  itself  larger  than"  in  the  other  species. 
Length  of  body,  male,  90;  female,  95;  expanse  of  wings,  male,  1.60;  female,  1.80  inch. 

Coelodasys  cinereofrons  Pack.,  as  stated  by  Grote,  is  undoubtedly 
a  variety  of  this  species  now  to  be  referred  to  the  genus  Schizura.  The 
following  notes  on  the  larva  of  this  variety  have  been  received  from 
Professor  Kiley : 

June  20,  found  on  oak  two  very  small  larvae  which  entered  the  ground  July  8  and 
emerged  as  moths  July  30.  Color  of  larva  as  follows :  Second  and  third  segments  grass 
green  :  the  horn  of  the  fourth  segment  is  two-forked  and  the  tips  blood  red,  also  the 
tips  of  the  two  smaller  horns  on  joints  8  and  11.  The  rest  of  the  body  and  head,  red- 
dish brown.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

214.  Hyparpax  aurora  (Abbot  and  Smith). 
Larva,  Plate  III,  fig.  6,  6a. 

"The  caterpillar  was  taken  on  the  timber  white  oak,  but  feeds  also 
on  other  species  of  oak.  It  went  into  the  ground  and  inclosed  itself  in 
a  thin  case  of  dirt  July  15,  appearing  on  the  wing  August  7.  Some- 
times this  species  also  buries  itself  in  autumn,  and  remains  till  the 
spring,  at  which  season  the  moth  may  now  and  then  be  observed  sit- 
ting on  the  oak  branches."    (Abbot  and  Smith.) 

In  New  England  it  is  single  brooded.  The  caterpillar,  according  to 
Abbot  and  Smith's  figure,  has  a  double  red  hump  on  the  first  abdominal 
segment,  with  a  very  broad  dorsal  green  baud  between  this  and  the 
tubercle  on  the  eighth  segment;  the  anal  legs  are  elevated  much  as 
in  Schizura  unicornis.  The  moth  has  broad  yellow  fore- wings,  in  the 
female  pink  at  base  and  on  the  outer  margin. 

I  am  indebted  to  Miss  E.  L.  Morton  for  the  colored  sketches  of  this 
rather  rare  larva. 


215.  Janassa  Hgnicolor  Walk. 
(Larva,  PI.  Ill,  fig.  5.) 

The  caterpillar  of  this  moth  occurred  on  the  oak  at  Providence  from 
the  middle  to  the  last  of  September.  It  has  been  bred  by  Professor 
Kiley.  This  species  is  Xylinodes  virgata  of  Packard.  The  larva  is  very 
characteristic  and  allied  to  those  of  Schizura.  In  Professor  Kiley's 
collection  are  the  regularly  oval  thick  earthen  cocoons  lined  with  silk, 
and  about  three  fourths  of  an  inch  in  length,  the  caterpillar  transform- 
ing on  the  surface  or  within  the  earth. 

Larva. — Head  not  very  large,  not  so  wide  as  the  prothoracic  segment ;  pale,  almost 
whitish  ash-gray;  an  irregular  dark  ash  band  on  each  aide  in  front  passing  up  from 
the  mandibles  and  meeting  on  the  vertex,  where  a  branch  is  sent  out  at  right  angles, 
uniting  with  its  fellow  in  the  median  line  of  the  head ;  no  median  line  above  the 
apex  of  the  vertex,  but  two  spurs  are  sent  out  above  the  vertex  from  each  side,  which 
nearly  reach  the  median  line  of  the  head,  and  inclose  a  clear  round  space.  Prothoracic 
segment  pea-green  on  each  side  above  the  spiracle.  Meso-  and  meta-thoracic  segments 
bright  deep  pea-green,  bordered  with  reddish  below;  a  long  narrow  triangular  dorsal 
light-brown  band,  slightly  forked  on  the  prothoracic  segment,  extends  from  the  head 
to  near  the  base  of  the  large  dorsal  tubercle  on  first  abdominal  segment ;  this  tubercle 
is  sensitive  and  retractile  as  in  the  other  species  of  this  genus;  it  is  large  but  not 
forked,  the  end  being  very  slightly  cleft,  blackish  in  the  middle  and  each  small  ter- 
minal wart  has  a  dark  hair  which  is  bent  downward  and  forward.  First  to  third  ab- 
dominal segments  pale  gray  and  reddish-brown,  the  first  less  marbled  and  watered 
with  gray  than  the  second  and  third ;  the  back  of  the  fourth  to  ninth  segments  clear 
deep  pea-green,  with  a  round  sinus  in  front  on  the  fourth  segment,  and  on  the  sixth 
and  front  edge  of  seventh  inclosing  a  watered  gray  elongated  irregular  patch.  On 
the  eighth  segment  a  small  dorsal  tubercle  tinted  with  brown ;  the  eighth  spiracle 
much  larger  and  more  conspicuous  than  the  others ;  around  the  seventh  pair  of  spira- 
cles are  clear  white  patches.  The  abdominal  legs  1  to  4  are  thick  and  fleshy,  with  a 
reddish- brown  circular  line  incomplete  above;  anal  legs  small  and  slender,  about 
one-third  as  large  as  the  others.     Length  33mm. 

Pupa. — Body  short  and  thick;  tip  of  abdomen  unusually  blunt;  cremaster  partly 
rudimentary,  not  projecting  beyond  the  tip,  and  consisting  of  two  widely  separate 
flattened  squarish  spines,  terminating  in  two  small  spines.     Length  18mm. 

Moth. — Pale  cinereous.  Pronotal  pieces  discolored  with  ligneous  brown.  Abroad, 
median  thoracic  dusky  line,  succeeded  on  the  abdomen  by  a  dark  spot.  Primaries 
light  ashen  with  brown  scales  arranged  in  streaks,  which  on  the  costa  proceed  ob- 
liquely towards  the  outer  margin,  ending  upon  the  subcostal  nervure.  Towards  the 
apex  are  two  distinct  brown  streaks,  which  are  parallel  to  the  costa;  between  and 
below  the  second  streak  are  two  whitish  streaks.  A  dark-brown  discal  dot  is  placed 
upon  the  lower  discal  nervule,  and  beyond  it  is  a  brown  streak.  In  the  middle  of  the 
discal  space  is  a  light  line  which  passes  over  the  discal  dot  and  continues  along  the 
lowest  subcostal  interspace  to  near  the  outer  margin.  Below  the  median  vein  the  wing 
is  slightly  tinged  with  ocherous.  Just  below  the  basal  portion  of  the  median  nervure 
is  a  brown  streak,  and  the  internal  border  is  mottled  and  streaked  with  dark  cine- 
reous. The  tuft  is  dark-brown,  and  the  outer  edge  of  the  wings  is  also  darker  than 
the  discal  portion.  There  are  no  transverse  streaks.  Secondaries  white,  the  costa  dis- 
closed slightly  with  cinereous.  Abdomen  nearly  concolorous,  being  a  shade  darker 
than  the  hind  wings.  Beneath  cinereous,  with  a  distinct  median  black  line.  -Tarsi 
broadly  annulated  with  dark.  Length  of  body,  .85 ;  expanse  of  wings.  1.75  inch. 
Cambridge,  female,  Lansing,  Mich.  ;  Seekonk,  R.  I. 

'Jl<>.    Loekwunu  manteo  Doubleday  {Utterocampa  subalbicans  Grotej. 

This  species  ranges  from  Maine  to  Texas.  During  1880a  threat  amount 
of  damage  was  done  to  the  foliage  of  oak  forests  in  at  least  two  counties 
of  Arkansas  by  this  worm,  which  appeared  in  immense  numbers  in  Jan- 
uary. The  following  account  is  taken  from  Professor  Comstock's  re- 
port (Agricultural  Report,  1880) : 

There  are  probably  two  broods  of  the  variable  caterpillar  in  the  course  of  the  sea- 
son, although  but  one,  the  fall  brood,  seems  to  have  been  noticed.  The  moths  Appear 
in  the  latter  part  of  April  or  in  early  May,  and  between  that  time  and  late  Septem- 
ber, when  the  principal  damage  is  done  by  the  worms,  there  is  abundant  time  for  two 
broods  of  caterpillars. 

In  the  District  of  Columbia  for  the  last  two  years  these  larvae  have  been  noticed  very 
abundantly  upon  oak,  hawthorn,  and  basswood,  and  doubtless  feed  upon  other  plants. 
In  late  September  they  had  reached  their  full  size  and  entered  the  ground,  where, 
as  we  gather  from  Mrs.  Thomas's  letter,  they  lie  most  of  the  winter  before  transforming. 

The  most  obvious  remedy  for  the  injuries  of  this  insect  is  the  destruction  of  the 
larvae  by  burning  the  leaves  upon  the  ground  in  the  latter  part  of  September,  just  as 
thf  larva'  are  dropping  from  the  trees.  This  could  probably  be  done  in  most  places 
without  danger  to  the  forest  and  without  injury  to  the  mast. 

Should  the  damage  done  by  the  worms  be  sufficiently  great  to  warrant  the  expense 
of  trap  lanterns  to  be  used  in  May  to  destroy  the  moths,  undoubtedly  their  numbers 
could  be  greatly  lessened.  For  description  of  trap  lanterns,  with  remarks  upon  their 
use,  see  page  330  of  the  report  for  1879  (Comstock). 

Professor  Riley  sends  us  the  following  notes  on  its  habits  and  food 
plants : 

Two  larvae  of  a  Notodonta  were  found  feeding  on  oak  and  persimmon  in  Virginia, 
June  18,  1882.  Another  one  was  found  June  20,  also  in  Virginia,  feeding  on  walnut ; 
and  two  more  July  19,  feeding  on  oak.  (It  also  feeds  on  the  white,  post,  aid  laurel 
oak,  and  linden).  One  of  the  first  found  larva  spun  up  between  leaves  July  19,  and 
another  one  pupated  on  the  surface  of  the  ground  July  21.  The  first  moth  issued 
August  5  and  the  other  one  August  12. 

Larvae  of  a  second  brood  were  again  fouud  August  30  feeding  on  apple  and  black 
birch,  and  another  full  grown  one  September  3,  feeding  on  persimmon. 

October  14,  1870:  S.  S.  Rathvon  describes  it  as  injurious  to  the  linden  trees, 
stripping  them  and  going  from  one  tree  to  another  in  the  village  of  Lititz,  near  Lan- 
caster, Pa.  They  went  into  the  ground  about  the  1st  of  September.  The  specimen 
he  sent  had  fifteen  large  Tachina-tly  eggs  attached  transversely  across  the  end  and 
third  joints.  The  white  margin  to  the  black  stripe  was  missing,  and  the  dark  pur- 
ple dorsal  band  extends  to  stigmata  on  joints  6  and  9  and  to  subdorsum  on  4  and 
11  (box  3,  No.  29),  also  a  variety  in  box  3,  No.  53. 

October  17,  1870:  Bolter  found  2  under  oak  leaves,  both  of  them  like  that  I  found 
on  oak  October  2,  1870. 

April  30,  1871,  one  has  issued  from  an  exotic  oak  in  Shaw's  gardens.  The  markings 
are  much  more  diffused,  with  a  large  whitish  discal  spot  ou  primaries.  That  marked 
4.->x  from  burr  oak — Muhleman,  issued  May  2.").  1-71.  It  is  a  variety  and  perfectly  de- 
ceptive like  X  unicornis,  taking  the  same  tubular  position. 

Very  abundant  in  1873.  October  12.  leaves  falling,  obtained  many  from  post  oak. 
Three  most  persistent  forms  blown  a  (4  in  cage  12)  b  (11  iu  cage  11)  c  (1  in  cage  10). 

July  6,  1-7  1:  The  imagines  have  been  issuing  very  irregularly.  To-day  I  sieved 
the  cages  and  especially  17.  in  wnich  there  were  a  number  of  all  three  forms.  They 
now  are  all  alike,  and  the  head  is  the  only  characteristic  part.  All  the  color  is 
gone  from  the  body,  which  is  now  of  a  uniform  Paris  green  more  or  leas  mottled 


with  a  pale  and  dark  shade,  the  vascular  line  dark  and  broken.  Many  of  these  are 
now  crawling  about  quite  actively,  while  others  are  in  the  pupa  state  and  others 
issuing.     They  were  all  in  a  very  slight  elastic  silken  cocoon. 

September  20, 1874  :  A  number  of  all  sizes  on  oak,  separated  into  three  lots — a  in  cage 
12  ;  &  in  cage  10  ;  c  in  cage  5.  They  are  very  variable  and  there  are  specimens  inter- 
mediate between  these  three  forms.  Some  have  the  colors  very  bright  and  distinct, 
and  others  less  so.  A  lot  found  on  linden,  but  afterw  ards  feeding  well  on  oak,  are  all  of 
the  light  form  a  in  cage  13. 

November  21,  1874:  In  sieving  the  cages  containing  forms  a,  b,  and  c,  they  were 
found  still  in  the  larval  state,  some  having  made  a  tough  silken  cocoon,  others  one 
made  only  of  a  few  threads,  while  some  had  no  cocoons  at  all  but  had  made  a  smooth 
cavity  in  the  earth.  In  cage  5  were  found  two  large  Tachina  larvae,  certainly  from 
form  c,  one  of  which  is  preserved  in  box  7-40.  April  10,  1875,  one  Tachina  fly  is- 
sued marked  359°.  One  moth  issued  April  16,  1875,  the  larva  of  which  was  found  on 
linden,  but  fed  also  on  oak  in  cage  13,  where  there  are  many  more  in  the  ground. 
Braconid  parasite  bred  October,  1874.  October  26,  1875:  Nine  from  oak  all  near 
form  b.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Full-grown  larva — Variety  a. — Length,  40mm(l. 50  inches),  rather  slender,  subcylindri- 
cal.  Head  pale  green  with  a  deep  purplish  lateral  line  bordered  below  with  a  pure 
white  line;  dorsum  of  abdomen  bluish-green  with  a  narrow  white  dorsal  line;  the 
green  dorsum  is  bordered  each  side  by  a  narrow,  scarcely  noticeable  yellow  line  run- 
ning from  the  head  to  the  fourth  segment,  from  which  point  it  is  purple  to  the  end  of 
the  body ;  this  line  is  bordered  below  by  a  very  distinct  pure  white  subdorsal  band ; 
the  sides  are  bluish  with  dark  purplish  spots ;  stigmata  orange ;  below  the  stigmata 
a  faint  interrupted  yellow  band ;  the  dorsal  aud  lateral  piliferous  warts  are  yellowish  ; 
subdorsal  whitish.  The  first  thoracic  segment  has  two  jellow  dorsal  tubercular  spots; 
segments  2  and  3  have  each  a  yellow  dorsal  double  wart,  and  the  first  abdominal 
segment  has  two  quite  conspicuous  red  piliferous  tubercles;  the  penultimate  segment 
is  somewhat  gibbous  above  and  bears  two  small  reddish  piliferous  tubercles. 

Variety  b. — Head  dark  yellow;  dorsum  of  body  purplish  with  paler  mottlings; 
dorsal  line  white;  the  subdorsal  white  line  interrupted  on  abdominal  segments  3  and 
6;  the  sides  rather  browner  than  the  dorsum;  lateral  line  yellow  and  more  distinct 
than  in  variety  a.  Stigmata  orange ;  the  first  thoracic  segment  has  the  yellow  tuber- 
cle, but  segments  2  and  3  have  only  the  lower  one  of  the  double  tubercles  yellow.  In 
other  points  it  resembles  variety  a. 

Variety  c. —  Head  very  pale  yellow;  dorsum  pale  grayish;  dorsal  white  line  bor- 
dered each  side  by  a  narrow  purplish  line.  The  subdorsal  band  consists  of  a  narrow, 
purple  line,  an  indistinct  yellow  line,  aud  a  broad  white  band;  the  subdorsal  lines 
approximate  on  the  thoracic  segments  as  in  other  varieties;  the  lateral  line  is  yellow, 
distinct,  and  uninterrupted;  sides  slightly  darker  than  the  dorsum  aud  specked  with 
purplish  spots.     (Comstock,  U.  S.  Ag.  Report  for  1880.) 

217.  Heterocampa  pulverea  Grote  and  Robinson. 
Order  Lepidoptkra  ;  family  Bombycuxe. 

Professor  French  has  reared  this  caterpillar,  which  occurred  in  Union 
County,  111.,  June  30  ;  July  6  it  went  into  the  dirt  of  the  breeding-cage 
to  pupate,  the  moth  appearing  August  6. 

The  caterpillar.— Leu gth,  1.25  inches  [in  shape  tapering  slightly  from  the  middle 
forward,  but  more  rapidly  from  that  point  backward,  the  body  deeper  than  broad.] 
.General  color  bright  green,  head  gray,  first  segment  behind  the  head  with  two  dark 
purplish-black  dorsal  warts;  from  these  a  purplish-brown  line  extends  backw'ard. 
This  purplish-brown  color  extends  over  the  back  part  of  the  sixth  segment,  the  whole 
of  the  seventh,  and  most  of  the  eighth.  On  the  third  segment  begins  a  dorsal  orange- 
patch,  which  reaches  back  to  the  sixth  segment,  filling  the  space  between  the  purple 
lines.     On  the  ninth  segment  is  another  orange-patch.     The  tenth  segment  has  no 


purple  and  only  a  lit  tit-  orange  below  the  stigmata.  There  is  also  a  faint  yellowish 
donal  line.  The  eleventh  legmen!  has  purple-brown  subdorsal  lines  with  orange  on 
the  back.  These  lines  unite  on  the  twelfth  segment  and  form  a  broad  dorsal  line. 
Peel  and  legs  purple.     (French.) 

M<>  ft. — Fore  wings  olive-ash,  a  distinct,  dark  (dive  subdorsal  spaee  ;  median  space 
paler,  olivaceous ;  transverse  anterior  line  black,  geminate,  dentate;  the  space  in- 
cluded is  stained  in  the  middle  with  brown.  A  narrow,  distinct,  discal  lunate  streak, 
preceded  by  b  blackish  zigzag  median  shade  line  most  distinct  in  the  costa.  Be- 
yond the  discal  streak  the  wing  is  clear  and  whitish,  forming  an  oblique  pyriform 
space,  limited  out  wardly  by  the  subtenninal  line  and  below  by  a  dark  shade  below  the 
third  median  vein,  somewhat  as  n:  //.  oliliqua.     It  is  closely  related  to  //.  einerea  Pack. 

The  following  notes  by  Professor  Riley  throw  more  light  ou  the  habits 
of  this  insect : 

Found  July  9,  1884,  at  Hyattsville,  M<1.,  quite  a  number  of  larvas  of  a  Notodouta 
feeding  on  oak,  hickory,  walnut,  birch,  aud  Carpinns  americana. 

Larv;e  entered  the  ground  July  11)  aud  20,  and  the  moths  issued  from  July  27  to 
August  7.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

218.  The  oak  forked  tail. 

Seterocampa  marthesia  (Cram.)  (Lochmceus  tessella  Pack.). 

The  caterpillar  of  this  moth  is  one  of  the  most  iuterestiug  among  the 
Notodontiaus  since  it  connects  Cerura  with  the  other  genera,  by  reason 
of  its  two  long  caudal  filaments,  so  much  like  those  of  Cerura.  These 
appendages  are  simply  modified  anal  legs,  and  seem  to  be  tactile  aud 
repellant  organs.  This  caterpillar  is  also  interesting  from  its  power 
when  touched  of  forcing  out  a  dense  cloud  of  fiue  spray  from  a  gland 
in  the  under  side  of  the  prothoracic  segment,  near  the  head.  It  is  very 
common  ou  the  oak,  both  red  and  white,  from  Maine  southward,  in 
August  and  through  September,  aud  occurs  as  far  south  as  Georgia. 

The  young  before  the  last  molt  have  much  higher  prothoracic  dorsal 
tubercles  and  much  longer  anal  filaments  than  in  the  adult,  and  they 
are  tinged  with  reddish.  The  cocoon  is  of  silk,  not  very  thick,  spun 
between  the  leaves,  and  in  confinement  the  moths  issued  iu  November, 
though  ordinarily  not  due  until  June. 

Professor  Riley  has  observed  it  on  the  oak  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  June  22, 
and  iu  July.     He  sends  the  following  notes  : 

The  larva,  if  disturbed,  thrusts  from  the  anal  appendages  a  fiue  red  thread.  The 
moths  issued  March  11  and  Id. 

Many  of  the  larva  are  iufected  by  parasites,  among  which  were  a  Tachinid  and  a 
Cryptus.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — It  is  a  large-bodied,  pale  green  caterpillar,  thickest  iu  the  middle,  being 
somewhat  spindle-shaped.  The  head  is  moderately  large,  tiat  in  front,  subcorneal, 
with  the  vertex  high  aud  conical,  pale  green,  edged  very  irregularly  with  roseate  on 
the  sides.  A  small  double  reddish  tubercle  on  the  top  of  the  prothoracic  segment, 
from  which  a  median  white  or  yellow  dorsal  stripe,  here  and  there  marked  with  ro- 
seate spots,  runs  to  the  supra-anal  plate.  The  aual  legs  are  represented  by  two 
slender  filaments  held  outstretched,  which  are  nearly  as  long  as  the  body  is  thick. 
There  are  seven  pairs  of  oblique  lateral  faint  yellowish  slender  stripes,  the  last  pair 
extending  to  the  sides  of  the  anal  filaments.  All  the  legs  are  pale  green  and  concol- 
orons  with  the  body.     Length  40mm,  including  the  filaments. 

Moth. — This  species  is  rather  above  the  medium  size,  and  may  be  known  by  being 
nearer  in  form  of  antenna),  body,  and  wings  to  Cerura  than  any  other  species  of  Loch- 



mceus  or  Heterocampa  ;  by  the  pale  ashen  bleached  fore  wings,  the  basal  third  of  which 
is  very  dark  cinereous ;  also  by  the  linear  obscure  discal  line,  succeeded  on  the  costa 
by  a  white  zigzag  spot,  and  more  especially  by  the  square  black  spot  near  the  in- 
ternal angle,  which  is  isolated  from  the  submargino-apical  dusky  line,  of  which  it 
forms  a  part.     Length  of  body,  female,  .90;  expanse  of  wings,  2.15  inches. 

219.  The  American  silk-worm. 

Telea  polyphemus  Hiibner. 

Feeding  on  the  leaves  in  August  and  September,  a  large,  fat,  pale-green  worm,  as 
large  as  one's  finger,  with  pearly  red  warts,  with  an  oblique  white  line  between  the 
two  lowermost  warts ;  the  head  and  feet  brown,  and  a  brown  V-shaped  line  on  the  tail. 

The  American  silk-worm,  not  uncommonly  met  with  on  the  oak,  may 
be  artificially  reared  in  great  abundance  on  the  leaves  of  this  tree,  and 
the  silk,  reeled  from  the  cocoons,  can  make  a  durable  and  useful  cloth. 
The  large,  thick,  oval  cocoons  are  attached  to  the  leaves  and  fall  with 
them  to  the  ground  in  autumn.  The  eggs  are  laid  in  June,  when  the 
moths  may  be  seen  flying  at  night.  It  is  one  of  our  largest  moths,  ex- 
panding from  five  to  six  inches,  and  is  dull  ocberous-yellow,  with  a  large 

Fig.  53.— American  silk  worm,  natural  size. — From  Packard,  after  Trouvelot. 

transparent  eye-like  spot  in  the  middle  of  each  wing.     It  is  not  common 
enough  to  be  destructive. 

Fig  54.— Cocoon.— After  Trouvelot. 

Fig.  55. -Pupa.— After  Trouvelot. 

According  to  Abbot  and  Smith,  iu  Georgia  the  caterpillar  feeds  on 

the  black-jack  and  other  oaks.     "It  buried  itself  July  12,  and  the  moth 

appeared  the  26th.    Another  went  into  the  ground  August  9,  and 

came  out  the  24th.     It  likewise  comes  forth  early  in  the  spring,  for  I 

5  ent 11 


have  taken  this  species  of  moth  on  the  LOth  of  May."    It  thus  appears 
to  be  double- brooded  iu  the  Gulf  States. 

Larva.— Body  very  thick  and  fleshy,  skin  thin,  segments  short  and  convex,  some- 
what swollen  and  augulatrd.  The  head  large,  rounded,  full  above  and  retractile  in 
the  prothoraeio  segment,  which  is  considerably  wider  than  the  head,  but  much  nar- 
rower than  tin*  one  succeeding.  The  head  is  pale  rust-ivd,  and  rather  hairy  in  front. 
The  body  is  of  a  soft  rich  pea-green,  much  paler  than  the  upper  side  of  an  oak  leaf 
and  even  than  the  under  side.  The  front  edge,  of  the  prothoracic  segment  is  straw- 
yellow  and  on  its  anterior  edge  are  four  widely  separated  yellow  warts,  each  bearing 
a  black  hair.  Two  dorsal  rows  on  second  (meso)  to  tenth  segment  behind  the  head 
of  prominent  spherical  mammilla,  bearing  two  to  three  pale  yellowish  hairs:  those 
on  the  first  four  segments  rich  yellow,  those  behind  tinged  with  orange-red  and  glis- 
tening with  silver.  Two  lateral  rows  of  similar  tubercles  in  color  and  form,  reddish 
behind  the  fourth  segment.  The  two  rows  are  very  wide  apart,  the  lower  row  next 
to  bases  of  abdominal  and  thoracic  feet.  The  spiracles  are  slightly  nearer  the  lower 
than  npper  lateral  row  of  .mammilla.  They  are  bright  brick-red.  A  faint  straight 
oblique  pale  yellow  baud  connects  the  upper  and  lower  tubercles  on  each  segment, 
there  being  six  such  bands. 

Supra-anal  plate  forming  almost  an  equilateral  triangle,  subacute,  the  edge  thick- 
ened and  broadly  marked  with  a  bright  varnish  brown,  forming  a  distinct  brown  V» 
the  hind  edge  of  the  broad  anal  legs  also  of  the  same  hue  of  brown.  Thoracic  feet 
rust-red.  Abdominal  feet  concolorous  with  the  body.  Along  the  lateral  ridge  are 
numerous  short  hairs.     Length  65  mm  ;  thickness  13  mm. 

2*20.  The  buck  moth  or  maia  moth. 
Hemihuca  maia  (Drury). 

This  fine  insect  feeds  on  the  oak,  as  Harris  says,  in  company  when 
small,  but  dispersing  when  becoming  larger;  the  caterpillar  eats  the 
leaves  of  various  kinds  of  oaks  and  stiugs  very  sharply  when  handled. 
In  the  Xew  England  States  the  moth  flies  in  July  and  early  in  August, 
but  is  usually  rarely  seen  so  far  to  the  northeast.  In  Illinois  and  Mis- 
souri, according  to  Riley  (fifth  Missouri  report),  it  is  more  abundant,  and 
in  Illinois  is  called  the  buck  moth  or  deer  moth,  because  seen  flying 
late  in  autumn  when  the  deer  ruu.  The  species  under  its  ordinary  form 
ranges  from  Maine  to  Georgia  and  westward  to  Kansas  :  it  has  also.been 
rarely  found  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  at  Dayton,  Xev.,  flying 
about  willows  in  August  (var.  nevadensis  Stretch).  I  possess  a  male 
from  Colorado  which  has  still  wider  white  bands  on  both  wings  than 
figured  by  Stretch.  It  also  inhabits  California  [califomioa  Stretch). 
The  Californian  moth  apparently  agrees,  as  Riley  states,  with  Dr.  Lim- 
ner's variety  bred  in  Xew  York ;  the  fore  wings  having  no  pale  mark- 
ings. It  thus  appears  to  range  from 
Maine  to  California  :  southward  through- 
out the  Gulf  State  and  to  Nevada. 
Riley  states  that  the  leaves  of  our  dif- 

Fio.  56. — II.  mam.  eggs  natural  size.— 

After  mil  y.  erent  oaks  afford  the  usual  food,  and  that 

"the  black  masses  of  the  prickly  larva1 

are  sometimes  quite  abundant  on  the  young  post,  black,  and  red  oaks 

along  the  Iron  Mountain  region."     He  has  also  found  them  abundantly 



on  the  scrub  willow  (Salix  humilis)  in  northern  Illinois,  aud  on  a  rose 
bush,  and  states  that  they  also  occur  on  the  common  hazel,  while  Glover 
records  them  as  living  on  the  wild  black  cherry. 

Fig.  57. — H.  maia;  a,  larva  fully  grown;  b,  pupa — natural  size;  c,  abdominal,  d,  thoracic  spine,  of 
newly-hatched  larva:  e,  spine  of  larva  after  first  molt;  /,  g,  spine  of  larva  after  third  and  fourth 
molts— enlarged.— After  Riley. 

In  the  Oeutral  and  Eastern  States  the  moths  begin  to  issue  from  the 
ground  late  in  September  and  early  in  October,  "  the  males  almost  al- 
ways appearing  first "  (Riley).  Both  Lintuer  and  Riley  record  cases 
where  the  moths  were  retarded  a  whole  year.  "  From  a  batch  of  larvae, 
which  had  all  entered  the  ground  before  July  1,  1871,  one  moth  did  not 
issue  till  October  8,  1872."     (Riley.) 

Hemilevca  maia.  male  buck  moth. — After  Rilev. 

The  eggs  are  deposited  to  the  number  of  from  one  hundred  to  two 
Jiundred  in  naked  belts,  the  smallest  number  of  eggs  in  a  mass  being 
seventy.     Riley  thus  describes  the  process  of  egg-laying: 

Holdiug  firmly  by  nil  ber  feet,  the  female  stations  herself  upon  a  twig,  with  her 
head  usually  toward  its  end.  She  then  stretches  her  abdomen  to  its  fullest  extent 
and  fastens  the  first  egg;  another  is  theu  attached  by  its  side,  and  so  on,  the  body 
reaching  round  the  twig  without  letting  go  the  feet.     In  this  manner,  governed  by 


the  thickness  of  the  twig,  an  Irregular,  somewhat  spiral  ring  is  formed  and  others 
added,  until  toward  the  last    the  abdomen  ii  raised  and  the  ovipositor  brought  up 
between  lbs  Legs.    The  lower  or  first  deposited  ones  incline  so  as  to  almost  lie  on  their 
(5tfa  Ifo.  Kt.,  p.  i  . 

Mr,  Joseph  A.  Stuart  has  communicated  to  me  the  following  notes 
on  this  moth  observed  by  him  at  Dracat,  Ifasfl : 

September  85,  1876:  Marked  olnsterof  eggs  laid  by  wis  around  the  stems  of  Spi- 
rcta  salicifolia  in  a  cranberry  swamp.  May  25,  1-7?  :  Waded  into  my  meadow  to  the 
marked  olnsterof  eggs,  and  found  the  larv;e  hatched  and  one-(juarter  of  au  inch  long, 
feeding  upon  the  plant  on  whieh  the  empty  egg-shells  still  remained.  Juue3:  Plenty 
of  broods  to  be  found  in  the  meadow.  June  10  :  Those  in  the  meadow  began  to  scat- 
ter: at  this  tune  commencing  to  show  the  two  rows  of  dull-yellow  warts  upon  the 
back,  otherwise  black  in  color  with  red  head  and  legs.  June  17:  In  the  meadow 
they  were  from  three-quarters  of  an  inch  to  one  and  one-quarter  inches  long,  and  the 
branching  spines  showed  plainly.  Rarely  more  than  one  to  be  found  on  a  plant.  June 
24  :  Show  the  yellow  dots  between  the  warts  and  spines  and  the  yellow  u  crescents  " 
above  the  prop-legs.  They  are  getting  more  scarce.  Have  found  two  specimens  on 
the  rough-leaved  hardback,  but  not  a  single  specimen  on  the  dog  rose,  though  in  one 
case  found  a  dog  rose  growing  intertwined  with  an  infested  hardback,  neither  have 
I  found  them  near  a  cranberry  vine.  In  former  years  while  picking  cranberries  from 
September  15  to  25  have  found  freshly-emerged  moths  on  a  spear  of  grass  and  an 
empty  naked  chrysalis  in  the  peat  moss  three  to  four  inches  deep.  Have  never  seen 
them  on  upland  in  either  State. 

The  spines  are  poisonous,  as  in  most  spinose  silk-worms,  especially 
those  on  the  back.  Notwithstanding  its  armature,  it  is  preyed  upon  by 
two  parasites  Limneria  fugitiva  (Say)  and  a  species  of  Microgaster. 

Dr.  J.  A.  Lintner  states  that  the  freshly-hatched  caterpillars  are  at- 
tacked by  a  bug,  Anna  modesta,  which  destroys  whole  broods  at  a 
time.  Dr.  Lintner  has  given  the  most  detailed  account  of  the  trans- 
formations of  this  fine  moth,  but  for  convenience  we  copy  the  more  con- 
densed account  of  the  larval  changes  as  given  by  Riley : 

Egg. — Length,  .05  to  .06  inch  :  obovate  ;  compressed  on  the  sides  and  at  the  apex  ; 
reddish-brown  above,  below  yellowish-white. 

Larva  before  first  molt. — Length,  .15  inch.  It  is  black  and  granulated  above,  red- 
dish-brown and  smooth  below,  with  a  row  of  spots  along  the  middle  joints.  The 
prolegs  are  brown  ;  head  with  a  few  scattering  hairs:  spines  placed  in  the  normal 
position,  namely.  6  (in  longitudinal  rows)  on  all  joints  except  11,  where  two  dorsal 
ones  are  replaced  by  a  single  medio-dorsal  one.  an  additional  snbveutral  one  each 
side  on  joints  1.  2,  3,  4.  5.  and  10,  and  an  additional  medio-dorsal  one  on  joint  12. 
They  consist  of  a  thickened,  sub-cylindrical,  polished  black  stem,  nearly  as  long  as 
the  diameter  of  the  body,  truncated  at  tip,  which  is  coronated  with  three  or  four 
short  points,  and  emits  a  long  black  bristle,  which,  under  high  magnifying  power 
appears  barbed.  Ou  the  thoracic  joints  the  stem  of  the  six  superior  rows  is  forked 
near  its  tip. 

After  first  molt.— The  body  remains  the  same,  but  the  spines,  whieh  are  now  longest 
on  thoracic  joints,  are  more  branched,  with  more  hairs  from  the  main  stem,  and  the 
bristles  from  blunt  ends  comparatively  short. 

After  second  molt.— The  dorsal  spines  are  still  more  branched,  and  often  less  trun- 
cated, so  that  the  bristle  is  less  distinctly  separated  and  forms  more  nearly  part  of 
the  tapering  spine.  The  bristles  also,  especially  on  the  lateral  spines,  are  longer  and 
paler.  During  the  latter  part  of  this  stage  the  characteristics  of  the  mature  larva 
are  indicated. 


After  third  molt. — The  two  dorsal  rows  of  spines  on  joints  3  to  10,  and  the  mesial  one 
on  joint  11,  are  reduced  to  subcorneal  tubercles  or  warts,  fascicled  with  short,  stout, 
simple  spines  of  a  pale  fulvous  color,  tipped  with  black ;  those  on  joints  1  and  2  re- 
main much  as  before,  but  there  is  generally  a  fascicle  of  similarly  fulvous  spines  at 
the  base  of  the  latter.  The  other  spines  are  somewhat  stouter,  with  the  blunt  tips 
from  which  the  bristles  spring  more  or  less  white.  Characters  of  mature  larva  more 

After  fourth  molt. — The  granulations  assume  the  form  of  whitish  transverse-oval 
papillae,  each  emitting  from  the  center  a  minute  dark  bristle.  These  papillae  are 
mostly  confluent  around  the  stigmata,  and,  together  with  some  irregular,  pale  yel- 
low markings,  produce  a  broad  and  pale  stigmatal  stripe.  They  are  most  sparse 
along  the  subdorsal  region,  just  above  stigmata,  where,  in  consequence,  the  body 
appears  darkest. 

Mature  larva.— Average  length,  nearly  2  inches ;  color,  brown-black  ;  head,  cervical 
shield,  anal  plate,  and  legs  polished  chestnut-brown,  the  prolegs  lighter,  and  inclin- 
ing to  Venetian-red,  with  hooks  more  dusky  and  the  true  legs  darker,  inclining  to 
black  at  tips.  The  dorsal  fascicled  spines,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  short  black 
ones  in  the  center  of  each  bunch,  are  pale  rust-yellow,  translucent,  the  tips  mucronate 
and  black ;  the  other  compound  spines  are  black,  with  the  blunt  ends  more  or  less 
distinctly  white  and  translucent  (but  frequently  crowned  with  minute  black  points, 
as  in  the  first  stage),  and  the  sharp-pointed  spinules  arising  from  them  dusky.  They 
are  generally  enlarged  and  reddish  at  base,  and  an  approach  to  the  dorsal  fascicles 
is  made  in  the  increased  number  and  yellow  color  of  the  basal  branches,  especially 
in  the  subdorsal  rows.  Stigmata  sunken,  pale,  elongate-oval;  venter  yellowish 
along  the  middle,  the  legs  connected  with  red,  and  a  reddish  spot  on  the  legless  joints. 

Pupa.—  The  larva,  to  transform,  almost  always  enters  the  ground,  and  there,  in  a 
simple,  ovoid  cell,  the  prickly  skin  is  shed,  and  the  pupa  state  assumed.  It  is  now 
of  a  deep  brown-black  color,  heavy  and  rounded  anteriorly,  minutely  shagreened  or 
roughened,  except  at  the  sutures  of  legs  and  wing-sheaths,  where  it  is  smooth  and 
polished.  The  margins  of  the  three  abdominal  sutures  next  the  thorax,  and  of  that 
between  the  last  two  stigmata-bearing  joints,  are  more  or  less  crimped  or  plaited, 
while  the  three  which  intervene,  and  which  are  the  only  ones  movable,  are  deep  and 
transversely  aciculate  (as  if  scratched  with  the  point  of  a  needle)  on  the  hind,  and 
longitudinally  and  minutely  striated  on  the  front  side.  The  body  ends  in  a  trian- 
gular, flattened,  ventrally  concave  tubercle,  tipped  with  a  few  curled,  blunt,  rufous 

Moth. — The  wings  are  so  lightly  covered  with  scales  that  they  are  semi-transparent 
and  look  like  delicate  black  crape.  The  bands  across  them  are  cream-white,  and 
broadest  on  the  hind  wings.  The  female  antennae  below,  the  hair  on  the  thighs,  and 
two  small  tufts  behind  the  thorax,  are  brick-red,  and  the  male  differs  from  the  female 
in  having  broader,  black  antennae  and  a  smaller  abdomen,  tipped  with  a  large  tuft 
of  brick-red  hair.  The  color  is  cream- white,  and  the  black  hairs  of  the  body  more  or 
less  sprinkled  with  hairs  of  the  same  pale  color. 

221.   Tolype  velleda  (Stal). 

The  caterpillar  of  this  remarkable  moth  was  found  by  Abbot  in 
Georgia  to  feed  on  the  willow  oak  (Quercus  phellos)  and  the  persimmon, 
spinning  its  cocoon  August  10,  the  moth  appearing  September  22. 
In  the  northern  States,  where  it  has  only  been  observed  on  the  apple 
and  would  be  mistaken  for  a  swelling  of  the  bark,  it  spins  its  cocoon 
also  early  in  August,  appearing  as  a  moth  forty  days  later. 

Larva. — Body  2|  inches  long  ;  much  like  that  of  G.  americana,  the  color,  however, 
pale  sea-green,  marked  with  ash,  blended  into  white,  and  beneath  of  a  brilliant 


orange,  spotted  with  vivid  black.  When  in  motion  a  rich,  velvet-black  stripe  appears 
two-thirds  of  an  Inch  from  the  head.     (Harris.) 

Cocoon. — Like  soft,  brown-gray  paper  in  texture;  one  and  one-half  inches  long 
and  half  an  inch  wide;  bordered  on  all  sides  by  B  loose  web;  oval  :  convex  above  and 
perfectly  flat  and  very  thin  beneath. 

Moth. — A  large  stout-bodied  moth,  white  with  a  large,  high  tuft  of  long,  metallic, 
brown  scales  along  the  thorax  :  wings  short  and  broad,  rounded  at  the  apex  with  two 
basal  bands  and  a  broad,  slightly  curved  submarginal  dusky  band,  interrupted  by 
the  white  veins;  hind  wings  gray  with  a  white  border  on  which  are  two  interrupted 
gray  lines.  Males  with  broadly  feathered  antenna-,  and  expanding  ty  to  If  inches, 
while  the  females  are  much  larger,  the  wings  expanding  2}  to  2f  inches. 

The  following  species  of  Noctuidae  are  found  on  oaks  of  different 

222.    Charadra  deridens  (Guen.). 

This  white  hairy  caterpillar  occurred  on  the  oak  August  28.  It  was 
first  reared  by  Dr.  Lintner  (Coutr.  iii,  157),  in  New  York,  and  Septem- 
ber 16  made  a  thin  cocoon  between  the  leaves. 

The  caterpillar  also  inhabits  the  elm  and  birch  and  spins  a  cocoon 
late  in  August  in  a  case  between  two  leaves;  the  eggs  were,  as  ob- 
served by  Mr.  Thaxter,  laid  July  4,  singly  or  in  rows  on  the  under 
side  of  a  leaf,  the  caterpillar  hatching  July  11,  molting  six  times,  the 
last  time  August  6. 

Egg. — Flattened,  ribbed,  whitish. 

Larva. — When  hatched,  light  green,  on  segm  ents  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  respectively,  a  large, 
roundish,  red  sub-dorsal  spot.  Head  large,  tinged  with  brown  ;  body  tapering  con- 
siderably posteriorly,  and  sparingly  clothed  with  long  colorless  hairs.  Length  2. 5mm. 
(Thaxter,  Papilio  iii,  11.) 

Larva  before  last  molt. — Head  white,  rounded,  a  broad  jet-black  transverse  patch 
on  the  front  above  the  apex  of  the  clypeus  ;  the  latter  edged  with  black,  forming  a 
black  triangle  connecting  below  with  a  black  stripe  on  each  side  of  base  of  labrum; 
the  latter  black-brown,  body  cylindrical,  rather  short  and  thick;  sutures  deep;  head 
uot  so  wide  as  the  prothorax,  the  latter  rather  full  and  large,  longer  but  not  so  wide 
as  the  meso-segment,  and  with  a  yellowish-white  tinge  like  the  head.  Rest  of  the 
body  white,  with  a  very  slight  greenish  tinge,  with  small  tubercles  concolorous  with 
the  body,  from  which  radiate  fascicles  of  long  white  fine  hairs  of  unequal  length  half 
as  long  as  the  body.     Length  21mm;  thickness  5  to  6mm. 

Full-fed  larva. — After  the  last  molt  the  head  is  jet  black  in  front,  except  along 
back  of  vertex,  which  is  white,  and  sends  a  median  line  betweeu  the  two  large  black 
patches.  In  front  are  three  triangular  whitish  patches,  one  on  the  clypeus,  and  a 
longer  one  on  each  side.  In  front  black,  face  black,  labrum  white.  Body  dull  white, 
tinged  with  pale  glaucous-green,  with  very  long  white  hairs  arising  from  small  wThite 
warts.     Length  38mm. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  broad,  subtriangular,  a  little  prolonged  at  the  apex,  of  an  ashy 
white  washed  with  yellow,  with  several  waved  blackish  lines;  those  of  the  middle  of 
the  wing  more  marked,  one  from  the  costa  passing  backward,  forming  a  great  JJ  aud 
containing  in  its  middle  a  round  dot  pupilled  with  brown;  the  other  contiguous  and 
opposed  to  that  of  the  internal  border,  containing  in  the  middle  the  base  of  the  me- 
dian shade,  aud  having  the  external  side  formed  at  the  expense  of  the  augulated 
line.  This  last  lunulated,  followed  by  a  similar  line  near  the  submarginal.  At  the 
end  of  the  discoidal  cell  is  a  blackish  spot,  and  under  the  costa,  before  the  upper  [J 
a  mark  of  the  same  color.  Hind  wings  rounded,  white  on  the  edges,  with  margiual 
lunules;  antennae  short,  well  feathered.  Palpi  short,  externally  brown,  with  the 
last  joint  white.     Expanse  of  wings  40mm.     (Gueue'e.) 


223.  Charadra  propinqiiilinea  Grote. 

The  larva  is  said  by  Mr.  Thaxter  to  feed  in  Maine  on  the  birch,  wal- 
nut, and  maple,  as  well  as  the  oak. 

Larva. — Black,  with  a  dorsal  white  baud,  and  a  lateral  white  band  edged  below 
with  black  beneath  white.  The  loDg  tufts  in  segment  2  were  clear  black  instead  of 
red  as  normally.     Specimens  on  walnut  were  mottled  and  black.     (Thaxter.) 

Moth. — Differs  from  C.  deridens  by  the  median  lines  being  much  nearer  together  and 
not  joined  at  the  center  of  the  wings.  Orbicular  spot  round,  distinct,  whitish,  with  a 
central  dark  dot.  Reniform  spot  contiguous  to  the  outer  line;  median  line  apparent 
in  front  and  behind  the  orbicular  spot.  Submarginal  line  distinct  on  the  postal  point 
behind,  scalloped.  An  interrupted  marginal  line.  Hind  wings  smoky,  dark  along 
the  external  margin.  Head  and  thorax  whitish.  Tegulae  with  black  marks.  Ex- 
panse of  wings  40mm.     (Grote.) 

224.  Psteudothyatira  cymatophoroides  (Guene'e). 

Mr.  R.  Tliaxter  has  collected  on  the  red  oak  the  caterpillar,  which 
lives  in  cases  between  leaves,  such  as  are  made  by  Charadra.  When 
at  rest  the  body  is  bent,  the  head  approaching  the  posterior  segments. 
One  spun  a  slight  cocoon  in  moss  September  20  to  25,  the  moth  emerg- 
ing on  June  9  following. 

Larva. — Rich  yellow-brown,  varying  in  shade,  mottled  by  fine  dark  lines.  A  con- 
trasting white  spot  just  above  the  stigmata  of  segment  4,  roundish  and  varying  in 
size,  sometimes  altogether  wanting.  A  fine,  continuous,  black  dorsal  line.  Head 
protruded  and  darker  brown  than  the  body.  Stigmata  black-brown,  slender.  Length 
42 mm  (1.68  inches).     (Thaxter.) 

Moth. — Fore  wings  straight  and  at  the  internal  angle  with  a  tooth,  the  fringe  of 
which  is  reddish,  and  next  to  a  large  black  spot.  At  the  base  of  the  wing  is  a  gray- 
ish-black spot,  then  succeeds  a  wavy  band  composed  of  two  or  three  black  lines,  the 
first  of  which  is  the  extrabasilar,  and  which  goes  from  the  costa  to  the  inner  edge 
of  the  wing.  The  other  lines  are  indistinct ;  the  submarginal  is  very  much  toothed, 
oblique,  not  bent.  The  whole  wing  is  of  a  silky  gray,  tinted  with  rose,  with  the 
median  space  dusted  with  black  scales.  Hind  wings  ashy  with  a  small  central  line 
and  yellowish  fringe;  beneath  clear  yellow.  On  each  side  of  the  abdomen  is  a  tuft 
of  dark-gray  scales.  The  female  differs  much  from  the  male  in  having  no  black  spots 
at  the  base  of  the  fore  wings  nor  at  the  internal  angle,  and  the  broad  band  of  the 
male  is  reduced  to  the  extrabasilar  alone,  which  is  fine  and  edged  with  white.  Ab- 
domen not  tufted  on  the  sides.     (Guen6e.) 

225.  The  Western  Dagger-Moth. 
Apatela  occidentalis  Grote  and  Robinson. 

The  caterpillar  of  this  moth  has  been  reared  from  the  oak  in  Massa- 
chusetts by  Mr.  Roland  Thaxter  (Psyche  ii,  35).  The  moth  is  of  com- 
mon occurrence  from  June  to  July  in  the  New  England  and  Middle 
States.  The  caterpillar  also  feeds  on  the  elm  and  apple  and  is  seen  in 
September.  It  began  to  spin  a  cocoon  September  23,  the  moth  appear- 
ing early  in  the  following  summer.  It  was  identified  for  us  by  Mr. 

Larva. — Body  cylindrical,  hairy,  with  a  black  hump  on  the  eighth  segment,  and  a 

broad  black  longitudinal  band.     The  general  color  of  the  body  is  a  livid  leaden  hue. 

Pupa. — Of  the  usual  shape  ;  tip  of  the  abcloiueu  obtuse,  with  eight  long,  even,  stiff 


chitiiimis  Beta  which  are  incurved  at  the  end.     The  basal  abdominal  suture  is  well 
marked,  being  very  deep.     Length  20""". 

Moth.— This  species  is  the  American  analogue  of*  tin}  European  A.psi.  It  constantly 
differs  from  its  ally  by  the  paler  color  of  the  fore  wings,  which  are  more  sparsely 
covered  with  scales,  and  by  their  somewhat  squarer  shape.  The  reniform  spot  on 
the  disc  shows  a  bright  testaceous  tinge,  and  the  ordinary  spots  are  less  approximate 
than  in  A.  p*i.  The  secondaries  are  dark  gray,  nearly  unicolorous,  a  little  paler  in 
the  male,  and  darker  iti  either  sex  than  its  Europcau  analogue.  Expanse  of  wings 
1.40  inches.     (G.  and  R.) 

226.  Apatela  lobelia:  (Gueuee.) 

This  caterpillar  was  found  by  Mr.  Coquillett  oil  the  burr  oak  in  Illi- 
nois, June  C ;  it  spun  a  cocoon  June  22,  the  moth  appearing  July  14. 

Larva. — Body  bluish-gray,  the  dorsal  space  tinged  with  yellow ;  a  dorsal  and  subdor- 
sal pale  yellowish  line  extending  only  to  segment  11,  which  is  humped,  the  top  bluish, 
and  on  it  are  four  quite  large  piliferous  spots;  the  top  of  segment  4  bluish,  inter- 
rupting the  dorsal  line;  piliferous  spots  whitish,  prominent,  each  bearing  a  black 
hair;  sides  of  the  body  quite  thickly  covered  with  whitish  hairs;  spiracles  white, 
encircled  with  black ;  body  beneath  greenish  white.  Head  gray,  dotted  with  black, 
and  marked  on  the  top  with  two  blood-red  spots.  Length  1.50  inches.  (Coquillett, 
Papilio,  i,  6.) 

Moth. — Fore  wings  oblong,  somewhat  square,  of  a  clear  ash,  finely  speckled,  with  a 
thick  basal  line,  the  transverse  inferior  line  thick,  and  the  superior  one  more  feeble 
and  black,  ordinary  lines  quite  well  marked.  The  spots  not  distinct,  joined  together 
by  a  thick  black  spot;  the  orbicular  spot  relatively  small.  Fringe  plainly  spotted 
with  black.  Hind  wings  dirty  white,  a  little  irised,  with  the  veins  and  the  edge 
broadly  washed  with  blackish  ;  beneath  white,  with  a  basal  dash,  a  large  triangular 
spot,  an  interrupted  transverse  line  and  distinct  terminal  black  dashes.  Female  with 
the  fore  wings  relatively  rather  large,  the  hind  wings  more  obscure,  with  the  line  on 
the  under  side  more  entire.     Expanse  of  wings  55  mra  (2.20  inches).     (Guenee.) 

227.  Apatela  affiicta  Grote. 

Several  caterpillars  were  observed  feeding  on  the  red  oak  by  Mr. 
Thaxter.  They  spun  stout,  elongated  cocoons  September  17  to  25,  and 
the  moths  appeared  in  June  and  July  of  the  following  year. 

Larva. — Light  yellow-brown,  tinged  with  green,  darker  above.  A  few  lateral  whit- 
ish hairs.  Stigmata  white,  ringed  with  black.  A  whitish  stigmatal  line;  a  distinct, 
continuous  black  dorsal  line.  A  subdorsal  row  of  stiff  club-shaped  hairs,  such  as  are 
found  in  the  larva  of  A.  funeralis,  but  much  smaller  and  not  noticeable.  These  are 
easily  broken  and  in  the  specimens  before  me  are  present  only  on  segments  4, 5,  6,  and 
11,  though  in  more  perfect  specimens  they  may  occur  on  all  the  segments.  One 
specimen  found  was  rich  yellow-green,  and  all  vary  considerably  in  shade.  Head 
stout,  flattened  behind,  yellow-brown,  lighter  externally,  sparsely  clothed  with  whit- 
ish hairs.  It  rests  with  the  head  touching  the  posterior  segments,  selecting  a  withered 
or  discolored  leaf  on  which  it  is  well  coucealed.     (R.  Thaxter  in  Papilio,  iii,  17.) 

Moth. — Fore  wings  dark  gray,  shaded  with  black.  The  basal  and  transverse  anterior 
lines  are  black,  geminate,  uudulate.  The  mediau  space  dark  gray,  lighter  on  the 
costa  and  along  internal  margin,  and  traversed  by  the  median  shade-line,  which  is 
black,  dentate,  crosses  the  reniform  spot,  and  is  composed  of  three  distinct  black 
bands,  which  are  obscured  in  the  center  of  the  wing,  and  only  apparent  on  the  costa  and 
internal  margin.  Discal  space  occupied  by  a  deep,  blackish  shade,  showing  a  some- 
what greenish  reflection,  and  which  occupies  all  the  subterminal  space.  The  ordinary 
spots  are  of  the  normal  shape  ;  the  orbicular  spot  distinct,  whitish  with  black  center; 


the  reniform  spot  broad,  but  slightly  excavated  externally,  obscured  by  the  greenish 
discal  shade,  ringed  with  black  and  with  a  central  streak.  Transverse  posterior 
line  intensely  black,  geminate,  minutely  dentate.  Subterminal  and  terminal  lines 
white,  interrupted,  dentate  between  the  veins  ;  fringes  whitish,  broadly  interrupted 
with  black  at  the  extremities  of  the  veins;  costa  with  some  whitish  marks.  Hind 
wings  gray  ;  darker  along  the  veins.  Disc  of  thorax  whitish  gray,  with  two  central 
blackish  spots.  Tegula)  and  collar  blackish,  the  latter  with  a  black  line  and  grayish 
above.    Expanse  of  wings,  1.60  inches.     (Grote.) 

228.  Jpatela  brumosa  (Guene'e). 

According  to  Coquillett,  the  caterpillar  of  this  moth  feeds  on  the  plum 
and  hazel ;  it  spins  a  thin  tough  cocoon.  In  Illinois  two  caterpillars 
assumed  the  chrysalis  state  in  September,  the  moths  appearing  in  the 
last  week  in  April  and  first  week  in  May  of  the  following  year. 

Larva.— Body  black,  marked  with  a  broad  yellowish-brown  stigmatal  stripe;  hairs 
in  spreading  clusters  from  warts,  those  upon  each  end  of  the  body  being  yellow,  the 
rest  white ;  sixteen  legs  ;  head  black  ;  length  38  mm. 

Guene'e  says  it  lives  on  the  oak  and  is  entirely  clear  yellow,-  with  a  fine  continuous 
blackish  dorsal  line,  and  the  head  of  a  pale  red.  The  piliferous  points  in  a  trapezoid, 
somewhat  warty,  very  small,  pale  red,  and  emitting  but  a  single  hair.  The  stigmata 
is  circled  with  blackish. 

Moth. — A  little  larger  than  the  European  A.  rumicis,  which  it  somewhat  resembles. 
Wings  of  a  little  less  fuliginous  gray,  with  all  the  lines  and  the  visible  spots  black  ; 
the  orbicular  spot  quite  large,  clear,  and  marked  with  a  central  point ;  the  reniform 
spot  very  large,  and  stained  in  the  middle  with  black.  A  broad  blackish  shade,  more 
marked  even  than  in  A.  rumicis,  starts  from  the  base  of  the  wing  and  ends  almost  on 
the  terminal  border,  being  interrupted  behind  the  reniform  spot.  The  fringe  is  dis- 
tinctly checkered.  The  small  white  lunule  which  we  see  on  the  inner  margin  in 
rumicis,  does  not  here  exist.  Hind  wings  of  a  very  clear  yellowish-gray,  somewhat 
transparent,  with  the  veins  more  distinct.  A  feeble  cellular  lunule,  and  the  fringe 
checkered,  outer  edge  brownish,  in  the  female.     (Guene'e.) 

229.  Apatela  ovata  Grote. 

This  is  a  very  common  caterpillar,  feeding  on  the  red  and  white  oak, 
and  ranges  from  Maine  to  Georgia.  It  is  a  peculiar  caterpillar,  eating 
patches  while  clinging  to  the  under  side  of  the  leaf.  It  varies  much 
in  color,  some  being  reddish  orange,  and  pinkish  in  tint;  others  dirty 
whitish  yellow.  In  the  pinkish  specimens  the  dorsal  line  of  dark  dia- 
mond-shaped spots  is  obsolete.  One  was  yellowish  with  dorsal  brown 
spots;  another  caterpillar  was  brown,  with  ten  pairs  of  bright  straw- 
yellow  dorsal  spots.  This  singular  larva,  which  differs  from  most  of  its 
congeners  in  being  nearly  naked,  is  probably  protected  from  its  ene- 
mies, as  it  lies  curled  up  on  the  leaf,  by  its  resemblance  to  a  withered 
patch  or  blotch  on  an  oak-leaf.  Et  pupated  September  19  to  25,  not 
spinning  a  cocoon,  and  undoubtedly  entering  the  ground. 

We  have  also  found  it  on  Betula  populifolia  ;  and  two  specimens  oc- 
curred on  the  chestnut ;  one  of  a  straw-yellow,  the  other  of  a  reddish 
tint.    The  moth  was  identified  for  us  by  Mr.  John  B.  Smith. 

The  flattened  body,  very  large  head,  the  dorsal  row  of  short  diamond- 


shaped  spots  on  a  straw  yellow  ground,  and  the  reddish-orange  mam- 
milla} giving  rise  to  pale  hairs  will  distinguish  this  singular  larva. 

Larva. — Head  very  large,  full,  btlobed,  the  Lobe  lull  and  rounded,  much  wider 
than  the  body,  pale,  marbled  with  lilac.  Five  pairs  of  abdominal  feet.  Body  short 
and  thick,  somewhat  flattened,  tapering  somewhat  toward  the  tail;  straw-yellowish, 
with  a  row  of  dark  broad,  diamond  shaped,  brown  spots  along  the  hack,  the  spots 
connected  and  centered  with  yellowish.  Four  setiferous  dorsal  reddish  rounded  warts 
arranged  in  a  trapezoid,  with  another  wart  on  the  side  above  each  stigma.  Body 
beneath  paler.      Length,  'JO'"1". 

Moth.— Of  the  general  shape  of  A.  hamamelis,  but  very  different  in  color  and  with 
distinct  sagittate  marks.  Gray  with  a  bright  tinge,  shaded  with  testaceous.  A 
blaok  basal  dash  extends  to  the  twice  strongly  angulated  t.  a.  line,  which  is  gemi- 
nate, the  inner  more  distinct  line  composed  of  raised  scales.  Above  the  basal  dash 
the  humeral  space  is  pale  beyond  the  geminate  basal  half-line.  Median  space  wide 
superiorly,  owing  to  the  superior  wide  projection  of  the  distinct  and  regularly  den- 
ticulated t.  p.  line  Orbicular  rather  large,  pale,  and  vagu e,  with  clouded  center. 
Costal  black  marks  evident.  Median  shade  apparent  by  raised  darker  scales.  Reni- 
form  vague,  bisaunulate,  stained  with  deep  testaceous.  A  very  narrow  black  dis- 
tinct dash  at  internal  angle,  broken  at  the  pale  continued  s.  t.  line.  A  third  black 
dash,  indicated  within  s.  t.  line,  opposite  the  disk.  Secondaries  fuscous,  with  the 
distinct  black  discal  spot  and  dentate  line  of  the  paler  under  surface  reflected.  Ex- 
panse of  wings,  1.45  inch.     (Grote.) 

230.  Scopelosoma  morrisoni  Grote. 
Order  Lepidoptera;  family  NocTUiDiE 

The  larvae  of  five  species  of  this  genus  have,  according  to  Mr.  R. 
Thaxter,  the  same  form  and  habit ;  are  omnivorous,  and  live  in  a  case 
between  two  leaves,  or  within  the  folds  of  a  single  leaf;  when  young 
making  a  silk-covered  burrow  between  two  ribs  or  eating  out  a  cavity 
in  a  bud  somewhat  after  the  manner  of  a  Torticid.  When  fully  matured 
aud  somewhat  soiled,  it  is  hardly  possible  to  separate  the  species.  8, 
morrisoni  and  walkeri  are  the  most  difficult  to  separate,  but  the  more 
even  and  richer  color  of  the  subdorsal  and  dorsal  regions,  together  with 
the  obliteration  of  the  dorsal  and  subdorsal  lines,  aud  the  clear  white 
lateral  line,  render  the  latter  species  sufficiently  recognizable  when 
fresh.  The  lateral  lines  are  substigmatal,  the  stigmata  black,  the  body 
sparsely  covered  with  minute  tubercles  bearing  short  colorless  hairs  in 
all  the  species.  Form  cylindrical,  tapering  very  slightly,  head  moder- 
ate. The  eggs  of  the  present  species  were  laid  ou  oak  twigs  April  22.  It 
molts  five  times. 

Egg. — Stone  color  changing  to  reddish  ;  flattened  inferiorly,  a  central  superior  de- 
pression from  which  radiate  beaded  ridges.     Transverse  diameter  about  6ram. 

First  laival  stage. — When  just  hatched,  color  livid  yellowish  green  with  blackish 
superior  and  anterior  blotches.  Head  large,  jet  black.  Thoracic  aud  abdominal  legs 
black.  A  frontal  semi-circular  black  plate  ou  segment  1.  After  feeding  and  when 
nearly  grown  indications  of  a  dorsal,  subdorsal,  aud  lateral  streak.  Color  light 
green.     Length  2  to  \\nim. 

Second  stage. — A  dorsal,  two  subdorsal,  aud  a  substigmatal  whitish  line,  the  two 
subdorsal  ones  less  clearly  marked,  especially  the  inferior.  Setiferous  tubercles, 
which  bear  short  colorless  minute  hairs,  blackish,  indistinctly  ringed. 


In  third  stage. — Much  as  before,  but  tbe  markings  more  distinct. 

In  fourth  stage.— Color  above  and  below  on  segments,  one-third  dull  purple,  tinged 
with  green  dorsally.  Below  light  greenish  ;  a  patch  of  purplish  in  the  substigmatal 
region  of  each  segment.  Dorsal  line  with  a  bluish  tinge.  Head  light  brown.  Length 

Fifth  stage.  —Marked  as  before  but  less  distinctly.  Colors  duller  and  darker.  Length 

2^  mm 

Sixth  stage,  mature  larva. — Dull  blackish  with  a  slight  bluish-green  tinge  and  late- 
ral dull  purplish  shades,  obscurely  mottled.  Dorsal  streak  indistinct,  bluish  white, 
somewhat  irregular.  Subdorsal  lines  broken,  but  tolerably  distinct,  the  superior 
edged  with  blackish.  Lateral  streak  white  with  a  bluish  tinge.  Stigmata  black. 
Setiferous  tubercles  minute,  black,  ringed  with  bluish  white;  those  below  the  lateral 
line  more  distinct.  The  superior  subdorsal  line  cuts  the  frontal  plate  of  segment  1 
very  clearly,  and  is  there  tinged  with  yellowish.  Rather  stout,  slightly  tapering. 
Length  35mm.     (Thaxter. ) 

Moth. — This  species  is  of  the  color  of  S.  walkeri,  but  differs  at  once  by  the  even,  pale 
shaded  distinct  median  lines  on  the  fore  wings,  which  latter  are  of  a  rusty  olivaceous 
ocherous.  The  reniform  appears  merely  as  a  pale  luniform  mark,  looking  of  a  piece 
with  the  t.  p.  line.  This  latter  in  S.  tcalkeri  is  dark,  single,  narrow,  irregular  or 
wavy,  or  a  little  interspaceally  notched  over  the  median  nervules.  Hind  wings 
blackish,  with  fringes  like  the  fore  wings  and  thorax  in  color.  Beneath  like  the  fore 
wings  above,  irrorate  with  black  scales,  with  distinct  blackish  discal  spot  and  median 
baud,  the  latter  centrally  more  deeply  indented  than  usual.  Costal  edge  of  primaries 
straight.    Expanse  of  wings,  3dmm.     (Grote.) 

231.  Amphipyra  pyramidoides  Guen. 

Professor  Riley  fouud,  May  28,  L873,  the  larva  of  this  common  moth 
almost  full-grown  on  the  oak.  It  entered  the  ground  June  5,  and 
issued  as  an  imago  June  25.  He  states  that  it  feeds  on  oak,  poplar, 
grape,  Cercis  canadensis,  persimmon,  and  hazel. 

Saunders  states  that  it  also  occurs  on  the  thorn,  and  that  when  full- 
grown  the  caterpillar  descends  to  the  ground,  and,  drawing  together 
some  loose  fallen  leaves  or  other  rubbish,  spins  a  slight  cocoon  within 
which  it  changes  to  a  dark-brown  chrysalis,  from  which  the  perfect 
insect  escapes  in  the  latter  part  of  July. 

Larva. — Nearly  an  inch  and  a  half  long,  the 
body  tapering  towards  the  front,  and  thick- 
ened behind.  The  head  is  rather  small,  of 
a  whitish-green  color,  with  the  mandibles 
tipped  with  black;  the  body  whitish-green,  a 
little  darker  on  the  sides,  with  a  white  stripe 
down  the  back,  a  little  broken  between  the 
segments  or  rings,  and  widening  behind. 
There  is  a  bright-yellow  stripe  on  each  side 
close  to  the  under  surface,  which  is  most  dis-  Fig.  59.— Imago  of  Amphipyra  pyramidoi- 
tinct  on  the  hinder  segments,  aud  a  second  des.—  After  Riley, 

one  of  the  same  color,  but  fainter,  half-way 

between  this  and  the  dorsal  line;  this  latter  is  more  distinct  on  the  posterior  portion 
of  the  body,  and  follows  the  peculiar  prominence  on  the  twelfth  segment.  The  under 
side  of  the  body  is  pale  green.     (Saunders.) 

Moth. — The  fore  wings  are  dark  brown  shaded  with  paler  brown  and  with  dots 
and  wavy  lines  of  dull  white;  the  hind  wings  are  reddish  with  a  coppery  luster, 


becoming  brown  on  tin-  outer  angle  of  the  frout  edge  of  the  wing  and  paler  toward 
the  hinder  and  inner  angle.  The  uuder  surface  of  the  wiugs  is  much  paler  than  the 
upper.  The  body  is  dark  brown;  its  hinder  portion  banded  with  lines  of  a  paler 
hue.     Expanse  of  wingH,  1J  inches.     (Saunders.) 

'j:W.    Tiriiiocampa  incerta  Hufn.  (Orthosia  itutaHUi  Fitch)- 

Professor  Riley  has  found,  feeding  on  the  oak,  small  whitish  larvae, 
with  a  .yellow-brown  head  and  a  row  of  red  spots  on  each  side  of  the 
body.  One  folded  a  leaf  within  which  it  spun  a  loose,  white  silken 
web,  open  at  both  ends.  It  transformed  within  this,  but  deserted  it 
and  entered  the  ground  August  14.  It  also  feeds  on  the  hickory  and 
sassafras.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

233.  Jodia  rufago  Hiibu. 

Professor  Riley  states  that  this  is  one  of  the  early  Noctuids,  speci- 
mens of  which  were  collected  on  sugar  at  Washington  April  15,  1884, 
and  commenced  to  deposit  their  eggs  the  following  day.  The  eggs  are 
yellowish-white,  globular,  and  finely  ribbed.  They  hatch  in  about  seven 
days,  and  the  young  larvae  commence  to  feed  at  once  on  the  leaves  of 
cherry  and  oak.  They  are  yellowish- white,  with  a  pale  yellow  head  and 
black  piliferous  warts.  They  molt  at  intervals  of  three  to  four  days, 
the  last  stage  lasting  about  ten  days,  when,  by  the  end  of  May,  all 
enter  the  ground  for  transformation,  apparently  not  appearing  as  moths 
before  the  following  spring.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

234.  Panopoda  carneicesta  Guen. 

Larvae  of  this  species  were  found  August  25,  1884,  in  Virginia,  feed- 
ing on  the  oak,  and  a  moth  issued  September  23.  The  same  species 
was  also  found  at  Atlanta,  Ga. 

Larva. — The  full-grown  larva  is  about  42mm  in  length,  rather  slender,  of  a  dark 
green  color,  with  orange-yellow  subdorsal  line,  and  an  oblique,  fine,  yellow  line  each 
side  of  each  segment.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Moth. — Wings  rounded,  entire  ;  of  a  violet-ash  color,  with  the  outer  margin  washed 
with  brown,  and  an  indistinct  submargiual  series  of  white  points,  shaded  with  black- 
ish or  reddish.  Fore  wings  with  three  distinct  brown  lines;  the  extrabasilar  straight; 
the  extradiscal  sinuous,  curved,  and  the  median  diffuse  line  straight,  passing  beyond 
the  reuiform  dot,  which  is  black,  very  distinct,  L-shaped,  the  lower  branch  of  which 
is  prolonged  to  a  point  under  the  orbicular,  which  is  reduced  to  a  black  dot.  Hind 
wings  with  a  scarcely  visible  extradiscal  line.  Wings  beneath  gray,  powdered  with 
reddish,  not  spotted  or  banded.  Prothorax  reddish  brown.  Expanse  of  wings  46mm. 

235.  Panopoda  rufimargo  Hiibn. 

This  moth  has  been  bred  from  the  oak  by  Mr.  R.  Thaxter  (Psyche  ii,  35). 

Moth. — Wings  gray  powdered  with  dark  brown;  the  fore  wings  with  two  median 
lines  very  rambling  (ccartees),  almost  parallel,  very  wavy,  but  not  toothed,  fine  and 
continuous,  rust-red,  lined  with  a  yellow  thread.  Thehind  wings  with  a  single  sim- 
ilar line,  starting  from  the  anal  angle,  but  disappearing  two-thirds  across  the  wings. 
Fore  wings  with  the  costa  rust-red  and  the  orbicular  spot  reduced  to  a  dot,  the  ren- 
iform  being  larger  and  tear-like.     Expanse  of  wings  45mm. 


Var.  roseicosta  Gueu.,  with  the  wings  of  a  clear  yellow  ocher,  with  the  red  lines 
more  widely  edged  with  yellow.  The  reniform  is  divided  into  two  dots,  and  the 
orbicular  is  divided  into  two  spots.  Both  pairs  of  wings  bear  a  subterminal  line  of 
yellow  spots.  The  female  differs  in  having  the  costa  tinted  with  clear  rose,  and  there 
are  no  subterminal  dots.     (Guene'e.) 

236.  Cosmia  orina  Guen. 

Order  Lepidoptera  j  family  Noctuid^e. 

Mr.  W.  Saunders,  of  London,  Canada,  has  bred  this  moth  from  the 
oak.  One  specimen,  which  entered  the  chrysalis  state  on  the  24th  of 
June,  produced  the  imago  on  the  18th  of  July.     (Saunders.) 

Larva. — A  smooth  yellowish  green  larva  nine  tenths  of  an  inch  long,  body  cylin- 
drical, above  pale  yellowish-green,  with  a  dorsal  line  of  yellow,  less  distinct  on  the 
anterior  segments,  and  covered  with  fine  dots  and  short  streaks  of  yellow,  less  nu- 
merous on  the  second  and  terminal  segments.  Head  rather  smooth,  flattened  in  front, 
slightly  bilobed,  pale  whitish-green. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  somewhat  oblong,  and  rather  rectangular  than  triangular ;  of  a 
fleshy  gray  mixed  with  blackish  scales,  and  powdered  on  the  veins  with  black  scales ; 
with  two  fine  median  white  lines  disposed  in  a  trapezium  more  open  at  the  base 
than  in  trapezina  ;  median  spots  encircled  with  white  ;  the  orbicular  spot  punctured 
with  blackish  ;  the  reniform  spot  straight,  constricted  in  the  middle  ;  punctured  with 
black  at  each  end.  Hind  wings  whitish,  grayish  on  their  outer  half,  with  a  discal 
dot,  plainer  beneath.  Male  abdomen  very  slender  and  ended  by  a  very  large  tuft  of 
hairs.     (Guene'e.) 

237.  Climbing  cut-worms. 

Agrotis  saucia,  etc. 

Order  Lepidoptera  ;  family  Noctdidje. 

Climbing  cut-worms  were  a  prominent  feature  of  the  entomological 
developments  of  the  spring  of  1886.  These  attacked  the  oaks,  elms,  and 
other  shade  trees,  as  well  as  apple,  pear,  and  cherry  trees  aud  a  variety 
of  vines  and  shrubs.  Among  the  species  detected  in  their  work  of  de- 
struction were  Agrotis  saucia,  A.  scandens,  A.  alternata,  and  Homohadena 
badistriga.  The  grass  under  shade  and  fruit  trees  would  often  in  the 
morning  be  thickly  strewn  with  leaves  and  buds  that  had  been  severed 
during  the  night.  This  was  especially  noticeable  under  the  various 
oaks  and  sweet  cherries.  On  a  large,  isolated  specimen  of  the  latter, 
up  which  a  trumpet  vine  had  climbed,  I  took  early  in  May  a  great  num- 
ber of  the  larvse  of  Agrotis  altemata.  These  mottled  gray  worms 
were  found  during  the  day  extended  longitudinally  on  the  trunk,  closely 
appressed  to  the  stems  of  the  trumpet  vine,  where,  protected  by  their 
imitative  coloring,  it  would  be  impossible  for  an  unpracticed  eye  to  de- 
tect them  and  where  even  birds  failed  to  find  them.  When  ready  to 
transform  they  descended  to  the  earth  and  inclosed  themselves  in  an 
ample,  tough,  dingy-white  cocoon,  under  any  slight  protection  that 
might  be  convenient.  I  also  took  this  species  from  crevices  of  oak- 
bark  and  occasionally  found  one  feeding  in  a  rose.  (Miss  Murtfeldt, 
Bull.  Div.  Ent,  xiii,  p.  60.) 


3,    Catocala  arnica  (Hiibner). 

Mr.  Ooquillett  found  two  caterpillars  of  this  moth  (C.  androphila 
Guen.j  id  Illinois  on  a  burr  oak  tree  June  5.  They  spun  cocoons  about 
disclosing  the  moths  July  24.  Abbot  also  figured  in  manuscript  the 
July  .'3,  caterpillar,  which  he  found  on  the  oak. 

Larva, — Body  slender,  doll  greenish  yellow,  s  light  dorsal  stripe,  <>n  each  side  of 
which  is  a  darker  stripe,  on  which  is  a  row  of  black  piliferous  spots;  a  stigmatal 
row  of  black  piliferous  spots  J  on  top  <d'  segment  8  is  a  slight  prominence;  underside 
of  body  greenish  white,  with  a  row  of  black  spots  in  the  middle;  one  spot  to  each 
segment;  the  two  anterior  pairs  of  abdominal  legs  smaller  than  the  two  posterior 
pairs.  Head  gray,  with  two  white  spots  on  the  upper  part  of  the  face.  Length,  1£ 
inches.     (Coqoillett). 

Moth. — Pore  wings  pale  gray,  the  lines  fine,  not  very  evident,  the  transverse  ante- 
rior hue  the  heavier  marked.  A  distinct  black  median  shade  on  costa  above  the 
re ui form  and  continued  beneath  it,  running  upward  to  external  margin  below  apex. 
A  brown  shade  fills  the  space  left  by  the  exserted  portion  of  the  transverse  posterior 
line  beyond  the  reniform.  This  black  median  shade  is  marked  on  costa,  but  else  sub- 
obsolete  in  all  the  males  I  have  before  me,  and  the  brown  shading  very  faint.  The 
transverse  posterior  line  minutely  dentate  without  prominent  teeth.  Subreniform 
small,  pale,  and  both  spots  inconspicuous  and  often  incompletely  ringed.  The  ser- 
rated subterminal  white  shade  is  tolerably  distinct ;  fringes  dark.  Hind  wings  bright 
yellow;  a  broad  thick  terminal  band  is  squarely  discontinued  and  appears  as  a  black 
dot  at  anal  angle.  Friuges  dark  except  at  apex,  where  is  a  small  yellow  patch. 
Beneath  the  marginal  band  is  brokenly  and  narrowly  continued  to  anal  angle,  and 
the  median  band  is  indicated  by  tolerably  large  spots  or  fragmeuts.  A  specimen 
from  Texas  differs  by  its  dirty,  ocherous  gray  primaries  much  shaded  with  deep 
black,  and  may  be  a  distinct  species.     Expanse  40  to  45mm.     (Grote). 

239.   Catocala  micronympha  Guende  (  C.  fratercula  G.  &  R.) 
Order  Lepidoptera;  family  Noctt:id.e. 

The  caterpillar  lives  on  the  live  oak  iu  early  spring  in  Florida,  the 
insect  remaining  in  the  pupa  state  two  weeks  (A.  Koebele,  Bull.  Brook- 
lyn Ent.  Soc.  i,  p.  44.     It  also  feeds  on  the  burr  oak  in  Illinois. 

According  to  Coquillett  it  spun  its  cocoon  June  1,  disclosing  the  moth 
Juue  28  (Papilio,  i,  7). 

Larva. — Body  ashen  gray,  the  dorsal  space  dark  gray,  and  on  its  outer  edge  is  a  row 
of  black  piliferous  spots;  on  top  of  seguieut  8  is  a  conical  dark-gray  projection, 
tipped  with  whitish;  posterior  part  of  segment  8  blackish;  body  beneath  pale  green- 
ish white,  with  a  row  of  black  spots  in  the  middle,  one  spot  to  each  segment ;  the  two 
anterior  pain  of  abdominal  legs  are  much  smaller  than  the  two  posterior  pairs;  head 
light  gray,  bordered  on  the  top  and  sides  with  black.     Length,  If  inches. 

Moth. — Of  moderate  si/e.  varying  in  the  distinctness  of  the  median  black  shade, 
which  ascends  as  usual  to  the  external  margin.  The  median  space  is  sometimes 
shaded  with  whitish  before  the  reniform  spot.  There  is  no  sinus  to  the  trane 
posterior  Line.  The  shape  of  the  median  band  varies  in  being  more  or  less  acutely 
produced  opposite  the  anal  constriction  of  the  hind  border.  The  fore  wings  vary  in 
depth  of  color.  Expanse  of  wings.  A!  to  46Bam.  Rhode  Island  to  West  Virginia. 

This  moth  is  very  variable;  var.  atarah  is  slightly  lighter  than  the  type  form  :  var. 
faquenetta  has  olivaceous  fore  wings  with  indistinct  lines,  and  a  dark  shading  toward 


the  apex;  var.  timandra  has  sordid  white  fore  wings,  with  distinct  lines,  hind  wings 
with  the  median  band  narrow ;  var.  hero  has  the  fore  wings  with  a  large  white  spot 
at  base;  and  in  var.  gisela  the  fore  wings  are  black  to  the  transverse  posterior  line. 

240.  Catocala  similis  Edwards. 

The  transformations  of  this  moth  were  first  described  by  Abbot  and 
Smith,  who  named  it  G.  amasia.    Its  food-plant  is  the  oak. 

Larva. — Probably  nearly  the  same  as  in  C.  amasia,  thus  deceiving  Abbot  in  the 
identity  of  the  two  species.  His  figure  makes  it  greenish  gray,  with  protuberances 
on  each  segment,  and  with  dorsal,  subdorsal,  and  stigmatal  dark  lines  ;  also  an  oblique 
dark  line  on  each  segment.     (Hulst.) 

Moth. — Fore  wings  gray,  clouded  with  brown  and  black  ;  lines  distinct ;  transverse 
anterior  line  edged  inwardly  ;  transverse  posterior  line  edged  outwardly  with  brown, 
and  angulated  with  an  angle  beyond  the  reniform  spot  in  place  of  the  M-shaped  part 
of  the  line,  then  nearly  straight  to  the  sinus,  which  is  very  small;  reniform  spot 
pyriform,  light;  subreniform  annulate  ;  triangular  light  patch  at  apex,  along  costa ; 
hind  wings  bright  yellow  ;  median  band  curved,  nearly  even,  short,  border  broken. 
Expands  45  to  55mm.     From  East  and  South. 

Var.  aholah  has  the  fore  wings  clear  silver  gray,  with  a  large  black  patch  beyond 
the  reniform  extending  to  the  apex. 

Var.  Isabella  has  dirty  white  fore  wings,  lines  distinct;  transverse  posterior  line 
edged  with  cinnamon  brown.     (Hulst.) 

241.  Catocala  chelidonia  Grote. 

According  to  Mr.  Doll  the  food-tree  of  this  Arizona  species  is  the 
scrub  oak. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  even  dark  gray,  somewhat  hoary  ;  reniform  spot  shaded  with 
gray  ;  subreniform  spot  stained  with  brown  ;  lines  indistinct,  having  the  same  course 
as  C.  similis.  Hind  wings  like  those  of  C.  similis,  but  with  the  median  band  gen- 
erally narrower.     Probably  representing  C.  similis  in  Arizona.     Expands  40  to  50mm. 

242.  Catocala  amasia  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

The  caterpillar  is  said  by  Hulst  to  be  probably  similar  to  that  of  C 
similis  aud  to  feed  on  the  oak  or  pride  of  India. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  sordid  white ;  basal  half  line  very  distinct ;  transverse  an- 
terior and  posterior  lines  nearly  obsolete,  the  latter,  when  evident,  scalloped,  not 
angulated  ;  median  space  sordid  white  ;  reniform  spot  blackish  ;  transverse  posterior 
line  edged  outwardly  with  cinnamon  brown  ;  subterminal  line  evenly  dentate. 
Hind  wings  yellow;  median  band  often  hooked;  the  border  generally  interrupted. 
Expands  50  to  55mm.     Eastern  and  Southeastern  United  States.     (Hulst.) 

243.  Catocala  deUlah  Strecker. 

According  to  Mr.  Hulst,  the  caterpillar  of  this  moth  feeds  upon  the 
oak,  but  no  description  of  it  has  yet  been  published.  The  larva  of  var. 
desdemona,  which  inhabits  Arizona,  was  reared  by  Mr.  Doll  from  the 
scrub  oak. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  rich  velvety  yellow-brown;  basal  dash  present ;  transverse  an- 
terior line  very  heavy  and  dark ;  transverse  posterior  line  dark  aud  distinct;  teeth 
prominent  and  broad;  subterminal  space  somewhat  lighter;  subterminal  line  fine, 


strongly  dentate.  Hind  wings  bright  yellow,  median  band  rather  narrow,  gener- 
ally rectangular  at  bend  towards  inner  margin;  marginal  band  broad,  broken  or 
unbroken.  Expands  70  to  ><>""".  Habitat,  Nebraska  to  Illinois,  and  southward, 
west  to  Arizona.  Var.  desdeiitoita  lly.  Edw.  Wood  brown  with  lighter  shades;  reni- 
forui  spot  brown;  subreniform  lighter.  Hind  wings  rich  orange.  Var.  calphurnia 
lly.  Edw.  Fore  wings  with  a  greenish  tint,  lines  faint.  Bind  wings  wholly  black, 
with  the  exception  of  a  central  cloud,  a  broad  marginal  band,  and  a  central  narrow 
hand,  which  are  orange.  Unlet  adds  that  the  species  is  a  very  variable  one,  the 
median  hand  showing  a  tendency  common  to  all  the  Catocalro,  as  it  narrows,  to  become 
rectangular  at  the  bend  near  the  anal  margin. 

244.   Caiocala  verrUliana  Grotc. 

This  species  extends  from  California  to  Texas,  its  food-plant  being 
tbe  scrub  oak.     (Hulst.) 

Moth. — Fore  wings  gray,  shaded  with  blackish;  a  diffuse  black  basal  dash;  trans- 
verse anterior  line  densely  shaded  with  black;  reuiform  dot  small,  yellowish,  more 
or  less  distinctly  double-ringed;  transverse  posterior  line  much  as  in  C.  blandula. 
Hind  wings  bright  red,  median  black  band  narrow,  quite  even,  not  reaching  the 
aual  margin;  marginal  baud  narrow.  Expands  50  to  GO111111.  C.  ophelia  Hy.  Edw. 
differs  only  in  having  somewhat  heavier  lines  on  the  fore  wings.  C.  verrUliana  is 
always  described  with  bright  red  hind  wings.  C.  violeata  Hy.  Edw.  is  somewhat 
larger  and  has  more  black.  Var.  votria  Hulst  has  clear  yellow  hind  wings,  and  in- 
habits Arizona. 

245.   Caiocala  ultronia  (Hiibuer). 

The  caterpillar,  first  described  in  Packard's  "Guide  to  the  study  of 
Insects"  (p.  317,  pi.  8,  fig.  4),  is  said  to  feed  on  the  wild  cherry,  plum, 
dogwood,  and  live  oak.  Mr.  Saunders  has  bred  it  in  Canada  from  the 
plum,  finding  it  usually  less  than  half  grown  in  June.  One  caterpillar 
pupated  June  21;  it  remained  in  this  state  for  twenty-four  days,  the 
moth  appearing  July  15.  The  larva  we  reared  in  Maine  pupated  July 
15  in  an  earthen  cocoon,  the  moth  appearing  August  2.  As  Mr.  Saun- 
ders's description  of  the  caterpillar  is  more  detailed  than  ours,  we  quote 
it  below: 

Larva. — Head  medium  sized,  flattened  in  front,  slightly  bilobed,  dull  bluish  gray, 
with  the  front  flattened  portion  margined  with  a  purplish-black  stripe.  Under  a 
lens  the  surface  appears  thickly  dotted  with  pale  and  dark-colored  dots  and  streaks, 
with  a  few  short,  pale,  scattered  hairs.  Body  above  dark,  dull,  grayish  brown,  ap- 
pearing under  a  magnifying  power  thickly  studded  with  brownish  dots  on  a  paler 
ground.  Second  segment  a  little  paler  than  the  others.  A  subdorsal  row  of  dull 
reddish  tubercles,  one  on  each  segment  from  second  to  fourth  inclusive,  but  behind 
this  there  are  two  on  each  ring  to  the  twelfth  segment  iuclusive,  the  anterior  one 
being  the  smallest,  while  the  posterior  and  largest  tubercle  is  more  decidedly  red,  all 
encircled  with  a  slight  riug  of  black  at  their  base.  On  the  ninth  segment  above 
there  is  a  prominent,  nearly  upright,  stout,  fleshy  horn,  about  one-twelfth  inch  long, 
pointed,  and  similar  in  color  to  the  body,  but  with  an  irregular  grayish  patch  at 
each  side.  On  the  twelfth  segment  the  two  hinder  tubercles  are  somewhat  increased 
in  size  and  united  by  a  low  ridge,  tinted  behind  with  deep  reddish  brown;  there  is 
also  an  oblique  stripe  of  the  same  color  extending  forward  from  the  base  of  the 
tubercles  to  near  the  spiracle  on  this  segment.  The  terminal  segment  is  flattened 
and  has-  a  number  of  small,  pale  reddish  and  blackish  tubercles  scattered  over  its 
surface.     Iu  front  of  each  of  the  smaller  subdorsal  tubercles,  from  fifth  to  twelfth 


segments  inclusive,  there  is  a  dull  white  dot,  and  one  also  of  a  similar  character  in 
front  of  each  of  the  spiracles  along  the  middle  segments  of  the  body  ;  from  each  of 
the  tubercles  throughout  there  arises  a  single  dark  short  hair.  Spiracles  large,  oval, 
dull  grayish,  faintly  encircled  with  black.  Along  the  sides  of  the  body,  close  to  the 
under  surface,  is  a  thick  friuge  of  short,  fleshy-looking  hairs,  of  a  delicate  pink 
color.  Under  surface  of  a  delicate  pink,  of  a  deeper  shade  along  the  middle,  becom- 
ing bluish  towards  the  margins,  with  a  central  row  of  nearly  round,  velvety  black 
spots,  which  are  largest  from  the  seventh  to  eleventh  segments  inclusive.  Anterior 
segments  greenish  white,  tinted  with  rosy  pink  along  the  middle,  with  a  dull  reddish 
spot  at  the  base  and  behind  each  pair  of  feet.  .Thoracic  feet  pale  greenish,  spotted 
outside  and  tipped  with  black ;  abdominal  legs  dull  grayish  brown,  margined  with 
black.     Length  1.60  inches.     (Saunders,  Can.  Ent.,  vi,  148.) 

Moth. — Fore  wings  light-gra}r  fawn,  dark,  almost  black,  along  the  inner  margin  ; 
a  basal  dash  and  one  at  sinus  present;  a  subapical  dark  shading;  outer  line  fine, 
strongly  dentated  to  sinus.  Hind  wings  bright  red,  median  band  broad,  rather  even, 
reaching  the  anal  margin.  Expands  60  to  70mm.  Habitat,  east  of  the  great  plains 
and  Texas. 

Var.  celia  Hy.  Edw.  median  baud  of  hind  wings  linear.     Florida. 

Var.  mopsa  Hy.  Edw.    Fore  wings  nearly  uniform  brown. 

Var.  adriana  Hy.  Edw.     Fore  wings  nearly  uniform  fawn  drab. 

Var.  herodias  Streck.  Fore  wings  uniform  dark  smoky  gray  ;  denticulations  of 
outer  line  very  strong,  and  thus  continued  to  inner  margin.     (Hulst.) 

246.   Catocala  ilia  (Cramer). 

The  caterpillar  of  this  inoth  has  been  reared  by  Messrs.  Koebele, 
Caulfleld,  French,  and  by  Thaxter,  in  Massachusetts,  from  various  spe- 
cies of  oak.  The  moth  is  said  by  Grote  to  be  an  exceedingly  common 
aud  very  variable  species.  It  is  found  from  Canada,  Maryland,  and 
Virginia  southward  to  the  West  Indies.  Mr.  Caulfleld  states  that  the 
caterpillar  was  fully  grown  by  June  15  at  Montreal ;  it  spun  up  in  a 
leaf  June  18  and  the  moth  emerged  the  latter  end  of  July.  Prof.  G. 
H.  French  gives  a  detailed  account  of  its  early  stages  in  the  Canadian 
Entomologist  for  January,  1884. 

Larva. — Head  heart-shaped,  strongly  bilobed,  pale  green,  with  white  blotches, 
twelve  short,  black  hairs  in  front,  and  near  the  top  of  the  head  there  are  four  small 
tubercles  of  a  white  color,  each  of  which  is  tipped  with  a  black  hair;  head  sur- 
rounded with  a  broken  border  of  dark  streaks.  Body  with  the  upper  surface  greenish 
gray,  with  an  interrupted  dorsal  band  of  delicate  blue-gray  spots,  the  whole  minutely 
spotted  with  black.  On  the  secoud  segment  are  twelve  small,  white  hairs,  four  on 
fourth,  fifth  and  sixth  segments,  six  on  the  seventh,  four  on  the  eighth  to  twelfth, 
six  on  the  thirteenth.  The  sides  delicate  blue-gray,  marbled  with  spots  of  green  aud 
black,  with  a  broken  lateral  band  of  a  green  color;  spiracles  yellowish  white,  with 
a  black  ring;  behind  each  is  a  large  wart,  tipped  with  a  black  hair.  A  fringe  of 
short,  white,  fleshy  filaments  close  to  the  under  surface.  Body  beneath  pink,  with  a 
row  of  transverse  black  spots,  larger  and  darker  on  the  middle  segments.  Feet  and 
prolegs  grayish  white,  spotted  with  green  aud  black.  Length  2\  to  3|mm  (Caulfleld 
in  part).  Koebele  states  that  there  is  a  subdorsal  line  of  slight  protuberances,  one 
on  each  segment  from  the  third  segment  back.  There  is  also  a  dark  lunule  with  the' 
horns  formed  on  the  eleventh  segment. 

Moth.—- Fore  wings  dark  cinereous,  powdered  with  glaucous  scales  and  shaded  with 
black.  A  basal  ray.  Trausverse  anterior  line  geminate.  Reniform  spot  whitish, 
with  a  small,  black  internal  ring.  Subreniform  pale,  subquadrate.  connected  usually 
5  ENT 12 


with  the  transverse  posterior  line.  Beyond  the  spots  the  median  space  is  shaded 
with  black.  Sometimes  the  whole  wing  is  shaded  with  blackish  to  the  trausveree 
posterior  line,  leaving  the  reniform  as  a  large  white  blotch  without  the  anuulus. 
Again,  the  wing  wants  the  glaucous  scales  and  the  reniform  is  concolorous  or  merely 
shows  a  few  white  scales.  Hind  wings  orange-red,  with  an  irregular  black  median 
hand  tapering  to  the  margin.  Basal  hairs  fuscous.  Average  expanse  of  wings  75mm. 
Maryland  and  Virginia.     (Grote.) 

Mr.  Hulst  remarks  that  in  var.  uxor  Guen£e  the  fore  wings  are  brown- 
gray,  the  reuifonu  spot  white;  in  the  Californian  var.  zoe  Behr,  the 
hind  wings  are  lighter  orange;  in  the  YSiT.osculata  Hulst, from  Arizona, 
the  hind  wings  are  clear  yellow.  C.  ilia,  he  adds,  is  the  most  variable 
of  all  our  species.  In  some  cases  the  fore  wings  are  strongly  mixed 
with  blue. 

'247.   Catocala  epione  (Drnry). 

The  caterpillar  is  said  by  Gueuee,  on  the  authority  of  Abbot's  manu- 
script drawings,  to  feed  on  the  oak. 

Larva. — Body  reddish  gray,  marbled  with  bluish  gray  ;  a  subdorsal  black  line 
interrupted  at  the  middle  of  each  segment ;  a  paler  lateral  band  ;  no  protuberances ; 
head  gray,  with  two  red  points. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  very  dark  gray  ;  lines  heavy  ;  transverse  posterior  line  not 
strougly  augulated.  and  almost  without  a  sinus;  the  reniform  spot  reddish;  a  red- 
dish band  beyond  the  transverse  posterior  line,  then  lighter,  often  almost  white, 
serrated  outwardly.     Hind  wings  black;  fringes  pure  white. 

248.   Catocala  vidua  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

According  to  Abbot  this  species  feeds  on  the  willow,  locust,  and 
other  species  of  oaks  ;  Mr.  Angus  has  bred  it  from  the  hickory  and  Mr. 
Koebele  from  the  walnut. 

Larva. — Greenish  gray,  with  many  black  lines  ;  whiter  laterally  ;  slight  protuber- 
ances on  each  segment ;  head  gray,  edged  behind  with  black. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  with  the  color  of  C.  retecta  and  markings  of  luctuosa.  though 
these  are  in  the  present  species  heavier  and  more  decided;  transverse  anterior  line 
heavily  geminate,  connecting  half  way  with  the  heavy  black  basal  dash  ;  apical  and 
sinus  shading  heavy  ;  trausverse  posterior  line  with  |V|  very  much  produced.  Hind 
wings  black,  sligbtly  gray  at  base;  deep  white  fringe;  in  some  specimens  there  is 
near  the  auterior  margin  a  faint  indication  of  a  white  median  baud.  Expand- 
90mm.    Middle,  Western,  and  Southern  States.     (Hulst.) 

249.   Catocala  lachrymosa  Gnene*e. 

Said  by  Mr.  Hulst  to  probably  teed  ou  the  oak  and  walnut. 

Moth. — Fore  wiugs  light  cinereous,  heavily  and  quite  uniformly  powdered  with 
black  atoms;  slight  basal  dash  present:  lines  fairly  strong,  but  often  lost  in  the 
black  powdering;  transverse  anterior  line  often  confused  and  broken:  trat tt 
anterior  line  with  teeth  medium  :  reniform  spot  brownish  ;  a  brownish  band  beyond 
the  transverse  posterior  line.  Hind  wings  black,  fringe  white,  black  at  end  of  veins. 
Expands  ?;>  to 85mm.  Lower  Middle  and  Western  States  aud  southward.  Var.  Clulume 
differs  in  being  less  strongly  powdered  with  black,  and  in  having  [both  J  the  lines  more 
distinct.  Var.  zelica  French  has  a  transverse  anterior  line  inwardly  and  transverse 
anterior  line  outwardly,  baring  a  black  baud  across  the  wing.  Var.  paalina  Hy. 
Edw.,  fore  wings  black  to  the  transverse  posterior  line. 


250.  Catocala  polygama  Guene"e. 

This  species  has  been  bred  from  the  oak  by  Professor  Kiley,  and  the 
following  description  has  been  drawn  from  the  blown  specimen  in  his 
collection.    The  caterpillar  pupates  in  a  loose  cocoon  among  leaves. 

"  May  7,  1872.  About  full-grown ;  found  under  shelter  at  foot  of 
blackjack  oak.  Color  preserves  well.  Some  paler  than  others.  They 
lie  very  flat  on  the  twigs. 

"  It  prepared  for  pupation  May  10,  and  changed  to  pupa  May  16, 
the  moth  issuing  June  6.''     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Body  of  the  usual  shape,  with  no  spines  or  large  tubercles.  Head  as 
usual,  black  on  the  sides  of  the  front  and  vertex.  Body  ash  brown,  lineated,  with 
two  broad  dark  dorsal  stripes,  succeeded  below  by  a  narrower  but  similar  stripe. 
Sides  of  the  body  above  the  base  of  the  legs  dark  ash.  On  each  abdominal  segment 
are  four  light,  distinct,  small  tubercles,  and  four  on  each  side  arranged  in  a  rhom- 
boid. A  row  of  large  black  ventral  patches  edged  with  orange  on  each  segment, 
becoming  largest  between  the  first  and  second  pair  of  abdominal  legs.     Length  65min. 

Pupa. — Of  the  usual  form,  the  body  frosted  over  with  a  whitish  powder.  Length 

Moth.— The  four  wings  slightly  greenish  gray,  powdered  with  dark  ferruginous 
scales,  especially  beyond  the  outer  line,  where  this  shade  forms  a  dentate  submar- 
ginal  line.  The  outer  or  extradiscal  line  is  more  finely  waved,  and  above  the  sub- 
median  vein  it  passes  into  a  black  spot  bordered  with  rust-red.  The  edge  of  the 
hind  wings  are  indented  with  yellow  at  the  outer  angle. 

251.  Catocala  coccinata  Grote. 

The  caterpillar  of  this  moth  has  been  bred  from  the  oak  by  Mr.  D. 
W.  Coquillett,  of  Illinois.  His  specimen  spun  its  cocoon  June  6,  pro- 
ducing the  imago  the  30th  of  the  same  month. 

Larva. — Body  dark  gray,  a  curved  fleshy  proiection  on  top  of  segment  8  ;  segment 
11  slightly  raised,  with  two  tubercles  on  the  top ;  a  row  of  small  prickles  on  the 
dorsal  space,  sixteen  legs,  a  black  spot  beneath  each  of  the  segments  which  bear  the 
four  pairs  of  abdominal  legs ;  head  gray,  bordered  with  black.  Length  62mm. 

Moth. — A  little  smaller  than  C.parta  ;  clear  cinereous  ;  before  the  reniform,  which 
is  smaller  and  paler  than  in  C.  parta,  the  wing  is  whitish  and  occasionally  allows 
the  crimson  underface  to  be  reflected.  Subreniform  spot  whitish  and  large.  Hind 
wings  bright  crimsou.     (Grote.) 

The  following  species  are  geometrids,  or  species  of  the  lepidopterous 
family  Phalcenidce  : 

252.  Eutrapala  clemataria  Hiibner. 

The  caterpillar  of  this  moth  occurred  on  the  live  oak  at  Crescent 
City,  Fla.,  in  April.  My  specimens  were  left  to  be  bred  in  the  office  of 
the  IT.  S.  Entomologist,  at  Washington,  but  died.  The  following  notes 
were  copied  for  me  by  Mr.  Pergande. 

1  The  larva  had  not  eaten  anything  for  some  days  when  received,  and  drank' 
greedily  some  water  when  placed  near  some  drops,  and  soon  after  commenced  feed- 
ing on  leaves  of  white  and  other  oaks.  It  cast  a  skin  two  or  three  days  after  and 
became  quite  dark  brownish.     It  died  April  27  of  diarrhea. 


June  '27  one  larva  of  the  same  species  was  found  on  oak  Dear  the  fair  ground,  Dis- 
trict of  Colombia.    It  measures  2\  inchee  in  Length  and  is  of  a  dark  grayish-brown 

color,  the  dorsum  being  more  brown  whilst  its  sides  and  renter  are  dark  gray. 
Wartfl  and  stigmata  are  of  the  sain.-  color  as  in  the  Smaller  larva  from  Florida.  The 
minute  oval  spots  are  replaced  by  a  rather  indistinct  marmoration.  which  on  the 
dorsum   is  somewhat  orange  and  on  the  sides  and  venter  more  olive.     The  moth 

issued  .Inly  •::',    l--i'.. 

One  larva  of  the  same  species  was  found  by  Koebele  in  Virginia, 
June  12,  1882,  feeding  on  hickory. 

The  larva  is  long  and  slender,  of  nearly  even  width  throughout;  the 
head  flattened  in  front;  mesothoracic  segments  with  lateral  and  dorsal 
tubercles  which  are  very  rough;  on  the  fourth  abdominal  segment  are 
two  conical  dark  dorsal  tubercles;  there  are  two  minute  dark  tubercles 
on  the  fifth,  and  two  slightly  larger  ones  nearer  together  on  the  eighth. 

Abbot  states  that  it  feeds  on  Clematis  rosea,  and  in  his  manuscript 
drawings  that  it  feeds  on  Pyrrhopappus  carolinianus. 

Larva.—  Its  length  is  If  inches.  Color  gray  with  a  slight  yellowish  tinge,  and  the 
-whole  surface  closely  marked  with  minute,  transversely  oval,  blackish  or  pale 
dusky  spots.  Head  small,  quite  flat,  and  closely  spotted  with  darker  gray.  Protho- 
rax  small,  scarcely  broader  than  the  head,  with  a  broad,  somewhat  paler  median  and 
narrow  subdorsal  line.  Its  posterior  margin  is  provided  with  a  transverse  row  of 
four  small  black  tubercles.  The  mesothorax  is  much  larger  aud  very  abrupt  in 
frout;  the  small  anterior  wrinkles  are  somewhat  yellowish,  whilst  the  large  poste- 
rior swelling  is  of  the  color  of  the  body,  being  ornamented  anteriorly  by  four  trans- 
versely oval,  conspicuous  black  spots,  aunulated  with  a  brownish-yellow  ring.  The 
four  black  warts  on  the  metathorax  are  only  externally  bordered  with  brownish 
yellow.  The  two  dorsal  rows  of  warts  on  abdominal  segments  1  to  7,  are  arranged 
as  usual,  are  small,  black,  and  also  with  brownish-yellow  border  externally.  The 
posterior  pair  of  dorsal  spots  on  the  fourth  abdominal  segmeut  is  replaced  by  two 
prominent,  somewhat  transversely  oval,  black  tubercles  with  rouuded  tip,  and 
orauge-yellow  external  margin  at  base.  The  eighth  segment  is  also  somewhat 
swolleu  above,  is  marked  with  two  large  black  median  spots,  au  orange  annular  with 
black  center  each  side,  and  a  transverse  orange  spot  with  black  center  behind  the 
swelling.  Stigmata  orange  with  black  anuulus.  The  three  warts  which  surround  the 
first  abdomiual  stigma  differ  somewhat  from  those  of  the  other  segments.  The  lower 
anterior  wart  is  placed  farther  in  front  of  the  stigma  than  that  of  the  other  segments, 
whilst  the  upper  wart  is  placed  just  above  the  stigma  and  largest.  The  two  ante- 
rior warts  of  the  other  stigmata,  however,  are  both  placed  in  front,  the  upper  one 
farthest  apart.  The  anterior  wart  of  the  first  stigma  is  black,  with  orange  tips,  and 
all  other  warts  orange  with  black  tip.  There  is  a  somewhat  lunate,  deep  black 
superior  margin  at  base  of  the  wart  above  the  first  stigma  and  a  short  blackish  dash 
above  all  other  warts.  The  veuter  is  of  a  paler  gray  with  three  large  blackish  spots 
on  the  fourth  aud  fifth  segments.     (Riley.) 

Pupa. — Body  unusually  thick,  rather  short;  surface  rough  aud  corrugated,  spotted 
with  black;  spiracles  large  and  black.  Pale  dull  reddish  ash,  dark  towards  and  at 
the  tip  of  the  abdomen;  legs  somewhat  streaked  with  black.  The  tip  very  peculiar, 
being  short  and  blunt;  the  last  segment  corrugated  wirh  longitudinal  ridges  which 
are  swollen  at  the  anterior  edge  at  the  suture.  Cremaster  broad  and  couical,  some- 
what flattened,  the  surface  rough,  coarsely  pitted;  a  large  smooth  terminal  curved 
spine,  with  three  pairs  of  lateral  rather  large  setse,  all  arising  near  together  at  the 
base  of  the  single  terminal  one.     Length,  *20,nm. 

Moth.— Wings  very  falcate,  especially  in  the  female,  where  they  are  produced  into 
a  long  point.     Body  and  wings  fawn  color,  with  scattered  black  dots;  front  of  head 


reddish  brown  ;  vertex  white.  Fore  wings,  with  two  inner  reddish-brown  diffuse 
lines,  the  inner  situated  half-way  between  the  base  of  the  wing  and  discal  dot, 
curved  and  more  or  less  scalloped,  the  outer  curved,  situated  just  be\ond  the  discal 
dot,  and  joining  the  third  outer  line  on  the  second  median  venule ;  it  is  broader  and 
still  more  diffuse  than  the  basal  line.  Outer  line  straight,  bent  back  at  a  very  acute 
angle  on  to  the  costa,  the  line  above  the  bend  being  more  or  less  angularly  curved 
and  dilated  on  the  costa ;  an  oblique  white  line  extends  from  the  bend  to  the  costa 
just  below  the  apex,  which  is  white  above  and  blackish  below,  with  a  large  reddish- 
brown  patch  extending  irorn  below  the  apex  to  the  second  median  venule.  Discal 
dots  in  both  wings  black ;  scales  flattened  as  usual.  Hind  wings  with  a  single  slightly 
curved  line  just  beyond  the  middle  of  the  wing.     Expanse  of  wings,  2. 2D  inches. 

253.  Eutrapela  transversata  (Drury). 

This  rather  common  caterpillar  was  first  found  by  Abbot  feeding  on 
Clethra  alnifolia.  In  the  Northern  States  it  feeds  on  the  maple  (Good 
ell)  and  currant  (Emerton),  and  we  have  found  the  moth  just  emerged 
•resting  on  the  leaves  of  the  red  maple.  In  Florida,  however,  we  have 
found  it  at  Crescent  City  in  April  feeding  on  the  live  oak.  It  was 
reared  by  the  U.  S.  Entomologist  at  Washington,  where  on  May  6  it 
spun  a  rather  dense  cocoon  between  the  leaves,  the  moth  emerging 
May  31.  The  larva  occurred  in  Virginia  June  26,  where  it  feeds  on  the 
oak  (Koebele) ;  in  Massachusetts  the  caterpillar  occurs  in  June;  thus 
it  is  apparently  double-brooded  in  Florida  and  the  cotton  States,  but 
single-brooded  in  the  Northern  States. 

Larva. — It  is  about  1  inch  in  length  and  quite  uniformly  dark  gray,  with  a  paler 
gray,  elongated  spot  each  side  of  the  first  abdominal  segment.  The  lateral  margin 
forms  a  flattened  carina,  on  which  the  stigmata  are  situated.  Both  edges  of  this 
carina  are  purplish,  and  the  small  stigmata  white  with  black  annulus.  Piliferous 
warts  small  and  black.  There  is  a  large,  prominent,  transverse,  bilobed  projection 
of  a  blackisb  color  on  the  fourth  abdominal  segment,  which  is  bordered  in  front  by  a 
whitish  triangle.  Behind  thiu  projection,  and  parallel  with  its  lateral  angles,  run 
two  whitish  dorsal  lines  to  the  anal  plate.  There  are  also  two  small  black  conical 
tubercles  on  the  last  segment.  Head  concolorous  with  the  body,  the  face  marked 
with  a  dull  black  semicircular  spot,  the  angles  of  which  end  near  the  base  of  the 

The  smaller  larva,  which  measured  about  three-fourths  of  an  inch  in  length,  is 
dark  purple,  with  the  head  entirely  dull  black.  The  projection  on  the  fourth  abdom- 
inal segment  is  in  this  specimen  still  divided  into  two  oval  and  rather  prominent 
tubercles  which  are  orange  externally.     (Eiley.) 

Pvia.—  Large  and  long,  not  very  stout  and  short  compared  with  that  of  E.  clem- 
ataria;  acutely  pointed  at  the  end  of  the  abdomen.  In  color  slightly  pale  ash-mahog- 
any. The  last  segment  much  corrugated  longitudinally  at  the  base  of  the  cremaster, 
but  the  ridges  are  not  swollen  anteriorly  as  in  E.  clemataria.  Cremaster  flattened, 
conical,  not  discolored  with  black,  with  two  terminal  excurved  thick  setae,  and  only 
one  pair  of  minute  subdorsal-lateral  setae.     Length,  21mm. 

The  moth. — It  may  be  recognized  by  its  large  size,  the  very  falcate  wings,  the 
obtusely  bent  outer  line  on  the  fore  wings,  and  by  the  submarginal  shade  or  row  of 
•  spots  on  both  wings;  the  hind  wings  extend  farther  than  usual  behind  the  tip  of 
the  abdomen.  Fawn  color,  varying  to  ocherous ;  head  chocolate  brown  in  front,  the 
vertex  white.  Fore  wings  with  the  inner  line  usually  present,  curved,  consisting  of 
two  large  scallops  meeting  on  the  median  vein  and  pointing  inward.  Outer  line 
straight,  more  or  less  distinctly  bent  near  the  apex,  turning  at  right  angles  into  the 


ooetft.  From  tin-  angle  extends  a  more  or  less  distinct  slightly  curved  series  of  irreg- 
ular diffuse  dark  spots  to  the  inoei  angle  ;  this  is  usually  represented  by  a  faint  shade. 
l>i-Mal  dots  alike  in  each  wing,  being  small  and  blaek.  Hind  wings  with  the  single 
Line  in  the  middle  of  the  wing  straight,  with  the  outer  series  of  diffuse  spots  as  on  the 
fore  wings.     Expanse  of  wings,  2  to  2.10  inches. 

'254.  MetanewM  quercivoraria  Gueu6e. 

(Larva,  PI.  Ill,  fig.  8.) 

Feeding  on  the  oak,  a  pale  green  span  worm,  marked  with  red,  changing  to  a 
brownish-gray  chrysalis,  from  which  a  beautiful  sickle-winged  moth  comes. 

In  Georgia  it  was  observed  by  Abbot  on  the  oak  and  poplar  in  April ; 

it  pupates  at  the  beginning  of  May,  and  the  moth  appears  at  the  end 

of  the  same  month.     We  have  raised  this  from  the  oak,  the  moth  issuing 

on  May  3. 


Larva. — Pale  green,  with  the  sutures  and  sides  reddish,  a  double  angle  bordered 
with  reddish  on  the  second  segment  behind  the  head ;  another  more  salient  on  the 
sixth,  and  finally  another  on  the  tenth ;  the  fifth  segment  has  on  each  side  a  small 
pointed  tubercle.     Head  and  feet  concolorous. 

Pupa. — Reddish  horn-brown,  with  the  abdominal  sutures  reddish;  caudal  spine 
acute,  large  and  flat.     Length  13mm. 

Moth.  —Body  and  wings  pale  whitish  ash.  Wings  thickly  covered  with  fine  speckles. 
Fore  wings  with  three  lines,  the  usual  inner  and  outer  lines,  and  a  third  wavy  sub- 
marginal  hair-line.  The  two  inner  lines  distinct,  of  even  width,  a  little  oblique,  not 
waved  ;  the  innermost  line  situated  exactly  on  the  inner  third,  the  outer  line  on  the 
outer  third  of  the  wing.  Costal  edge  stained  with  reddish  on  the  end  of  the  outer 
line.  Submarginal  hair-line  wavy,  sinuate,  reddish,  situated  half-way  between  the 
outer  line  and  the  edge  of  the  wing,  and  disappearing  below  the  second  median 
venule,  scalloped  between  each  venule,  much  more  distinct  below  than  above.  On  the 
hind  wings  a  single  brown  line,  and  traces  of  a  submarginal  wavy  line.  Beneath  paler 
than  above,  with  the  lines  reproduced  beneath  and  dull  colored;  the  third  submar- 
ginal line  on  both  wings  partially  obsolete,  but  clearer  than  above ;  fringe  reddish. 
Expanse  of  wings  1.50  inches.     It  ranges  from  Maine  southward. 

255.  Nematocampa  filamentaria  (Guene"e). 

The  singular  caterpillar  of  this  species  is  found  on  the  oak,  maple, 
as  well  as  the  currant  and  strawberry,  in  June,  becoming  a  chrysalis 
in  New  England  by  the  20th  of  the  month,  the  moth  appearing  early 
in  July  and  flying  about  through  the  summer.  Its  habits  in  Missouri 
have  been  thus  described  by  Professor  Riley : 

June  1,  1870. — Larvae  were  found  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  on  thorn  and  laurel  oak.  One 
changed  to  pupa  June  4,  hauging  between  a  few  threads  on  a  twig.  The  moth  issued 
June  12.  One  larva  was  also  received  June  26,  1883,  from  J.  H.  Clark,  of  New  York, 
which  he  found  feeding  on  a  rose-bush.  It  changed  to  pupa  in  a  slight  web  of 
thread  June  27,  and  the  moth  issued  July  5,  1883. 

Some  larvae  of  this  insect  are  infested  by  Tachinids,  the  eggs  of  which  were  de- 
posited at  the  side  between  the  fourth  and  fifth  segments.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Body  cylindrical;  head  large,  with  two  unequal  pairs  of  long,  slender, 
fleshy  filaments  situated  on  the  third  and  fifth  abdominal  segments,  the  posterior 
pair  shorter  than  the  others,  curled  at  the  end  and  finely  tuberculated.  Head  pale 
rust-red,  full,   slightly  bilobed,  flattened  in  front ;  marbled  with  a  still  paler  hue. 


Half-way  between  the  metathoracic  legs  and  the  first  pair  of  filaments  are  two  sub- 
acute tubercles,  which  are  rust-red;  when  the  four  filaments  are  uncurled  they  are 
as  long  as  from  the  head  to  the  tubercles.  The  anterior  pair  of  filaments  are  pale 
rust- red  beneath  at  base,  brown  above,  but  tipped  with  white.  A  distinct  dorsal 
line  from  the  prothorax  to  the  second  pair  of  filaments ;  a  pair  of  small  tubercles 
next  to  the  last  segment,  tipped  with  pale  rust-red.  Body  wood-colored  above  and 
beneath ;  thoracic  segments  greenish  above,  succeeded  by  pale  rust-red  between  the 

Fig.  60. — Nematocampa  filamentaria  ;  a  larva,  b  pupa.    Nat.  size.  — 
Emerton,  del. 

tubercles  and  first  pair  of  filaments  ;  behind  these  variously  marked  with  light  and 
dark  brown.  An  oval  dark  spot  behind  the  last  pair  of  tubercles  and  extending  into 
the  anal  plate.    Anal  legs  rusty,  lined  above  with  a  whitish  line.    Length  18mm. 

Pupa. — Body  rather  thick,  conical,  pale  horn-brown,  slashed  and  speckled  with 
dark -brown. 

Moth.— Fore  wings  unusually  short  and  broad;  apex  rectangular,  outer  edge  bent 
in  the  middle,  deeply  excavated  in  the  female  on  each  side  of  the  angles  ;  hind  wings 
rounded  at  the  apex,  with  a  distinct  angle  in  the  middle,  reaching  as  far  as  the  end 
of  the  "abdomen.  Pale  ocherous,  with  brown  veins  and  transverse  dots ;  a  brown 
inner  line,  much  curved.  An  outer  sinuate  line,  with  a  supplementary  line  just 
inside,  touching  the  outer  line  on  the  submedian  vein  and  in  the  extradiscal  space, 
and  forming  a  large  circle,  one  side  of  which  touches  the  outer  line.  Beyond  the 
line  the  border  of  the  wing  is  dull  brown,  with  the  apical  region  clear.  Hind  wings 
streaked  transversely,  as  on  the  fore  wing,  with  the  outer  third  brown,  the  apex 
included.     Expanse  of  wings  25mm  (1  inch). 

'256.  Endropia  bilinearia  Packard. 

The  geometric  caterpillar  of  this  species  was  found  by  Mr.  W.  Saun- 
ders, of  London,  Canada,  feeding  on  the  oak;  unfortunately  it  was 
not  described ;  it  became  a  chrysalis  early  in  July,  emerging  as  a  moth 
two  weeks  later. 

The  moth. — Clear  fawn-brown;  wings  much  darker  and  less  spotted  than  in  the 
other  species  of  Endropia.  Body  and  wings  concolorous;  front  edge  of  the  fore 
wings  paler  than  the  rest  of  the  wing  and  spotted  finely,  especially  on  the  edge,  with 
brown  specks.  Two  brown  hair-lines,  the  inner  situated  on  the  basal,  and  the  outer 
on  the  outer  third  of  the  wing ;  the  inner  line  bent  on  the  front  edge  of  the  wing. 
Outer  line  a  little  curved  outward  in  the  middle  of  the  wing.  Half-way  between 
this  line  and  the  outer  edge  of  the  wing  is  a  diffuse,  interrupted,  faint  grayish  band 
with  a  few  dark  scales,  often  wanting,  and  connecting  with  an  oblique  apical  patch, 
also  concolorous  with  the  front  edge  of  the  wing.  Outer  edge  of  the  wing  deeply 
notched,  the  eight  acute  points  (including  the  apex,  which  is  very  acute)  tipped  with 
a  few  black  scales,  the  fringe  being  whitish  between.  Beneath,  body  and  wings 
ocher-yellow,  especially  in  the  middle  of  the  wings.     Both  wings-marked  alike  with 


a  basal,  diffuse,  l>r<Ki<l  brown  Line,  :in<l  an  outer  much  eurved  brown  bair-liue.  Ad 
outer  row  of  dark  patches  forming  a  taint  broken  line.  An  apical,  oblique,  whitish 
patch.  Bind  edge  of  fore  wings  with  darker  spots  and  patches  than  elsewhere.  Ex- 
panse  of  wings,  1.30  t«>  1.65  inches.  This  fine  moth  occurs  all  over  the  Uuited  States 
and  on  the  Pacific  coast  from  California  to  Oregon. 

•J.")7.  Bndropia  peetinaria  Guene'e. 

Living  on  the  oak  and  other  trees,  a  large  gray  measuring  worm,  transforming  to  a 

lar^e  Emlrojt'ui,  with  three  sharp  teeth  in  the  hind  wiugs. 

The  transformations  of  this  moth  have  been  observed  by  Abbot  in 
Georgia,  who  found  it  living  on  the  oak  and  poplar  in  April.  It  changes 
to  a  chrysalis  at  the  beginning  of  May,  and  the  moth  appears  at  the 
end  o^  the  same  month. 

Larva. — Pale  green,  with  the  sutures  and  sides  reddish,  a  double  angle  bordered 
with  reddish  on  the  second  segment,  another  more  salient  on  the  sixth,  and  finally 
another  on  the  tenth  ;  the  fifth  has  on  each  side  a  small  pointed  tubercle.  Head  and 
feet  concolorous. 

Moth. — The  hind  wings  with  a  large  tail  and  toothed;  the  fore  wings  angular, 
sickle-shaped.  Body  and  wings  pale  whitish-ash.  Wings  thickly  covered  with  line 
speckles.  Fore  wings  with  three  lines,  the  usual  inner  and  outer  line,  and  a  third 
wavy  submarginal  hair-line.  The  two  inner  lines  distinct,  of  even  width,  a  little 
oblique,  not  waved;  the  innermost  line  situated  exactly  on  the  inner  third,  the  outer 
line  on  the  outer  third  of  the  wing.  Front  edge  of  the  fore  wings  stained  with  red- 
dish on  the  end  of  the  outer  line.  Submarginal  hair-line  wavy,  sinuate,  reddish, 
situated  half-way  between  the  outer  line  and  the  edge  of  the  wing  and  disappearing 
below  the  second  median  venule,  scalloped  between  each  venule,  much  more  distinct 
below  than  above.  On  the  hind  wings  a  single  brown  line,  and  traces  of  a  submar- 
ginal wavy  line.  Beneath,  paler  than  above,  with  the  lines  reproduced  beneath,  and 
dull  colored;  the  third  submarginal  Hue  on  both  wings  partly  obsolete,  but  clearer 
than  above;  friuge  reddish.  Expanse  of  wings,  1.50  inches.  Ranges  from  Maiue  to 
Missouri  and  Kansas. 

The  parent  of  this  caterpillar,  which  is  found  in  the  United  States, 
north  and  south,  and  west  as  far  as  Kausas,  may  be  known  by  the 
three  well-marked  teeth  on  the  apical  half  of  the  hind  wings,  by  the 
clear  border  of  the  wings,  and  by  the  dark  clear  lines  ou  the  under  side. 

The  caterpillar  lives  in  Georgia  on  the  oak  and  other  trees,  according 
to  notes  left  after  his  death  by  Abbot,  and  is  of  a  pale  yellowish  gray, 
with  a  dorsal  lozenge  like  mark.  The  fourth  segmeut  is  darker,  and  on 
the  back  of  the  eighth,  ninth,  and  tenth  are  also  two  obscure  marks 
bifid  anteriorly  on  the  first,  and  carrying  a  blackish  angle  on  each  ex- 
tremity of  the  second.  The  head  and  feet  are  concolorous.  It  is  found 
in  Georgia  in  May  and  June,  and  the  moth  is  disclosed  towards  the  end 
of  this  last  month.  A  second  generation  enters  the  chrysalis  state 
towards  the  middle  of  July  to  appear  as  moths  in  the  beginning  of 
August.  In  the  Northern  States  the  species  is  undoubtedly  only 
single- brooded. 

Besides  these  geometric  caterpillars,  that  of  Metrocampa  perlaria 
Guenee  should  be  looked  for  on  the  oak,  as  its  closely  allied  Europeau 
cougener  (.1/.  margaritata)  feeds  on  the  elm,  hornbeam,  birch,  aud  oak. 


258.  Endropia  textrinaria  Grote  aud  Rob. 

The  caterpillar  was  found  on  the  white  oak  at  Providence,  October  7. 
October  10  it  began  to  spin  a  thin  slight  web  at  the  bottom  of  the  breed- 
ing box,  and  the  pupa  appeared  October  12.  The  moth  appeared  in 
the  breeding  box  in  May.  I  have  captured  the  moths  in  the  Adiron- 
dacks  at  the  end  of  June,  where  no  oak  trees  were  perceived. 

Larva. — The  body  is  rather  slender,  the  head  wider  than  the  segment  behind, 
rounded,  rather  deeply  bilobed,  swollen  on  each  side  of  the  apex  of  the  clypeus;  the 
latter  edged  with  dark  brown,  forming  a  V"snaPefl  line  on  the  front  of  the  head. 
The  prothoracic  segment  is  normal,  while  the  mesothoracic  segmebt  is  much  swollen 
on  each  side,  the  rounded  swellings  connected  by  a  dorsal  curved  ridge.  On  the 
metathoracic  segment  is  a  small  transverse  ridge,  next  to  that  on  the  meso-segment. 
On  the  hinder  part  of  the  third  abdominal  segment  is  a  large  double  dors-al  dark  knob- 
like hump.  On  the  sixth  is  a  conspicuous  dark  transverse  rounded  ridge,  enlarged 
and  higher  at  each  end.  The  eighth  segment  has  large  warts,  and  there  are  also  large 
warts  on  the  sides  of  segments  7  to  10.  The  supra-anal  plate  is  triangular  but  short, 
with  four  hair-bearing  warts  above  and  four  at  the  end.  Anal  legs  large  and  broad. 
The  short  penultimate  segment  has  a  transverse  row  of  eight  large  warts;  these 
warts  are  obsolete  on  the  front  half  of  the  body. 

The  body  is  of  exactly  the  color  of  an  oak  twig,  being  dark  gray  shaded  with 
light,  and  of  the  same  color  beneath  as  above ;  while  the  knotted  appearance  of  the 
segments  behind  the  head  and  in  the  middle  of  the  body  assist  in  the  deception,  the 
caterpillar  being  remarkably  like  a  bit  of  oak  twig.  The  anal  conical  dorsal  tuber- 
cles are  large  and  distinct. 

Moth. — In  this  species  the  hind  wings  are  distinctly  "tailed,"  not  merely  sinuated, 
as  in  E.  madusaria,  while  the  fore  wings  are  distinctly  excavated,  but  not  dentate 
below  the  apex,  and  they  are  shorter  and  broader  than  usual.  Fore  wings  densely 
mottled  and  strigated  with  ocherous- brown ;  an  inner,  curved,  pale-brown  line,  bent 
outward  on  the  submedian  vein,  and  meeting  the  outer  line,  which  either  runs  very 
near,  or  if  remote,  throws  out  a  connecting  streak,  in  the  former  case  forming  an  oval, 
with  the  end  resting  on  the  inner  margin  of  the  wing.  Outer  line  dusky  fawn-brown, 
oblique,  curved  outward  above  and  below  inward  to  meet  the  inner.  Beyond,  the 
wing  is  shaded  with  ocherous-brown  ;  this  shade  sometimes  extends  to  the  border  of 
the  wing,  interrupted  by  a  submarginal  row  of  irregular  pale  patches  proceeding  from 
the  broad,  apical,  diffuse,  pale  patch.  Discal  dots  black,  distinct  in  both  wings. 
Hind  wings  like  the  front  pair,  the  outer  line  situated  in  the  middle  of  the  wing  and 
nearer  the  discal  dot  than  usual.     Expanse  of  wings,  1.50  inches. 

259.  Paraphia  unipunctaria  (Haworth). 

Order  Lepidoptera  ;  family  Phaljenid2E. 

Eating  the  leaves  early  in  June,  a  gray  span  worm  1.40  inch  long,  sprinkled  with 
blackish  dots  and  short  lines,  its  head  and  neck  a  little  thicker  than  the  body,  each 
ring  with  a  small  squarish  white  spot  above  on  its  hind  edge  and  with  two  blackish 
parallel  lines  on  each  side  of  this  spot. 

This  moth  ranges  from  New  England  to  Texas ;  it  is  said  by  Fitch  to 
feed  on  the  oak,  and  by  Abbot  (in  Guenee)  to  live  on  the  uelm,  oak, 
cournouiller,"  etc.  The  Amilapis  triplipunctata  of  Fitch  is  undoubtedly 
synonymous  with  Haworth's  species,  originally  described  as  an  English 


The  moth. — Of  a  uniform  oloai  fawn-color,  without  the  usual  spots  aud  speckles 
t  in  other  tpeoiet  of  the  gonna;  ■  banal,  brown  hair-Una  beut  outward  acutely 
on  the  modi  an  vein  ;  a  broad,  diffnaa,  dark  median  band  oommon  to  both  wings.  The 
extradiaoaJ  line  is  dark,  finely  scalloped,  curved  outward  below  tin-  co-,ta,and  sweep- 
ing inward  below  the  tirxt  median  venule:  beyond  this  line  both  wings  are  deeper 
lawn-color.  At  a  little  distanee  below  the  costa,  and  nearer  the  extradiseal  line  than 
the  outer  edge  of  the  wing,  is  a  conspicuous  angular,  clear,  white  spot.  Fringe  dark, 
the  scallops  tilled  with  whitish  scales.  Hind  wings  like  the  anterior  pair,  though  the 
extradiacal  line  is  not  sinuous,  but  curved  regularly  outward.  Beneath,  paler  than 
above;  the  median  band  is  distinct,  and  the  extradiseal  line  more  or  less  so ;  the  tints 
are  much  u  above.     The  wings  expand  1.40  inches. 

360.    Thtrina  fervidaria  Hiibner. 

This  moth  was  bred  by  Abbot  in  Georgia  from  the  silver  bell  tree 
{Halesia  diptera),  but  Dr.  Riley  has  reared  it  from  the  live  oak  in 
Florida.  This  is  our  most  common  species  of  the  genus  in  the  Eastern 
United  States.  It  is  at  once  known  by  the  much-speckled  wings  and 
the  ocherous-bordered,  blackish  liues.  It  varies  greatly  in  the  distance 
apart  of  the  two  liues,  which  in  the  fore  wing  are  in  some  twice  as  wide 
apart  as  in  others.     The  species  is  exceedingly  variable. 

At  Esquimau,  Vaucouver  Is.,  "all  the  oaks  were  stripped  by  the 
larvre  of  Therina  fervidaria,  and  their  trunks  and  branches  were 
paved  with  the  handsome  Geometrid  moths  in  September."  (James 
J.  Walker,  Ent.  Month.  Mag.,  Aug.,  1888,  p.  65.) 

Larva. — Head  scarcely  as  wide  as  the  prothoracic  segment,  the  latter  not  so  wide 
as  the  body  behind.  Body  of  uu'fortn  thickness,  with  no  tubercles.  Head  smooth, 
slightly  divided  above,  rounded  and  smooth  :  pale,  with  seven  black  dots  on  each 
side.  Body  aud  head  pale  yellowish  ash  ;  with  two  dorso  lateral  blackish  longitudi- 
nal stripes,  and  another  stripe  below  on  each  side  :  the  body  elsewhere  with  fine,  more 
or  less  interrupted,  black  lines,  and  some  deep  ocherous  ones.  Between  the  two 
dorso-lareral  lines  are  four  more  or  less  interrupted  fiue  lines.     Length  38  to  40mm. 

Pupa. — Rather  slender,  whitish,  slashed  and  spotted  with  brown.  (Described 
from  Abbot's  manuscript  drawing.) 

Moth. — Pale  ocherous  :  head  and  front  of  the  thorax  with  the  antenna?  deep  ocher- 
ous. Wings  densely  speckled  with  smoky  spots ;  well  angulated,  the  angle  on  the 
tore  wings  often  acute,  on  the  hind  wings  forming  a  slight  tail.  Outer  line  dark 
brown,  bordered  externally  with  ocherous.  Inner  line  a  little  curved,  and  situated 
either  on  or  a  little  withiu  the  inner  third  of  the  wing.  Discal  dot  dark,  distiuct, 
sometimes  wanting  on  the  hind  wings.  Outer  line  sinuate  or  zigzag,  varying  greatly, 
the  angle  on  the  first  median  venule  being  slight  or  very  marked  on  both  wings. 
Od  the  hind  wings  a  single  line  only.  Beneath,  much  paler  ;  the  lines  re-appear,  but 
are  diffuse  and  smoky.     Expause  of  wings  1.50  inches. 

261.   Therina  endropiaria  (Grote  and  Rob.). 

This  moth  has  been  raised  from  caterpillars  found  feeding  on  the  oak 
at  Amherst,  Mass.,  by  Mr.  L.  W.  Goodell.  It  pupated  September  4, 
just  beneath  the  surface,  and  the  moth  emerged  May  19  following 
(Can.  Ent.,  xi,  194).  It  has  also  been  bred  by  the  U.  S.  Entomologist 
from  specimens  which  I  collected  in  April  at  Crescent  City.  Fla.,  from 
the  live  oak.  The  larva  spun  a  slight  cocoon  between  leaves  at  Wash- 
ington April  27,  and  the  moth  emerged  May  19. 


Larva. — Its  length  is  If  inches.  Ground  color  whitish.  Head  white,  marked  with 
large,  round  spots,  similar  to  those  of  Aletia,  and  numerous  minute  spots  and  faintly 
brown  mottlings.  Cervical  plate  white  with  four  small  black  spots  along  the  anterior 
margin  and  two  behind  them.  Median  line  slightly  reddish,  bordered  by  a  fine 
black  zigzag  line.  Abdomen  with  three  pale  brown,  somewhat  interrupted,  rather 
broad  dorsal  stripes,  each  of  which  is  also  bordered  with  a  very  fine  black  zigzag 
line.  There  is  also  a  subdorsal  row  of  narrow,  elongated,  orange  spots,  one  to  each 
segment.  Suprastigmatal  band  broad  and  purplish,  divided  along  its  whole  length 
by  an  interrupted  white  line.  Substigmatal  baud  orange,  bordered  below  by  a 
broader,  pale  purplish  stripe.  Venter  whitish  or  yellowish,  divided  longitudinally 
by  four  very  narrow  black  lines.  Stigmata  black.  Thoracic  legs  white,  their  claws 
blackish.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Papa. — Body  moderately  stout,  whitish,  very  pale,  spotted  distinctly  with  black; 
■about  sixteen  black  dots  on  the  prothoracic  segment.  A  curved  black  line  on  each 
side  of  the  head.  Cremaster  flattened,  conical,  ending  in  two  long,  twin,  decurved 
bristles,  the  outer  bristles  either  minute  or  wanting.     Length  15mm. 

Moth. — Male  and  female.  Head  and  thorax,  including  the  antennae  and  legs,  pale 
ocherous,  extending  to  the  costae  of  the  fore  wings,  especially  the  under  side.  Wings 
pale  whitish,  with  a  slight  ocherous  tint,  with  indistinct  cinereous  speckles,  espe- 
cially marked  toward  the  outer  edge ;  two  parallel  lines,  the  inner  a  perfectly  straight, 
pale-brown  hair-line,  situated  just  before  the  forking  of  the  median  vein,  and  the 
outer  narrow,  cinereous,  slightly  oblique,  but  not  curved;  on  the  hind  wings,  which 
are  concolorous  with  the  fore  wings,  is  a  single  line,  very  slightly  curved  in  the  mid- 
dle; no  discal  dot  on  either  wing;  outer  edge  distinctly  bent;  the  tail  on  the  hind 
wings  well  developed,  but  a  little  less  so  than  in  E.flagitiana,  and  the  wings  are  broader 
and  shorter,  while  the  anterior  pair  are  not  produced  so  much  at  the  apex.  Beneath, 
the  costal  edge  is  ocherous,  but  the  rest  of  the  wing  is  whitish-ocherous.  The  wings 
are  very  transparent,  so  that  the  lines  distinctly  appear  through.  The  ocherous  head 
and  thorax,  including  the  antennae,  in  distinction  from  the  pale  transparent  wings, 
the  pale  brown,  parallel  lines,  the  inner  perfectly  straight  and  the  outer  one  slightly 
curved,  will  separate  this  species  from  its  allies.     Expanse  of  wings,  1.50  inches. 

262.  The  large  scalloped-winged  geometer  moth. 

Stenotrachelys  approximaria  Guen6e. 

In  the  Southern  States  feeding  on  the  oak  a  large  geometer  whose  body  is  ash  gray, 
washed  with  brown,  with  a  dorsal  series  of  white  lozenges,  lined  with  black  and  trav- 
ersed in  their  middle  by  a  twin,  interrupted  black  vascular  line.  Found  in  March 
and  April,  the  moth  remaining  in  the  chrysalis. 

This  caterpillar,  according  to  Abbot  (in  Guen6e),  lives  in  Georgia  on 
Smilax  rotundifolia  and  laurifolia,  and,  according  to  Abbot  (MS.),  on 
Quercus.  This  species  is  known  to  inhabit  North  Carolina  as  well  as 
Georgia.  In  April  I  found  the  larvse  on  the  live  oak  at  Crescent  City, 
Fla.,  leaving  it  at  the  office  of  the  U.  S.  Entomologist  to  be  reared.  The 
larvae  then  in  confinement  entered  the  ground  to  pupate,  and  of  two 
bred  moths  one  emerged  November  2  and  the  other  November  11.  One 
proved  to  be  a  fine  male,  the  first  one  I  have  met  with,  the  female  alone 
having  been  described  in  my  monograph  of  this  family.  It  has  plumose 
antenna?  and  is  smaller  than  the  female,  but  has  the  same  shape  of 
the  wings  and  similar  markings. 

Larva.— April  22,  1886.— Three  larvae  of  this  species  were  brought  to-day  by  Dr.  A. 
S.  Packard,  from  Florida;  found  feeding  on  above  oak.     The  smallest  one  of  the. 
three  is  about  1  inch  in  length,  uniformly  dark  purplish-brown,  with  the  exception 


of  ;i  broad,  lighter  brown  shading  along  each  side  of  the  median  line  of  the  me8o-  and 
meta-thoras  and  drat  abdominal  segment.  Piliferous  warts  small,  black  and  project- 
ing. Stigmata  yellow,  with  narrow  black  annulus.  Behind  the  two  first  abdominal 
Stigmata  there  is  B  dull  black  patch,  that  behind  the  second  being  largest.  The  ver- 
tei  oi  tlif  head  is  bilobed  and  the  lobes  rounded  at  tip.  Color  of  the  head  dark 
oherry-brown,  the  tip  of  the  lobes  lighter.  The  lower  margin  of  the  head  and  of  the 
elypens  somewhat  whitish.  Its  surface  is  quite  smooth,  though  there  are  some  very 
delicate  transverse  wrinkles. 

The  second  larva  measures  l£  inches  in  length,  and  is  quite  pale  gray,  with  more 
or  less  distinct,  irregular  blackish  lines  and  spots.  A  very  line  black  line  borders 
each  side  of  the  two  posterior  thoracic  and  first  abdominal  segments,  whilst  on  the 
other  segments  this  line  borders  a  more  or  less  elongated,  lozenge-shaped,  paler  gray, 
medio-dorsal  space.  The  piliferous  warts  are  of  the  color  of  the  body,  with  black 
tips.  Stigmata  whitish,  with  black  annulus.  The  dull  black  patch  is  only  present 
behind  the  second  stigma.  Head  concolorous  with  body;  the  two  lobes  are  marked 
in  front  with  a  transverse,  dark  cherry-brown  band. 

The  third  larva  is  about  If  inches  in  length,  and  very  similar  to  the  second  one  in 
coloration,  though  the  color  of  the  middle  of  the  body  is  somewhat  more  purplish. 
On  each  of  the  two  posterior  thoracic  and  first  abdominal  segments  is  a  paler  gray 
triangular  spot,  a  somewhat  squarish,  gray  spot  on  the  fifth  and  sixth  abdominal 
segments,  and  on  each  side  of  the  median  line  on  the  eighth  segments  is  an  oblique 
blackish  line,  both  of  which  meet  posteriorly  on  the  median  line.  The  purplish 
stripes  of  the  lobes  of  the  head  are  present.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Pupa. — Pale  mahogany-brown  ;  cremaster  very  long  and  sharp,  straight,  with  no 
lateral  setae.     (Described  from  a  broken  specimen). 

Moth. — It  may  be  recognized  by  the  deeply  scalloped  wings,  and  the  large  head, 
which  is  rather  swollen  in  front.  It  is  whitish  gray,  the  wings  clear,  not  bordered 
with  brown.  The  fore  wings  with  two  distinct,  heavy,  black  lines,  the  inuer  very 
near  the  base  of  the  wing,  regularly  curved,  a  little  pointed  on  the  costa.  Outer  line 
bent  at  right  augles  on  the  basal  third  of  the  first  median  vein,  the  line  thence  going 
straight  to  the  costa,  though  zigzag  in  its  course;  from  the  rectangular  bend,  the  line 
follows  a  course  subparallel  to  the  median  line,  where  it  again  turns  rectangularly, 
ending  ou  the  middle  of  the  inner  edge  of  the  wing.  An  inner  reddish-brown  line  is 
parallel  and  near  it  below  the  median  vein,  and  above  passes  just  within  the  faint 
discal  dot.  Beyond  this  line  the  wing  is  speckled  with  transverse  short,  linear  spots. 
A  scalloped  marginal,  distinct  black  line.     Expanse  of  wings,  1.80  to  1.90  inches. 

203.  Eubi/ja  quernaria  (Abbot  and  Smith). 

Gueuee  states  ou  the  authority  of  Abbot's  drawing  that  the  cater- 
pillar of  this  moth  lives  in  April  and  May,  iu  Georgia,  on  a  species  of 
Quercus.  In  the  manuscript  drawing  of  Abbot's  iu  the  library  of  the 
Boston  Society  of  Natural  History  the  food-plant  drawn  is  Cratayus 
austral  is  T.  and  G. 

Larva. — Body  stouter  and  shorter  than  in  the  larva  of  Amphidasis  cognataria. 
Head  angular;  prothoracic  segments  swollen  ;  a  tubercle  on  the  back  of  the  third, 
the  lower  part  of  the  side  of  the  first,  and  ou  the  back  of  the  penultimate  segment. 
The  body  is,  in  the  paiuting,  colored  slate-gray,  with  irregular  dark  spots  and  longi- 
tudinal slashes. 

Moth. — Female.  Body  stout,  abdomen  thick,  with  a  dorsal  row  of  four  large  tufts, 
the  fourth  white,  the  others  dark.  Antennae  black.  Head  in  front  and  palpi  black- 
brown  ;  vertex  white,  rounded  behind  by  a  black  thread-line;  thorax  white,  with 
two  black  spots  in  the  center,  and  spotted  with  black  posteriorly.  Abdomen  white 
on  the  outer  third,  with  a  white  interrupted  line  on  each  segment,  spotted  thickly 


on  the  under  side  with  white.  Fore  wings  long,  outer  edge  very  oblique,  snow- 
white  as  a  ground  color ;  basal  third  white,  mottled  with  deep  brown,  especially  on 
the  costa.  The  middle  third  of  the  wing  brown,  bordered  with  the  black  basal  and 
extradiscal  lines.  The  basal  line  is  deeply  and  regularly  curved  outward ;  the  extra- 
discal line  is  irregularly  and  deeply  scalloped  ;  it  runs  straight  from  the  costa  to  the 
great  angle  on  the  median  line  through  two  deep  scallops  ;  the  angle  is  jagged  and 
sharp,  and  below  the  line  forms  a  great  curve,  sending  a  point  outward  on  the  in- 
ternal vein.  Beyond  this  line  the  wing  is  white,  with  scattered  dark  specks,  and 
with  a  ferruginous  patch  just  below  the  sixth  subruedian,  and  a  larger  one  extending 
from  the  second  median  venule  to  the  inner  edge  of  the  wing  near  the  angle.  Hind 
wings  white,  more  or  less  densely  mottled  with  brown  on  the  inner  two-thirds  ;  the 
extradiscal  line  is  zigzag,  with  a  large  angle  in  the  middle  of  the  wing.  Beyond 
this  the  markings  repeat  those  of  the  fore  wings.     Expanse  of  wings  5.5mm. 

264.  Aplode8  mimosaria  Guene"e. 

This  has  been  bred  from  the  oak  by  Mr.  Walsh  in  Illinois,  while  Riley 
has  found  it  feeding  on  the  oak  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  July  31.  It  is  com- 
mon in  the  New  England  and  Central  States. 

Larva.-  Larva  ten-footed,  cylindrical,  its  dorsum  with  curved  lateral  appendages 
covered  with  short  velvety  hairs,  and  similar  to  those  of  Limacodes  ?  hyalinus  Walsh, 
except  that  they  are  much  shorter  and  none  of  them  abruptly  longer  than  the  others. 
Of  a  dingy-brown  color,  and,  including  the  appendages,  about  one-fourth  of  an  inch 
in  diameter.     (Walsh.) 

Pupa. — The  pupa  is  of  a  pale  ocherous-brown  color,  varied  with  reddish-brown, 
with  many  fuscous  dots,  especially  along  the  nervures  of  the  wing-cases,  and  with 
the  caudal  spine  simple.     It  measures  0.43  inch,  including  the  spine.     (Walsh.) 

Moth.—  Four  males  and  females.  A  rather  large  species,  with  the  antennae  moder- 
ately well  pectinated.  Apex  of  fore  wings  square,  outer  edge  not  very  convex. 
Hind  wings  well  rounded,  less  angulated  than  usual;  anal  angle  square.  Body  and 
wings  of  the  usual  pale-green  color ;  head  and  antennae  white,  front  bright  rose- 
colored  except  on  front  border.  Palpi  white  ;  end  of  second  joint  and  under  side  of 
third  joint  roseate.  Both  pairs  of  wings  crossed  by  linear,  slightly  waved,  white 
lines.  Inner  line  on  fore  wing,  very  near  the  base  of  wing,  regularly  curved;  outer 
line  straight,  waved,  parallel  with  outer  edge.  Costa  narrowly  edged  with  white. 
Fringe  white  on  both  wings.  Hind  wings  with  the  inner  line  nearer  the  base  of 
wing  than  on  fore  wings,  curved  regularly.  Outer  line  bent  outward  in  the  middle, 
the  line  not  so  wavy  as  on  fore  wing.  Beneath  both  lines  faintly  reproduced  (not 
(i  avec  une  seule  ligne  blanche,"  asGuen6e  says).  Hind  wings  and  posterior  two- thirds 
of  fore  wings  whitish-green.  Outer  side  of  fore  femora  green,  of  tibiae  dull  red  ; 
two  posterior  pairs  white.  Abdomen  white,  green  at  base  above,  with  a  conspicuous 
white  spot  at  base.  Expanse  of  wings  1£  inches.  Length  of  body,  male  0.45, 
female  0.40. 

265.  Petrophora  diversilineata  Hiibner. 

Professor  Riley  found,  May  10,  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  larvae  of  this  spe- 
cies feeding  on  laurel-oak  and  elm.  Others  were  found  on  pear,  apple, 
cherry,  and  rose.  They  are  of  a  deep,  rich  brown  above,  sulphur-yel- 
low at  sides,  and  pale  beneath.  All  had  entered  the  ground  by  June  5, 
The  moths  issued  November  9.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

EQO- — Cylindrical,  much  rounded,  and  fuller  at  the  posterior  than  at  the  anterior 
end,  which  is  truncated  and  contracted,  with  a  swollen  vein  ;  white,  with  the  sur- 
face granulated. 


Larva. — The  body  above  is  dark  brown,  with  a  slightly  reddish  tint,  and  patches 
of  ;i  darker  Shade  along  the  dorsal  region,  being  the  color  of  the  twigs  of  its  food- 
plant.      It  remains  in  the  papa  state  about  a  week. 

Pupa.— Body  rather  stout,  wing-covers  reaching  to  the  seventh  abdominal  ring, 
counting  from  t he  end;  the  tip  is  acutely  conical;  anal  spine  large,  acute,  much 
flattened  from  above  downward:  bearing  two  large,  curved  .spines,  with  two  much 
smaller,  curved  basal  spines;  abdomen  with  scattered,  acute  spiuules  arising  from 
minute  black  tubercles;  pale  ash,  minutely  speckled  with  darker  tine  points,  with  a 
dark  dorsal  line  extending  from  the  head  to  the  end  of  the  anal  spine.  Length  0.55 

Moth. —  Thirty  males  and  teu  females.  Palpi  long.  Fore  wings  foliate;  outer  edge 
almost  angular.  Hind  wings  slightly  scalloped.  Body  and  wings  of  a  uniform 
ocheioiis-yellow  ;  palpi  dark  in  front  of  the  head,  tipped  with  dark  browu.  Fore 
wings  uniformly  ocherous;  a  curved,  basal,  rust-brown  line,  denticulated  on  the 
veins  ;  beyond,  two  parallel,  more  distinct,  concolorous  Hues,  the  inner  a  little  wavy, 
directed  obliquely  to  the  inner  edge;  the  outer  makes  a  right  angle  in  the  submedian 
space,  crosses  the  inner  line,  forming  a  broad  triangular  iuclosure  on  the  inner  edge 
of  the  wing;  beyond  is  a  broad  space  just  beyond  the  middle  of  the  wing,  usually 
tilled  in  with  a  purplish-brown  tint,  disappearing  before  reachiug  the  costal  space; 
sometimes  there  are  two  central  lines  in  this  space,  converging  a  little  below  the 
median  vein  and  forming  large  riuglets;  this  mesial  space  is  bounded  externally  by 
a  dark  rnst-brown  line,  which  ends  at  the  same  distance  from  the  base  of  the  wing, 
both  on  the  costa  and  iuuer  edge  ;  in  the  first  median  space  it  forms  a  large,  sharp 
projection  ;  beyond  is  another  coucolorous  line,  which  curves  inward  to  where  it  is 
usually  (not  always)  interrupted  by  the  projection  of  the  other  line,  and  thence  goes 
straight,  though  zigzag  in  its  course,  to  the  inner  edge  of  the  wing;  a  similarly 
colored,  more  or  less  zigzag,  oblique,  apical  line  extends  to  the  middle  of  the  wiug, 
opposite  the  projection  ;  the  edge  beyond  the  lines  either  clear  yellow  or  filled  in 
with  lilac-brown  ;  a  small  discal  dot.  Hind  wings  clear,  a  little  paler  than  the  fore 
wings,  with  a  faint  discal  dot,  sometimes  absent;  in  the  outer  third  of  the  wing 
au  angulated,  faint,  violet-brown  line,  edged  externally  with  silver,  a  heavier,  dif- 
fuse, shorter,  submarginal,  dark  brown,  zigzag  line,  with  a  slight  violet  tinge;  the 
space  between  this  and  the  wiug  suffused  with  violet-brown,  extending  only  toward 
the  middle  of  the  wing,  or  sometimes  passing  beyond  the  apex.  Beneath  the  wings 
are  yellow  ocherous,  speckled,  especially  on  the  hind  pair,  with  coarse,  violet-brown 
specks.  Fore  wings  clear  when  covering  the  hind  oues,  with  three  costal  spots,  the 
third  in  the  middle  of  the  costa;  beyond  the  angulated  outer  line  is  reproduced  ; 
apical  oblique  line  distinct,  with  a  violet-brown  cloud  below.  Hind  wiugs  with 
three  regularly  scalloped  lines;  the  margin  of  the  wing  broadly  clouded  with  violet- 
brown.  Legs  yellow  ;  joints  tipped  with  violet-brown.  Abdomeu  yellow,  tinged 
above  with  rust-brown.     Expanse  of  wings,  male  1.30  to  2.10,  female  1.35  inches. 

266.  Eupithecia  miserulata  Grote. 

June  3,  1876. — Found  two  larva?  feeding  ou  oak.  Length  about  0.63  of  an  inch, 
of  a  yellowish  color,  with  brown  markings  on  the  back  much  like  arrow-heads  with 
the  points  directed  towards  the  head;  a  brown  line  over  the  whole  length  of  the 
back  and  a  short  brown  line  each  side  just  behind  the  head,  ending  where  the  last  pair 
of  thoracic  legs  commence.  The  larva  chauged  to  pupa  June  12,  without  constructing 
a  cocoon,  suspending  itself  by  the  point  of  the  abdomeu;  it  is  also  of  a  yellowish 
color.     The  moth  issued  June  23.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

The  caterpillars  of  this  widespread  geometrid  were  common  on  the 
live  oak  at  Crescent  City,  Fla.,  April  9  to  14.  The  larvae  spun  a  slight 
cocoon  and  pupated  April  15,  the  moth  emerging  at  Washington  April 
20.     Another  moth  emerged  in  Providence  April  30.     In  shape,  the 


body  resembles  E.  luteata,  being  somewhat  flattened.  These  caterpil- 
lars differed  from  those  bred  from  the  bush  juniper  at  Salem,  Mass., 
in  wanting  the  lateral  white  line.  The  specimen  bred  was  compared 
with  those  from  different  States  in  the  National  Museum  by  Mr.  John 
B.  Smith  and  myself.  It  seems  to  feed  ou  evergreens  northward  and 
in  Florida  on  oak,  and  may  be  a  general  feeder. 

Larva. — Pale  green;  body  covered  with  fine  papillae.  Prothoracic  segment  much 
swollen  transversely;  no  marking  except  a  brownish  linear  dorsal  line.  This  was 
the  young  of  the  moth  which  issued  April  20. 

Another  larva,  whose  moth  emerged  April  30,  was  more  typical.  Body  somewhat 
flattened,  with  a  dorsal  series  of  sharply  pointed  dark-brown  patches,  the  points  ex- 
tending into  the  narrow  linear  brown  dorsal  line.  On  the  thoracic  segments  a  lateral 
broken  heavy  dark  line,  each  becoming  a  pale  narrow  thread  on  the  abdominal  seg- 
ments.    Length,  18mm. 


Moth. — This  is  our  most  common  pug-moth,  and  may  be  distinguished  by  the 
pointed  fore  wings,  with  the  numerous  transverse  lines  bent  sharply  outward,  the 
extradiscal  line  forming  a  sharp  angle  opposite  the  discal  dot,  and  notched  inward 
on  the  subcostal  vein ;  by  the  distinct  submarginal  wavy  white  line,  ending  in  a  large 
white  twin  spot  at  the  inner  angle;  by  the  fine  dark  lines  on  the  hind  wings,  and  by 
the  heavy  black  costal  spots  and  marginal  lines  on  the  under  side.  The  fore  wings 
expand  20mm. 

267.   THE   OAK-LEAF   ROLLER. 

Tortrix  quercifoliana  Fitch. 

In  the  early  part  of  June,  says  Fitch,  the  sides  of  particular  leaves 
may  be  found  to  be  curved  upward  and  drawn  slightly  together  by 
silken  threads,  beneath  which  lies  a  slender,  grass-green  leaf-roller, 
which  finally  pupates  in  the  end  of  the  leaf,  the  moth  appearing  in 
New  York  about  the  1st  of  July. 

While  at  St.  Augustine,  Fla.,  early  in  April,  I  noticed  a  pale  green 
leal-roller  on  the  live  oaks  ou  Auastasia  Island.  April  14  it  spun  a 
slight  cocoon,  within  which  the  worm  changed  to  a  pupa  April  16  or 
17 ;  the  moth  appeared  April  30,  after  my  return  to  Providence. 

Larva.— Grass-green  throughout,  body  tapering  slightly  posteriorly,  but  less  so 
towards  the  head.  Head  round,  slightly  flattened,  and  "as  thick  as  the  neck  into 
which  it  is  sunken."     Length  19mm  (0.75  inch). 

Pupa. — Body  pale  and  slender,  the  cast  skin  thin  and  unusually  so  for  a  Tortrix. 
Cremaster  or  terminal  abdominal  spine  peculiar  in  being  long  and  narrow,  as  wide  at 
the  tip  as  at  the  base  ;  the  surface  above  and  beneath  with  fine  longitudinal  ridges  ; 
a  pair  of  short  dorsal  set*  near  the  end  ;  edge  of  the  extreme  tip  curvilinear,  with 
four  curved  setae  of  nearly  equal  length.  Each  abdominal  segment  with  two  rows 
of  fine  teeth.     Length,  10mm. 

Moth. — Pale  tawny  yellow,  with  yellowish  brown  darker  scales  and  dots  and  darker 
brown  lines.  Head  pale,  tawny  brown  on  the  vertex,  with  a  small  spot  in  the  middle 
of  the  front.  Palpi  dark,  externally  pale  above  and  at  tip  of  second  joint.  Fore 
wings  pale  whitish  tawny  yellow,  densely  speckled  with  darker  scales  ;  on  the  inner 
third  of  the  wing  an  oblique,  dark  brown,  narrow  line  beginning  on  the  inner  third 
of  the  costa  and  ending  in  the  middle  of  the  hind  margin.  An  outer  parallel  line, 
which  is  forked  on  the  costa  and  ends  on  the  internal  angle  ;  from  near  the  middle 


the  hut-  sendi  off  ■  spar  to  the  apex.  ba1  before  reaching  the  apex  ■  spur  is  sent  to 
rieo  a  3-forked  line  to  the  outer  edge  of  the  wing.    Hind  fringe,  abdomen 
and  leg!  almost  white.      Kxpanse  of  wings,  SO-*.     |  Identified  by  Prof.  Fernald.) 

Tort r\x  Jim x-uimm   Kobinsoii. 

The  habits  of  another  leaf-roller  have  been  observed  and  related  by 
Miss  Emma  A.  Smith  in  Thomas'  second  report  on  the  injurious  insectfl 
of  Illinois  (p.  114).  It  injures  the  black,  red,  burr,  white,  and  pin  oaks. 
The  species  has  been  found  io  Texas  as  well  as  Illinois. 

Moth.  —Palpi,  head  and  thorax  pale  ocherous.  Anterior  wings  shining  pale  yellow, 
almost  entirely  covered  with  pale  olivaceous  scales,  n  that  the  yellow  ground  color 
is  only  evident  jnel  below  costa  at  base,  in  two  small  costal  spots  at  and  beyond  the 
middle,  and  in  a  similar  elongate  spot  on  the  disk  below  the  two  last  mentioned.  are  three  brown  dots  on  the  costa  near  the  apex,  which  is  also  tinged  with 
brown.  Posterior  wings  fuscous  above,  tinged  apically  with  ferruginous  :  beneath 
tinged  with  fuscous  internally,  pale  testaceous  beyond.  Fringes  whitish.  Under 
surface  of  anterior  wings  fuscous  except  the  costa,  which  is  pale  testaceous.  Ex- 
panse, male,  *20mm.     (Robinson.) 

969.    THK    V-MAKKED   CACCECIA. 

Caccecia  argyrospila  Walker. 

The  moth  of  this  species  is  not  uncommon,  entering  our  houses  at 
night  during  July  in  Maine  and  Massachusetts.  My  specimens  have 
been  kindly  determined  by  Prof.  C.  H.  Fernald. 

This  widespread  species  was  first  described  in  this  country  by  Mr.  C. 
T.  Robinson,  in  1869,  under  the  name  of  Tortrix  furrana  ;  at  nearly 
the  same  time  or  soon  after  I  described  it  in  the  Massachusetts  Agricult- 
ural Report  for  1870  under  the  name  of  the  V  marked  Tortrix  (T.  v-sig- 
natana),  and  remarked  that  Mr.  F.  W.  Putnam  had  raised  it  in  abun- 
dance from  the  cherry.  In  his  account  of  this  species  Lord  Walsingham* 
remarks  that  in  California  it  occurred  near  San  Fraucisco,  May  19, 
1871.  u  The  species  also  occurred  about  Mendocino  in  the  middle  of 
June,  and  as  far  north  as  Mount  Shasta  in  August.  One  specimen 
emerged  on  the  21st  of  June  from  a  pupa  found  a  few  days  previously 
between  united  leaves  of  JEsculus  californica  (Nutt.),  the  Californian 

In  his  Synonymical  Catalogue  of  the  Described  Tortrieida\  Prof.  C. 
H.  Fernald  states : 

Professor  Riley  wrote  me  that  he  bred  it  on  rose,  apple,  hickory,  oak,  soft  maple, 
elm,  and  wild  cherry. 

It  thus  appears  to  be  a  general  feeder  on  our  shade  trees,  living  be- 
tween the  united  leaves.  It  ranges  from  Maine,  where  it  is  common, 
to  Georgia,  Texas,  and  Missouri,  while  it  is  not  uncommon  on  the 
Pacific  coast. 

*  Illustrations  of  Typical  Specimens  of  Lepidoptera  Heterocera  in  the  Collection  of 
the  British  Museum,  part  iv.  London,  1879,  p.  '.'. 


It  feeds  on  the  oak  early  in  June,  as  one  caterpillar  occurred  June 
11,  when  it  became  a  chrysalis,  the  moth  appearing  June  23.  Hence 
without  much  doubt  there  are  two  broods,  the  caterpillar  occurring 
late  in  summer  turning  to  chrysalides,  and  hibernating  as  such,  the 
moth  flying  about  in  the  spring  and  laying  its  eggs  on  the  shoots,  so 
that  the  larva  may  hatch  when  the  leaves  are  unfolding  and  find  its 
food  ready  and  at  hand.  The  first  brood  of  caterpillars  is  found  early 
iu  June,  and  the  second  in  August  and  early  in  September.  The  moth 
is  of  the  size  and  general  shape  of  the  common  apple-leaf  roller 
(Caccecia  rosana)  and  the  cherry-leaf  roller  (G.  cerasivorana).  differing 
in  the  particulars  stated  below ;  but  the  caterpillar  is  more  like  that  of 
€.  rosayia  than  C.  cerasivo^ana. 

According  to  Professor  Riley's  unpublished  notes  this  was  found 
May  15,  1869,  on  the  I.  M.  R.  R.  rolling  in  perfect  tubes  the  leaves  of 
the  common  oak.     May  26  it  pupated,  and  June  3  three  moths  issued. 

Larva. — Color  delicate  glass  green,  with  a  darker  dorsal  vesicular  line.  Not  pol- 
ished. Piliferous  spots  polished.  Head  brown.  Cervical  shield  polished,  glass-like, 
and  scarcely  darker  than  body  ;  anterior  edge  lighter.     Thoracic  legs  pale. 

Pupa. — May  26  one  changed  to  chrysalis  with  the  abdomen  yellowish,  the  dorsum 
roseate  and  wing-sheaths  green  ;  with  two  transverse  rows  of  minute  teeth  on  dor- 
sum of  largest  abdominal  segments,  and  also  a  few  long  hairs  pointing  posteriorly. 
Six,  sometimes  seven,  tolerably  long,  curved  hooks  at  extremity,  four  springing  from 
the  extreme  point  and  two  from  the  sides.  Length  scarcely  0.50  of  an  inch.  Legs 
do  not  reach  as  far  as  the  wing  sheaths.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Of  the  usual  form  and  color,  but  rather  stout ;  the  end  of  the  abdomen  has  an 
unusually  large,  sharp  spino,  with  two  lateral  and  two  terminal  large,  stout,  curved 
sette  or  stiff  hairs.     Length,  12mm. 

Moth. — Head,  palpi,  and  thorax  rust-red;  fore  wings  bright  rust-red;  a  broad, 
median,  rust-red,  oblique  band  bent  downward  in  the  middle  of  the  wing ;  on  each 
side  are  two  yellowish-white  costal  blotches,  the  outer  one  usually  triangular  and 
oblique,  sending  a  narrow  line  to  the  inner  edge  of  the  wing ;  a  similar  line  on  the 
inside  of  the  band.  Outer  margin  of  the  wing  yellowish  white,  with  two  tine,  rust- 
red  lines,  the  outer  one  at  the  base  of  the  fringe,  which  is  whitish  yellow.  Hind 
wings  pale  yellowish  slate  color,  as  is  the  abdomen. 

269.  Caccecia  fervidana  (Clemens). 

The  caterpillar  was  found  by  Professor  Riley  September  1,  1867, 
feeding  on  the  oak,  covering  and  inclosing  numbers  of  the  leaves  by  a 
white  glistening  web ;  also  fastening  the  brown  grains  of  excrement 
together  with  the  silk  so  that  it  sometimes  forms  quite* a  large  mass. 
They  were  quite  numerous  in  various  portions  of  Illinois,  Iowa,  and 

The  worm  also  generally  resides  in  a  sort  of  silken  case.  It  devours 
all  the  pulpy  portions  of  the  leaf.  They  are  found  on  the  burr  oak, 
though  they  will  eat  the  leaves  of  half  a  dozen  varieties  that  I  have 
"given  them.     (Riley.) 

There  are  probably  three  broods  annually  of  this  insect,  as  in  Illinois 
it  first  appears  in  the  middle  of  May,  according  to  Miss  Emma  A.  Smith, 
5  ent 13 


of  Peoria.*  Professor  Riley  adds  that  the  eggs,  hatched  about  the 
1st  of  July  and  last  of  June,  had  become  moths  by  the  1st  of /Vugust  ; 
and  then  again  those  found  September  1  must  have  been  of  a  third 
brood,  which  winters  over  in  the  chrysalis.  The  eggs,  according  to 
Biley,  are  placed  in  clusters  on  the  leaf. 

Miss  Smith's  paper  gives  quite  a  full  account  of  the  habits  and  rav- 
ages of  this  insect  in  her  vicinity.  This  is  the  Tortri.r  paludana  of  Rob- 
inson. It  is  attacked  by  Calosomn  scrutator  Fabr.,  Podisus  spinosm 
Dall.,  also  by  Dlplodus  luridus  Stal,  and  by  Pimpla  conquisitor  Hay. 

I. ami. — When  full  grown.  .80  to  .85  of  an  inch.  Color  dull  brownish  buff.  Form 
subeylindrical,  being  flat  below:  tapers  slightly  posteriorly  but  not  anteriorly.  Dor- 
sum light.  A  subdorsal  darker  band,  edged  above  and  below  with  a  black  line,  the 
upper  one  being  thickest.  Wrinkled  transver«ely,  one  indenture  especially  in  the 
middle  of  each  segment.  Thoracic  segments  somewhat  largest.  Head  as  wide  as 
No.  1  and  carried  nearly  horizontally.  It  is  dark  brown,  mottled  with  white. 
Venter,  feet,  and  legs  of  same  color  as  subdorsal  band.  Covered  with  fine  sparse 
hairs.  This  worm  is  not  very  active,  but  when  touched  wriggles  and  lets  itself  down 
by  a  thread.  It  is  quite  variable  in  the  depth  of  shading,  some  being  very  light, 
while  others  are  quite  dark,  and  some  even  have  a  greenish  tinge.  (Riley's  unpub- 
lished notes.) 

Moth.—  Palpi  reddish  brown,  short,  the  third  joint  extending  beyond  the  head. 
Head  and  thorax  reddish  brown  above.  Anterior  wings  reddish  brown,  much 
clouded  with  fuscous  beyond  the  middle.  A  dark  brown  patch  on  the  middle  of 
costa  and  a  smaller  one  on  the  disk  below  it  indicate  the  central  fascia.  A  large 
dark  brown  subapical  patch  is  continued  as  a  broad  fuscous  shade  to  internal  angle. 
Fringes  pale.  Posterior  wings  very  dark,  fuscous  above;  pale  testaceous  beneath, 
tinged  with  fuscous  internally.  Fringes  pale  testaceous.  Abdomen  fuscous  above, 
pale  testaceous  beneath.  Under  surface  of  anterior  wings  entirely  clouded  with  fus- 
cous, giving  in  some  lights  a  purple  reflection.  Expanse,  male,  20mm  ;  female,  23mm. 

270.  Cenopis  quercana  (Fernald.) 

The  caterpillar  has  been  found  by  Professor  Comstock  feeding  on  the 
oak,  and  by  Miss  Murtfeldt  on  the  cultivated  cherry. 

Moth. — Thorax  and  fore  wings  dull  rust-red.  Basal  patch,  median  and  subapical 
bauds  lighter  in  the  males  and  inclining  to  yellowish  on  the  costa,  with  strong  green- 
ish reflections  when  seen  in  an  oblique  light,  showing  most  strongly  in  the  females. 
Expanse  of  wings,  14  to  16mrc.     (Fernald). 

271.  Cenopis  reticulatana  (Clemens). 

Besides  the  oak  the  caterpillar  is  said  by  Miss  Murtfeldt  to  feed  on 
the  osage  orange,  maple,  persimmon,  and  pear. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  yellow,  finely  reticulated  with  orauge;  costa  at  base  tinged 
with  purple.  Central  fascia  purple,  commencing  in  a  spot  on  the  costa  before  the 
middle  and  ending  in  the  apex  of  a  large  triangular  spot  of  the  same  hue  ou  the 
inner  edge.  The  large  purple  costal  spot  throws  out  a  line,  which  is  forked  just 
below  it,  one  branch  running  obliquely  inward  to  the  triangular  spot  on  the  inner 
margin,  the  other  outwardly  to  before  the  inner  angle.  Hind  wings  and  fringes 
very  pale  yellow.     Expanse  of  wings,  17  to  22mm.     (Robiuson). 

'Paper  read  before  the  Northern  Horticultural  Society  at  Franklin  Grove,  and 
published  in  the  Prairie  Farmer  January  9,  1878. 


272.  Cenopis  pettitana  (Robinson). 

The  caterpillar  of  this  variable  species  is  said  by  Miss  Murtfeldt  to 
feed  on  the  oak,  hickory,  and  rose. 

Professor  Riley  found  at  the  same  time  (May  15,  1869)  as  Cacoecia 
argyrospila,  a  large  grass-green  oak  roller  with  a  black  head  and  a  pale 
brown  cervical  shield  and  bluish  dorsal  line,  with  the  thoracic  legs 
black.     June  3,  1869,  five  moths  issued. 

Zeller  (November  20,  1871)  says  it  is  near  the  European  Xanthosetia 
hamana,  but  differs. 

Several  of  them  entered  the  chrysalis  s^ate  May  26,  1869. 

October  9,  1872,  received  from  Manhattan,  Kans.,  a  larva  feeding  on 
oak,  which  possesses  several  of  the  characteristics  of  Perophora  mel- 
sheunerii.    (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Length,  .625  of  an  inch;  diameter  about  .10  across  the  head,  which  is  the 
broadest  part.  Pale  yellowish  green,  somewhat  flattened,  line,  medio-dorsal  line, 
piliferous  spots  on  dorsum  very  minute,  sides  somewhat  tuberculated,  with  con- 
spicuous longitudinal  row  of  long,  stiff  brown  hairs  arising  from  brown  plates. 
Head  large,  dark  brown,  not  polished,  horizontal.  First  segment  horny,  pale  brown, 
constricted  behind,  roughened  like  the  head  with  dense  minute  punctures.  Anal 
plate  orbicular,  large,  horny,  with  a  glistening  whitish  punctured  surface,  with  two 
conspicuous  purple-brown  spots  and  a  dark  longitudinal  dorsal  line.  Larva  forms  a 
case  of  web- work  on  the  leaf  or  between  two  leaves.     Moths  issued  in  early  May. 

Pupa. — Differs  materially  from  that  of  Cacoecia  argyrospila.  It  is  .55  of  an  inch  in 
length.  The  antennae  and  legs  reach  exactly  as  far  as  wing  sheaths.  The  color  is 
very  dark  brown,  and  after  the  moth  has  left  the  posterior  third  behind  last  row  of 
teeth  is  of  a  lighter  reddish  brown  in  contrast.  Two  rows  of  teeth  on  principal 
abdominal  segments,  as  in  Cacoecia  argyrospila.  The  extremity  is  blunt  with  scarcely 
any  hooks  visible,  though  occasionally  a  very  fine  one  may  be  seen.  (Riley's  unpub- 
lished notes.) 

Moth.  —Fore  wings  very  pale  yellow.  Costa  in  the  male  with  two  patches  of 
brownish  ocherous  scales  at  the  basal  aud  apical  third.  Expanse  of  wings,  22  to 
28mm.     (Robinson). 


Lophoderus  triferanus  (Walk.). 
Order  Lepidoptera  ;  family  Tortricid^e. 

Probably  originally  feeding  on  the  oak,  elm,  and  maple,  as  well  as  the 
cranberry.  The  caterpillar  occasionally  damages  clover,  corn,  straw- 
berry, bean,  etc.  The  following  notes  are  copied  from  Forbes'  3d  Eep. 
Ins.  Illinois: 

This  species  occurs  somewhat  rarely  in  Illinois,  and  has  not  been  reported  through- 
out its  wide  range  to  do  any  injury  except  to  the  cranberry  in  Massachusetts,  where 
its  larva  is  locally  known  as  one  of  the  cranberry  worms.  We  bred  it,  however, 
during  this  past  season  from  pale-green  leaf-rollers  in  young  corn,  and  consequently 
may  regard  it  as  worthy  of  brief  mention,  especially  as  its  local  abundance  in  cran- 
berry plantations  in  Massachusetts  would  indicate  a  capacity  for  excessive  multipli- 
cation which  makes  it  a  possible  source  of  danger  in  the  great  corn-fields  of  the 
Mississippi  Valley. 

The  presence  of  this  larva  and  of  that  of  the  sulphur  leaf -roller,  just  treated,  is 
indicated  in  corn-fields  by  the  folding  lengthwise  or  rolling  of  the  leaves  in  May  and 


Jane.     If  these  leaves  be  opened,  I   green  wriggling  larva  will  be  found  inclosed  in 
a  vreb  within. 
The  moth  hatching  from  these  folded  leaves  in  June,  if  Lopkederiu  triferanui,  may 

be  recognized  as  an  insignificant  brown  speeiee,  about  ■  half  inch  across  the  spread 
wings.    The  fore  wings  ere  reddish  brown  except  on  tin*  terminal  fourth,  which  is 
gray  speokled  with  black,  as  is  also  the  basal  half  of  the  posterior  edge  of  th 

The  species  was  first  described  by  Walker  in  1863  as  Cacwcia  triferana,  and  again 
by  Clemens  in  lSt'>.">,  in  the  proceeding!  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Philadelphia, 
under  the  name  of  Tort r is  imcrtuiia.  A  better  description  of  the  moth,  with  figures 
of  male  and  female,  is  given  by  Robinson  in  Volume  II  of  the  Transactions  of  the 
American  Entomological  Society,  under  the  same  specific  name. 

Aa  an  injurious  insect  it  is  mentioned  by  Dr.  Packard  in  the  Massachusetts  Agri- 
cultural Report  for  1870,  and  in  the  Tenth  Report  of  the  Geological  and  Geographical 
Survey  of  Colorado  and  Adjacent  Territory,  1870.  By  Miss  Murtfeldt  it  is  reported 
as  injurious  to  the  rose,  in  the  third  volume  of  the  American  Entomologist  (1880), 
and  by  Professor  Liutner  as  a  clover  insect  in  the  Auuual  Report  of  the  New  York 
Agricultural  Society  for  the  same  year. 

This  species  has  been  collected  from  Maine  and  New  York  to  Illinois  and  T 
and  has  been  fouud  feeding  on  the  cranberry,  elm,  soft  maple,  oak,  apple,  rose,  beans, 
Gnaphalium  jyoljicephalum,  clover,   strawberry,  and  corn.     Our  specimens,  collected 
ou  May  29,  emerged  June  30. 

In  all  the  foregoing  articles  except  the  first  this  species  is  treated  under  Clemens's 
specific  name,  but  in  Fernald's  Catalogue  of  the  Tortricidre  of  North  America 
this  is  reduced  to  a  synonym  of  Walker's  triferanus.  The  larva  was  not  distinguished 
in  our  breeding  cages  from  that  of  the  preceding  species  (Dichelia  sulphureana).  con- 
sequently I  am  unable  to  give  a  detailed  description  of  it.  Clemens's  description  of 
the  imago  is  as  follows: 

Moth. — Palpi  ocherous  or  brownish  ocherous  except  the  minute  third  joint,  which 
is  blackish.  Head  and  thorax  ocherous  or  brownish  ocherous.  Anterior  wings  pure 
pale  reddish  brown  within  the  central  fascia,  except  on  internal  margin,  which  is 
broadly  covered  at  base  with  blackish  brown  scales,  forming  a  rather  prominent 
irregular  spot  followed  by  an  aggregation  of  intermediate  pale  ocherous  and  black- 
ish scales  to  the  fascia.  Central  fascia  broad,  distinctly  dark  brown,  sometimes 
reddish  brown.  The  subapical  costal  spot  is  dark  brown  and  separated  from  the 
central  fascia  by  a  reddish  brown  shade.  The  remaining  outer  portion  of  the  wing 
pale  ocherous  except  a  testaceous  brown  spot  above  the  anal  angle.  Fringes  dark 
ocherous.  Posterior  wings  fuscous  above,  testaceous  beneath.  Fringes  pah 
ceous,  much  clouded  centrally  with  dark  fuscous.     Expanse,  male  15,  female  19mui. 

274.  Lophoderii8  velutinana  Walk. 

This  species  is  said  by  Miss  Murtfeldt  to  feed  on  the  laurel-oak,  bal- 
sain-tir,  and  maple. 

Moth. — Fore  wings  pale  ocherous,  darker  on  costa  at  base  :  a  large  dark-brown 
basal  patch,  not  quite  reaching  the  costa.  Middle  band  dark  brown  to  the  middle 
of  the  wing,  reddish  brown  beyond,  throwing  out  a  booklet  inwardly  below  the  cell, 
which  curving  upwardly  nearly  incloses  a  pale  ocherous  spot.  Subapical  costal  spot 
dark  brown,  semilunate,  connected  by  a  paler  streak  with  internal  angle.  Expanse 
of  wings,  17mm. 

275.  Phoxopteris  murtfeldtiana  Riley. 

Three  specimens  were  bred  from  oak,  May  10,  by  Miss  Murtfeldt,  in 

From  Ph.  spirecvfoUana,  which  Dr.  Clemens  bred  from  larva?  found 
feeding  on  the  leaves  of  Spirwa  opuUfoUa,  this  oak-feeding  species  dif- 


fers  in  the  oblique  central  fascia  extending  to  form  a  sharp  angle 
towards  the  apex  of  wing,  in  the  angulated  portion  containing  two 
black  streaks,  and  in  this  fascia  extending,  as  a  faint  band,  to  the 
inner  margin  and  beneath  the  ocellated  patch. 

Ph.  burgessiana  Zell.,  which  may  not  be  distinct  from  pulchellana 
Clem.,  and  Ph.  laciniana  Zell.,  which,  also,  may  not  be  distinct  from 
dubiana  Clem.,  are  closely  allied  to  murtfeldtiana,  but  the  basal  patch 
is  darker  than  in  those  species,  thus  resembling  sjrirecefoliana.    (Riley.) 

Moth. — Male  :  Expanse,  10mm.  White,  the  primaries  with  a  dark-brown  patch  on 
basal  half  of  inner  margin  and  with  an  oblique  fascia  extending  from  the  middle  of 
costa.  Head  reddish  brown  ;  palpi  white,  tinged  with  brown  at  base.  Thorax 
white,  becoming  embrowned  on  the  disk ;  primaries  white,  the  apical  half  shaded 
with  ferruginous,  with  a  broad  blackish-brown  patch  on  the  basal  half  of  the  inner 
margin,  the  patch  rounded  on  its  costal  border  and  having  a  very  indistinct  coppery 
reflection  from  some  of  the  scales  in  particular  lights ;  from  the  middle  of  the  costa 
an  oblique  reddish-brown  fascia  extending  to  form  a  sharp  angle  just  before  the  apex 
of  wing  (these  inclosing  two  black  streaks),  and  retreating  suddenly  to  curve  around 
the  ocellated  patch,  into  which  it  sometimes  sends  a  slight  angle,  and  to  attain  the 
inner  margin  of  the  wing ;  this  fascia  much  paler  on  its  inner  half  than  on  its  costal 
half,  bounded  exteriorly  from  costa  to  inner  margin  by  a  white  line,  and  shading  off 
on  the  inner  half  of  its  basal  border  into  the  white  ground  color  ;  costa  beyond  the 
fascia  to  the  apex  streaked  with  white  and  ferruginous,  the  apex  ferruginous;  just 
below  the  apex  two  white  streaks;  ocellated  patch  white,  generally  containing  a 
black  streak  ;  posterior  margin  ferruginous ;  fringes  tinged  with  ferruginous,  pale  at 
base,  darker  at  apical  angle ;  secondaries  gray  ;  under  surfaces  gray ;  primaries 
shaded  with  fuscous ;  legs  white,  with  the  usual  fuscous  shadings  on  tarsi.  Abdo- 
men gray,  silvery  beneath.     (Riley.) 


Cryptolechia  schlagenella  Zeller. 
Order  Lepidoptera  ;  family  Tineid^e. 

This  is  a  remarkable  insect,  both  as  a  caterpillar  and  moth.  It  is  not 
uncommon  in  the  larval  state  on  the  oak,  where  we  have  seen  it  in  Maine 
and  Rhode  Island  in  September.  Professor  Riley  found,  October  22, 
1882,  in  Virginia,  several  larvse  of  this  Tineid  feeding  on  oak.  One 
moth  issued  June  2,  1883.  It  feeds  between  the  leaves,  drawing  them 
together  with  silk  threads.  When  about  to  pupate,  it  turns  over  a  por- 
tion of  the  leaf  nearly  an  inch  long,  lines  the  interior  of  the  cell  thus 
made  with  silk,  and  the  moth  appears  the  following  spring.  We  have 
compared  the  moth  with  a  type  specimen  sent  to  us  several*years  ago 
by  the  late  Prof.  P.  C.  Zeller,  and  now  in  the  Museum  of  Comparative 
Zoology,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  and  it  is  undoubtedly  that  species,  though 
the  row  of  blackish  dots  so  distinct  in  the  fresh  specimen  reared  by  us 
are  not  to  be  seen  in  the  type  specimen  ;  otherwise  it  agrees  exactly 
with  the  latter.  It  is  a  not  uncommon  insect,  but,  so  far  as  ktiown, 
more  curious  than  destructive,  though  it  may  at  times  disfigure  the 
leaves  of  valuable  shade  trees.  It  is  the  largest  Tineid  larva  we  have 
met  with. 


Luna.  —  Head  large,  broad,  and  flat;  as  broad  as  the  protboracic  segment ;  pale 
horn  or  whitish  color,  surface  rough;  in  front  crossed  by  two  dark  reddish-brown 
broad  lint's  which  form  two  large  shallow  scallops;  the  front  line  extends  along  the 
sides,  including  the  eyes  and  the  front  edge  of  the  clypeus ;  the  other  is  broader, 
forming  two  scallops  and  crossing  the  apex  of  the  clypeus.  On  each  side  of  the  head 
below  the  front  line  is  a  short,  nearly  straight  brown-black  line  not  reaching  as  far 
as  the  eyes.  The  median  sntnre  of  the  head  is  rather  deeply  impressed  ;  the  vertex 
on  each  side  is  a  little  swollen  and  marked  with  eight  or  nine  dark  reddish-brown 
more  or  less  coutlueut  spots.  The  posterior  edge  of  the  head  is  edged  with  black 
brown.  The  body  is  somewhat  flattened,  pale  pea  green,  a  little  paler  than  the 
under  side  of  the  leaf.  Protboracic  segment  without  a  shield,  but  broad,  flat,  and 
green  like  the  rest  of  the  body.  On  the  sides  of  the  three  thoracic  segments  is  a 
dark  tubercle  tinged  with  reddish  between,  forming  a  lateral  thoracic  line.  No  dor- 
sal tubercle,  but  pale  hairs  as  long  as  the  body  arise  from  minute  points,  which  are 
obscurely  indicated.     Length,  23BWB. 

Papa. — Body  very  thick  and  stout;  the  head  broad,  and  the  abdomen  short  and 
thick,  the  end  of  the  body  very  blunt,  the  tip  broad  and  obtuse,  somewhat  tubercu- 
lated,  not  spined.  The  wings  reach  to  the  end  of  the  fifth  abdominal  segment  ;  and 
on  the  under  side  of  the  sixth  and  seventh  segments  are  two  dark  ventral  small  cal- 
losities ;  the  tip  is  broad,  truncated,  rough  and  dark.  Length,  10mm  ;  thickness, 

Moth. — A  very  large  species  for  the  family  to  whicl  it  belongs.  Head  with  the 
scales  between  the  antenna?  and  on  the  vertex  loose  and  thick,  not  smooth  as  in 
Gelechia.  Palpi  long  and  slender,  smooth,  the  third  joint  very  long  and  slender,  over 
one-half  as  long  as  the  second.  It  is  so  large  and  the  fore  wings  so  broad  and  oblong, 
that  at  first  it  might  be  mistaken  for  a  Tortrix.  Body  and  wings  snow  white.  Fore 
wings  snow  white,  with  two  smoky  trim  dots  at  the  base  of  the  wing  near  the  costa; 
two  smoky  spots  inside  of  the  middle  of  the  wing  on  the  internal  edge.  Beyond  the 
middle  of  the  wing  are  five  or  six  indistinct,  pearly,  smoky  spots,  the  central  one 
apparently  forming  the  discal  dot.  Two  faint,  curved,  6moky  lines  parallel  with 
each  other  and  to  the  outer  edge,  neither  of  them  reaching  the  costal  edge  of  the 
wing,  and  the  inner  less  than  one-half  as  wide  as  the  outer.  On  the  outer  edge  of 
the  wing,  on  the  white  fringe,  is  a  row  of  about  five  conspicuous  dark-brown  spots ; 
the  base  of  the  fringe  is  smoky,  forming  a  faint  line.  Body,  hind  wings,  abdomen, 
and  legs  snow-white  ;  antennae  light  brown.  On  hinder  part  of  the  thorax  very  dis- 
tinct when  the  wings  are  closed,  is  a  large  prominent  tuft  of  broad  brown  scales, 
which  send  off  different  metallic  colors,  especially  steel-hlue.  Length  of  body,  9  to 
10mm  ;  of  fore  wing,  llmm  ;  expanse  of  wings,  24r 

I  nun 


Cryptolechia  quercicella  Clemens. 

The  leaves  of  the  oak  and,  as  we  have  found  tbe  past  season,  the 
aspen,  are  often  bound  together  by  a  rather  large  flattened  Tineid  cat- 
erpillar, laager  in  size  than  most  larva?  of  the  family  to  which  it  belongs. 
It  is  of  about  the  size  of  the  caterpillar  of  V.  schlagenella. 

The  larva  of  the  present  species  (originally  described  by  Clemens  as 
Psilocorsis  quercicella)  was  said  by  that  author*  to  bind  the  leaves  of 
oaks  together  in  August  and  September  (in  Pennsylvania)  and  to  pick 
out  the  parenchyma  between  the  network  of  veins;  to  weave  a  slight 
cocoon  between  two  leaves,  appearing  as  a  moth  in  March  and  April. 

*Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sciences,  Phil.,  June,  1860.  See  also  Clemens's  Tineina  of  North 
America,  edited  by  H.  T.  Stainton,  p.  149. 


Our  observations  confirm  the  accuracy  of  Clemens's  statements.  In 
1884  we  reared  it  from  the  oak  in  Providence,  the  moths  in  confinement 
appearing  May  3  to  13  of  the  following  spring. 

During  the  season  of  1886  we  found  the  larvae  both  on  the  oak  and 
on  the  aspen  at  Brunswick,  Me.,  during  the  last  week  in  August  (the 
25th  to  31st).  It  disfigures  these  trees  by  binding  the  leaves  together, 
where  it  occupies  a  gallery  in  the  mass  of  excrement  filling  the  space. 
It  weaves  a  slight,  but  quite  consistent,  oval,  flat  cocoon  between  the 
somewhat  crumpled  leaves;  the  moths  appeared  in  the  breeding  cages 
from  May  15  to  20 ;  at  first  sight  the  moth  resembles  a  Tortrix,  the 
wings  being  wide  and  broad  at  the  end,  and  the  markings  plain;  it  is 
very  different  in  appearance  from  the  moth  of  the  other  species  we  have 
mentioned,  which  is  white,  with  longer,  narrower  wings.  The  abdomi- 
nal spine  of  the  chrysalis  is  also  very  peculiar  in  shape. 

Larva. — Body  flattened.  Head  wide,  slightly  narrower  than  the  prothoracic  seg- 
ment; dark  brown;  prothoracic  shield  dark  brown,  slightly  paler  than  the  head. 
Body  behind  pale  livid  greenish  flesh-colored ;  no  dorsal  setiferous  warts,  but  on  each 
side  of  each  segment  are  two  dark  warts  of  unequal  size  giving  rise  to  long  hairs; 
below  them  are  two  smaller,  paler,  less  conspicuous  warts.  Supra-anal  plate  large, 
broad,  rounded,  blackish,  with  five  setiferous  warts  around  the  edges  of  the  plate. 
All  the  legs  concolorous  with  the  body.     Length,  12mm. 

Pupa. — Of  the  shape  of  the  Tortricidae,  being  unusually  stout  and  of  a  mahogany 
brown  color.  Abdominal  segments  peculiar  in  having  a  single,  finely  crenulated 
ridge  passing  dorsally  and  laterally  around  the  front  edge  of  the  segment;  there  are 
no  teeth  or  spines,  but  a  rough  surface  on  the  ridge  with  confluent  granulations. 
The  tip  is  peculiar,  the  last  segment  being  conical,  with  a  stout  spine  (cremaster), 
which  is  rounded,  a  little  flattened,  and  ending  in  two  forks,  from  the  sides  and  ends 
of  which  arise  in  all  6  to  8  loug  bristles,  which  stick  into  the  silken  lining  of  the 
rather  slight  cocoon  in  which  it  transforms.     Length,  7mm. 

Moth. — Recognized  by  its  large  size,  broad  square  wings,  and  long  slender  palpi, 
curving  backwards  high  over  the  head.  Head,  thorax,  and  fore  wings  tawny  gray, 
with  a  line  of  fine  dark  scales  on  the  base  of  the  antennae  and  on  the  upper  and  under 
side  of  the  last  joint  of  the  palpi.  Fore  wings  uniform  tawny  gray,  mottled  with 
fine  blackish  scales;  no  distinct  markings  except  a  dark  diffuse  discal  dot.  Fringe 
gray.  Hind  wings  and  abdomen  as  well  as  the  legs  shining  pale  tawny  gray,  much 
lighter  than  the  fore  wings;  beneath  of  the  same  color,  except  that  the  fore  wings 
are  somewhat  dusky  except  on  the  outer  edge  and  outer  half  of  the  costal  margin. 
Expanse  of  wings,  20r 



Litkocolletis  hamadryadella  Clemens. 
Order  Lepidoptera  ;  family  Tineid^e. 

This  miner  makes  a  whitish  blotch-like  mine  upon  the  upper  surface 
of  the  leaves  of  different  oaks.  It  is  a  minute,  flat,  horny,  footless, 
active,  brownish-yellow  larva,  which  transforms  within  the  mine  in  a 
delicate  disk-like  cocoon. 

Several  species  of  oak  are  injured  by  this  leaf-miner,  which  ranges 
from  New  York  to  Washington.  Sometimes  each  leaf  will  contain  on 
an  average  four  or  five  miners,  and  young  shade  trees  are  thus  weak- 


ened  by  their  attacks  iii  .June.  There  arc  in  Washington  five  or  six 
broods  of  moths.  The  best  remedy  is  to  collect  and  burn  the  fallen 
leaves  in  the  spring,  since  they  contain  the  worms  in  their  final  stage 
before  transforming.     (Comstock.) 






Fig.  61. — Oak  leaf,  -with  blotch-mine  of  Lithocolletis  hamadryadella. 

I  have  noticed  the  larva  and  its  mines  in  abundance  at  Providence 
in  September  and  October.    " 
The  following  notes  have  been  furnished  by  Professor  Eiley: 

Received  July  5,  1SS4,  from  X.  H.  Bishop  (Griswold  collection),  Daveuport,  Iowa,  a 
lot  of  leaves  of  different  kinds  of  oak.  badly  infested  with  larva  of  the  above  insect. 
On  some  of  the  large  leaves  the  entire  upper  surface  was  undermined.  The  same  in- 
sect is  also  very  common  on  all  kinds  of  oak  on  the  Agricultural  grounds  at  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.  The  moths  commenced  to  issue  July  12  to  July  IS.  and  at  the  same 
time  quite  a  number  of  four  different  species  of  parasites  issued.     |  Unpublished  notes.) 

The  moth  has  white  front  wings,  with  three  broad  irregular  bronze  bauds  across 
each  one.  each  band  being  bordered  with  black  on  its  inuer  side.  The  hind  wings 
«ry.     The  wings  expand  .2S inch.     (Comstock.) 

219.  LithocoUeti8  tubifertlhi  Clemens. 

The  mine  of  this  insect  is  represented  at  A  in  Fig.  62,  which  has  been 
identified  by  Mr.  W.  Beutenmuller,  who  thinks  that  the  other  mine  (at 
C)  is  the  work  of  a  Nepticula. 






If  M>. 



Fig.  62.— A,  mine  of  Lithocolletis  tubiferella.—BTidgh&m,  del. 

260.  Fitch's  oak-leaf  miner. 

Lithocolletis  fitchella  Clemens. 

Order  Lepidoptera  ;  family  Tixeidje. 

This  species  forms  a  tent-like  mine  on  the  under  surface  of  the  leaves 
of  different  species  of  oaks.  It  is  a  minute,  nearly  cylindrical,  white 
larva.  The  mine  is  visible  on  both  sides  of  the  leaf,  while  that  of 
L.  hamadryadella  is  to  be  seen  only  on  the  upper  side.  The  insect 
hybernates  in  the  pupa  state  within  the  leaves,  so  that  the  same  general 
remedy  of  gathering  and  burning  the  leaves  will  apply  to  this  as  to 
the  preceding  leaf-miner.     (Comstock.) 

This  is  a  very  common  species  on  all  kinds  of  oak  at  Washington, 


I).  C.    Specimens  were  also  received  from  Miss  M.  Murtfeldt,  Kirk- 
wood.  Mo.    (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

ntffl  has  pale  reddish  saffron  fore  wings,  with  a  alight  brassy  hue.    Along  the 
front  t  I    arc  live  silvery-  white  OOfltsJ  streaks:  on  the  inner  margin  are  two 

conspicuous  silvery  ilorsal  streaks,  while  the  hind  wings  are  grayish  fuscous.    (Com- 


281,    Ypsolophus  quercipomonella  Chambers. 

The  following  account  of  this  Tineid  has  been  furnished  us  by  Pro- 
fessor Kiley : 

At  Glenwood,  Mo.,  folding  up  the  leaves  of  the  black  oak  in  little  tubes.  June  2, 
1808,  one  changed  to  chrysalis.  The  chrysalis  is  formed  within  the  leaf,  the  cater- 
pillar first  lining  it  with  a  little  white  silk.  The  first  moth  issued  June  15,  and 
others  up  to  the  22nd.  Zeller  says  it  is  the  same  as  a  variable,  often  lighter  brown 
spotted  species,  which  he  has  often  received  from  Ohio.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Length,  .00  inch.  A  striped  white  and  black  worm  with  a  red-brown 
head  and  cervical  shield.  Considering  the  ground  color  as  white,  there  is  a  black 
dorsal  line  somewhat  restricted  at  the  joints,  and  on  each  side  of  the  dorsum  another 
somewhat  wavy  line,  separated  from  a  lateral  broader  one  only  by  a  fine  white  line. 
Outer  edge  along  stigmata  white,  and  all  underneath  it  black  glaucus.  Piliferous 
spots  above  quite  large  and  black  with  a  white  aunulation,  two  of  them  situated 
in  a  black  wavy  line  and  one  on  lateral  black  line  just  above  stigmata.  Stigmata 
small,  with  a  smaller  piliferous  spot  just  below  it,  and  others  on  venter.  Segment  1 
dark  below  cervical  shield.  Segment  2 darker  than  the  others,  with  a  white  anterior 
edge.  Last  two  segments  almost  entirely  black  above,  being  sharply  separated  from 
anus  and  anal  prolegs,  which  are  of  a  very  light  yellow.  Feet  black.  Abdominal 
prolegs  same  as  venter.     Single  white  bristle  from  each  spot.     (Riley.) 

Pupa. — The  chrysalis  averages  .38  inch  in  length,  with  the  abdomen  comparatively 
narrow  and  small  compared  with  the  width  of  the  anterior  half,  the  extremity  taper- 
ing to  a  single  point ;  of  the  normal  color,  but  characterized  especially  by  having 
about  six  pairs  of  little  elevations  on  the  dorsum,  immediately  behind  the  thorax, 
and  three  others  each  side  of  them  along  the  upper  edge  of  wing-sheaths.  It  is  quite 
active,  and  whirls  its  body  around  at  a  great  rate  when  disturbed.  (Unpublished 

232.  The  oak  sack-bearer. 
a  *       b 

Coleophora,  species  not  determined. 

Order  Lepidoptera;  family  Tixeid.e. 

We  have  found  this  interesting  sack  bearer  on 
oak  leaves  at  Providence,  R.  I.,  June  16.  It  ap- 
parently belongs  to  the  genus  Coleophora,  which 
inhabits  tubular  cases,  either  straight  or  more 
or  less  coiled  at  the  end,  which  the  caterpillar 
fig.  w.-coieophora,  or  oak  drags  about  with  it,  suddenly  withdrawing  in 
sack-bearer,  natural  size:     it  when  fijsrUrbed.     The  little  circular  masses  on 

<i.  side  view.  6,  dorsal  view, 

enlarged.— Gissier.  del.         each  side  of  the  coil  are  the  pellets  of  excrement. 

283.  Odontota  rubra  Web. 
Order  Coleoptera;  family  Chrysomelid^e. 

Professor  Riley  found,  November  4,  1876,  three  larva?  of  this  beetle 
mining  in  the  leaves  of  the  white  oak,  near  River  des  Peres.  (Unpub- 
lished notes.) 


284.  The  leaf-rolling  weevil. 

Attelabus  bipustulatus  Fabr. 

Order  Coleoptera;  family  Curculionid.e. 

Rolling  up  the  leaves  of  the  red,  post,  and  laurel  oak  (Q.  imbricaria),  late  in  April, 
forming  compact,  cylindrical  cases  containing  a  single  egg ;  the  case  dropping  to  the 
ground,  the  larva  after  hatching  feeding  on  the  food  around  it,  and  finally  transform- 
ing into  a  long-snouted  weevil.     A  second  brood  of  larvae  in  July.     (Murtfeldt.) 

This  beetle  has  the  curious  habit  of  rolling  up  a  leaf,  trimming  and 
tucking  in  the  lower  ends  with  her  beak.  The  egg  is  first  deposited  near 
the  tip  of  the  leaf,  and  a  little  to  one  side ;  the  blade  of  the  leaf  is  then 
cut  through  on  both  sides  of  the  midrib,  about  an  inch  and  a  half  be- 
low ;  a  row  of  punctures  is  made  on  each  side  of  the  midrib  of  the  sev- 
ered portion,  which  facilitates  folding  the  leaf  together,  upper  surface 
inside,  after  which  the  folded  leaf  is  tightly  rolled  up  from  the  apex  to 
the  transverse  cut,  bringing  the  egg  in  the  center;  the  concludiug  oper- 
ation is  the  tucking  in  and  trimming  off  the  irregularities  of  the  ends. 
A  few  days  after  completion  the  cases,  first  observed  the  latter  part  of 
April,  drop  to  the  ground;  by  May  15  several  larvae  hatched  and  fed  on 
the  dry  substance  of  their  nest,  and  by  the  end  of  May  they  pupated 
within  the  nest;  this  state  lasted  from  five  to  seven  days,  the  first 
beetles  issuing  by  June  2,  while  a  second  brood  of  larvae  may  be  found 
early  in  July.     (Murtfeldt.) 

"  On  the  leaves  of  the  laurel  oak,  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  are  often  found  in  May  little 
thimble-shaped  cases,  which  are  the  work  of  the  above 
insect.  The  tips  of  the  leaves  are  folded  and  rolled  up 
into  that  peculiar  shape  after  the  egg  has  been  de- 

"  The  egg  is  almost  globular,  slightly  ovoid,  tender, 
pale  yellowish,  and  translucent.    It  is  deposited  near 
the  tip  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaf.    The  leaf  is  then    FlG;  M.-Aiteiabus 
cut  transversely   near  its  middle,   punctured   a  short       smith  dk"'1**'" 
distance  each  side  of  midrib,  which  causes  it  to  fold 
with  its  lower  side  out,  then  curled  round,  and  the  outer  edges  tucked 
in."    (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

The  larva.— Average  dorsal  length,  0.22  inch ;  diameter  on  abdominal  segments,  0.06 
inch,  tapering  anteriorly  from  fourth  segment.  Yellowish  white  ;  thoracic  segments 
slightly  depressed  on  the  back  and  smaller  beneath ;  abdominal  segments  convex 
above  and  flat  beneath,  each  one  divided  into  three  irregular  shallow  transverse  folds, 
lateral  surfaces  with  a  double  row  of  smooth  polished  oval  tubercles,  most  symmetrical 
in  form  and  position  from  segments  4  to  11  inclusive;  above  the  tubercles  on  each 
segment  is  a  deep  depression.  Head  horizontal,  rounded,  small,  about  half  the*  diam- 
eter of  segment  next  behind,  into  which  it  retreats ;  white,  the  mandibles  and  other 
mouth  parts  reddish  brown,  surrounded  by  long  hairs. 


Tin  jiujHi  is  oream  whre,  0.12  inch  long;  abdominal  segments  sharply  ridged;  pos- 
terior extremity  terminate!  in  ■  pair  of  bristly  points,  white,  tipped  with  brown. 

The  both  is  ■  small,  highly  polished  black  weevil,  with  two  large  orange-red  spots 
at  basea  of  the  wing-cover.     (Miss  Murtfeldt.) 

I  have  also  found,  May  30,  on  the  leaves  of  the  oak  near  Providence, 
the  rolls  made  by  the  same  species  of  Attelabus,  apparently,  but  they 
were  slenderer  than  those  of  the  Attelabus  found  upon  the  alder. 

Fig.  65.— Rolls  on  oak  leaf  made  by  Attelabus  bipustulatus. -Gissler  del. 

1  have  also  found  on  the  leaves  of  the  oak  at  the  end  of  May,  near 
Providence,  Cryptorhynchus  bisujnatus  Say.  It  may  prove  to  live  at  the 
expense  of  this  tree. 



284.  Brachys  cvrosa  Melsheimer. 
Order  Coleoptera  ;  family  Buprestid.e. 

I  have  found  this  small  Buprestid  upon  the  leaves  of  the 
oak  early  in  summer  in  Maine,  and  late  in  May  near  Provi- 
dence, R.  I.  It  most  probably  mines  the  leaves  of  the 
oak,  but  its  habits  are  not  yet  known.  The  late  Mr.  V.  T. 
Chambers  ouce  wrote  me  that  he  had  often  found  in  Ken- 
tucky "  a  Brachys  larva  (scarcely,  if  at  all  distinguish- 
able from  that  of  B.  ceruginosa)  mining  the  leaves  of  oaks, 
but  have  never  bred  the  beetle." 

We  introduce  a  cut  of  B.  aeruginosa,  much  enlarged,  to 
illustrate  a  larva  of  this  genus. 

285.  Brachys  ovata  Web. 

Fig.  66.  Larva 
of  Brachys 
ceruginosa. — 

On  laurel  oak;  the  imago  issues  the  latter  part  of  April  and  early 
May.  (Riley's  unpublished  notes.)  Mr.  C.  P.  Gillette  reports  rearing 
the  beetle  from  a  larva  mining  a  leaf  of  either  the  red  or  black  oak. 
(Can.  Ent,  XIX,  139,  1887.) 

286.  Chlamys plicata  Fabr. 

We  have  given  some  account  of  this  pretty  beetle  in  our  "  Guide  to 
the  Study  of  Insects,"  p.  510.  It  was  reared  by  Mr.  S.  H.  Scudder  from 
the  sweet  fern. 

"August  24, 1876,  found  on  Quercus  bicolor  curious  little  coleopterous 

case-bearers.  The  abdomen  of  the  larvae,  as 
far  as  it  can  be  seen,  is  yellow  with  a  trans- 
verse black  patch  on  first  segment  just  be- 
hind the  head.  Head  black ;  legs  long ;  yel- 
low, with  last  joint  black ;  the  case  is  dark- 
brown,  nearly  black,  of  the  shape  of  the 
shell  of  some  kind  of  snail  or  like  a  little 
horn."    ( Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

Fig.  67.—  Chlamys  plicata:  a,  larva 
taken  from  its  case,— From 
Packard ;  Emerton  del. 

287.  Selandria  quercus- alba  Norton. 

A  species  of  slug-worm  like  that  of  the  pear  (S.  cerasi)  has  been 
observed  by  Mr.  Edward  Norton  living  abundantly  on  the  white  oak, 
and  also  in  abundance  on  the  English  oak  (Q.  robur),  at  Farmington, 

"They  feed  in  companies  when  young,  sometimes  twelve  on  a  leaf, 
head  outward,  devouring  the  epidermis  of  the  under  side  of  the  leaf, 
and  not  eating  holes  through.  The  eggs  are  not  laid  in  the  ribs  of  the 
leaf,  but  in  the  smooth  surface  between  the  upper  and  lower  skin  near 
the  tip  of  the  leaf,  where  whitish,  irregular  blotches  are  soon  formed, 
visible  only  beneath,  from  the  center  of  which  the  larva  comes  forth.    I 


have  bred  many  specimens,  coming  forth  in  twelve  or  fourteen  clays." 

i  Norton.) 

J.arvn. — They  are  naked,  slimy  slugs,  like  those  of  S.  eerasi,  22-footed ;  color  palo 
greeil,  at  timet  almost  white,  enlarged  near  head.  Head  white,  the  six  anterior  legs. 
amethystine  brown,  tail  segment  constricted,  rather  sharp.    (Norton.) 

Sun-  Hi/.  —  Male  and  female:  Shining  black,  short  and  compressed ;  antenna'  slightly 
enlarged  in  middle,  third  joint  nearly  as  long  as  fourth  and  fifth  ;  head  polished ; 
lower  ocellus  in  an  oval  basin,  with  three  pits  beneath;  body  wholly  black;  legs 
black,  the  two  anterior  pairs  clear  white  below  the  middle  of  femora  ;  tips  of  their 
tibia-  waxen  :  the  basal  two-thirds  of  posterior  tibia-  and  of  first  tarsal  joint  white; 
tarsi  fuscous,  apical  joint  of  all  the  tarsi  waxen-white;  inner  tooth  of  cl^ws  minute, 
beneath  the  middle.  Wings  hyaline,  iridescent,  nervures  blackish,  first  submarginal 
cell  rounded  at  base.     (Norton.) 

287.  Selaiidria  diluta  Cress. 
Order  Hymenoptera  ;  family  Texthredixidje. 

The  following  account  of  this  saw-fly  has  been  furnished  by  Prof. 
Riley : 

Spring  larva1  feeding  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaves  of  the  post-oak,  often  several 
together  during  the  latter  part  of  May.  Just  previous  to  entering  the  ground  the 
larva  sheds  its  spring  skin;  enters  ground  the  last  of  May  or  early  in  June.  Flies 
emerge  about  the  first  of  May  following.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

Larva. — Length  of  full-grown  larva,  f  inch.  Color,  pale  translucent  green,  pur- 
plish on  dorsum  ;  head,  green,  with  two  large  black  spots  near  the  top,  and  four  mi- 
nute black  dots  below  them,  just  above  the  jaws.  Dorsum  and  sides  quite  thickly 
covered  with  spiny  tubercles,  those  on  dorsum  bifid,  while  the  lateral  ones  are  single. 
Thoracic  legs  yellowish,  prolegs  of  the  same  color  as  the  general  surface.   (Riley.) 

288.  Cecidomyia  q.-pUula  Walsh. 
Order  Diptera  ;  family  Cecidomyiid.e. 

.i  q.pilukr.     After  Riley 

The  following  notes  on  this  Dipterous  gall-fly  have  been  copied  from 
Professor  Riley's  notes.  I  have  found  it  common  on  the  oak  in  Octo- 
ber, at  Providence: 

Found  in  abundance  on  the  laurel-leaved  oak,  the  gall  always  on  the  upper  surface 
with  the  nipple  on  the  under  surface  of  the  leaf  (October  25,  L869).     I  find  in  every 


well-developed  gall  two  larvae,  the  two  cells  sometimes  separated,  but  more  gener- 
ally running  into  one.  The  larva  is  of  the  usual  orange  color,  but  appears  to  be 
somewhat  shorter  and  thicker  than  those  I  have  before  noticed.  Length,  when  not 
crawling,  .14  of  an  inch.  Head  quite  pointed,  and  the  first  few  segments  doubly 
wrinkled.  Two  appendages  at  head,  and  two  brown  spots  near  it  superiorly.  Breast- 
bone brown  and  clove-shaped.     Terminal  segment  with  two  acute  prominences. 

October  29,  1869.  Upon  opening  several  galls  to-day,  I  found  one  which  contained 
four  larvae,  two  in  each  cell. 

January  1,  1870.  Many  of  the  larvae  are  on  top  of  the  ground,  though  most  of  them 
are  yet  in  the  galls.  Some  of  the  galls  have  become  softer,  and  have  peeled  open  ; 
and  it  is  from  these,  I  think,  that  the  larvae  have  escaped. 

April  3.  I  examined  them  to-day  and  find  that,  though  some  of  them  are  empty,  the 
great  majority  of  them  contain  either  pupae  or  larvae.  The  larva  works  and  loosens 
a  passage,  pushing  the  de'bris  to  the  surface.  It  then  lines  its  cell  with  a  delicate 
silken  lining,  and  transforms  to  a  pupa  of  the  exact  color  of  the  larva  ;  the  head  being 
furnished  behind  the  antenna?  with  two  thorns ;  the  wing-sheaths  reaching  to  the 
third  abdominal  joint,  and  the  hind  legs,  which  are  free  from  the  body,  to  the  fifth. 

Many  of  the  galls  contain  a  white  parasitic  maggot  with  a  conspicuous  black  pointed 
head,  divided  longitudinally  with  a  lighter  line  and  with  two  brown  spots  behind  it. 

May  2,  1870.  Many  of  the  flies  have  issued,  but  all  so  far  seem  to  be  females.  The 
antennae  are  14-jointed  (double  jointed  -f-  12)  and  are  scarcely  at  all  verticillate,  and 
only  the  slightest  restriction  on  basal  one;  no  pedicels;  length  of  joints  very  grad- 
ually decreasing  from  3  to  14.  Nervules  of  wings  as  in  true  Cecidomyia.  On  opening 
many  galls  to-day  I  find  most  of  the  larvae  within  cells.  A  great  number  of  parasites 
have  issued  within  the  past  few  days,  and  on  opening  the  galls  I  find  the  perfect  para- 
site within  a  cell  between  two  others  occupied  by  Cecidomyia  larvae.  So  many  of 
the  galls  are  empty,  that  I  greatly  incline  to  believe  some  of  the  larvae  left  them 
and  entered  the  ground,  the  more  so  that  the  pupal  integuments  were  all  on  the 

July  22,  1870.  Larva  just  hatched  and  barely  visible.  Gall  itself  fully  formed  and 
golden  yellow.    (MSS.  notes.     Also  see  Amer.  Ent.,  Vol.  II,  p.  29.) 

289.  Cecidomyia  quercus-majalis  Osten  Sacken. 

Blister-like  gall  of  Cecidomyia  on  young  leaves  of  the  pin-oak 
(  Quercus  jtalastris).  Generally  these  galls  occur  on  the  principal  ribs 
of  the  leaf;  sometimes  between  the  ribs.  They  are  oblong,  blister-like, 
the  hollow  surface  somewhat  uneven,  wrinkled,  walls  thin ;  color  pale 
green  or  reddish.  They  bulge  out  on  one  side  of  the  leaf  and  have  a 
longitudinal  slit  on  the  other.  Galls  projecting  on  the  under  side  of 
the  leaf  and  having  the  slit  on  the  upper  side  seem  to  be  somewhat 
more  common  than  those  of  the  opposite  description.  The  slit  can  be 
opened  without  injuring  the  gall  by  gently  pulling  at  the  sides.  Such 
galls  which  grow  upou  a  rib  show  a  trace  of  it  on  their  longitudinal 
diameter.  The  larva,  which  can  be  taken  out  of  the  slit  without  lacer- 
ating the  gall,  is  rather  larger  than  the  majority  of  the  larvae  of  Ceci- 
domyia (about  0.2  of  an  inch  long),  and  not  reddish,  as  usual,  but  white, 
smooth ;  the  breast-bone  is  hardly  visible,  as  its  front  part  only  is  horny, 
having  the  appearance  of  a  transverse,  reddish-brown  wavy  line."  The 
last  abdominal  segment  has  several  minute,  fleshy,  pointed  projections. 
The  larva  drops  to  the  ground  through  the  slit  at  a  certain  period  of  its 
development;  hence,  empty  galls  are  often  found.     Found  in  consid- 


arable  cambers  in  the  Central  Park,  New  York,  iu  May,  18G9.     (Osten 
Sacken,  Trans.  Amer.  Bnt  Hoc.  iii,  53.) 

<  nri/tlituti  an  udta  (Say).      {Tingi*  avcuata  Say.) 
Order  Hk.miptera;  family  TUffGl m>  i  . 

The  following  notice  of  this  bug  is  eopied  from  Professor  Riley's 
notes : 

Jane 26,  L876,  found  in  Ofallon  Park,  on  1 1 1 «-  under  side  of  leaves  of  white  oak,  the 
eggs,  newly  hatched  larva-,  and  other-  in  various  development,  as  well  as  a 

few  mature  insects.     Eggs  laid  in  patohes,  but  n<»t  sloes  together,  being  net 

ularly  :  they  are  pointed  at  both  ends  and  attached  by  oue  end,  and  are  of  a  dull 
black  color.     (See  also  Liutner,  4th  Rep.  p.  108,  Figs.  42,  43.) 

291.  The  oak-leaf  phylloxera. 
Phylloxera  rileyi  Lichtenstein. 

This  insect  forms  a  yellow  circular  spot  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaf, 
but  showing  plainly  above,  of  the  white  and  post  oak  ;  the  species  is  of 
small  size  and  unusually  slender,  and  with  long  tubercles  in  the  pupa. 
A  full  account  has  been  published  by  Riley  iu  Seventh  Mo.  Kept.,  pp. 

292.  Lachnus  qaercicolens  Ashmead. 

This  plant  louse  was  found  by  Ashmead  early  in  February  in  Florida, 
feeding  on  the  under  surface  of  the  leaves  of  the  live  oak  (Quercus 
virens) ;  winged  specimens,  however,  were  not  taken  until  April 

Wingless  female. — Length,  .05  inch,  ovate;  reddish,  becoming  brown  with  age. 
Vertex  of  head  brown;  beak  reaching  to  the  middle  coxre,  reddish  at  the  base,  yel- 
lowish in  the  middle  and  brown  at  tip  ;  antenme  7-jointed,  reaching  to  the  honey 
tubes,  whitish,  basal  joint  reddish;  joints  annulated  at  tip  with  black;  apical  joint 
short,  black;  honey  tubes  almost  obsolete,  as  wide  as  long,  whitish;  style  hardly 
visible,  whitish,  pubescent,  legs  pubescent,  posterior  pair  dark  brown  or  black,  mid- 
dle and  anterior  pair  reddish-yellow,  feet  infuscated. 

Winged  individual. — Length,  .05  inch.  Same  as  apterous  female,  excepting  that 
the  abdomeu  is  lighter  in  color  ;  the  middle  femora  and  coxa?  dark  brown,  and  wings 
hyaline,  with  the  stigma  and  veins  green.     (Ashmead,  Can.  Ent,  XIII,  155.) 

293.  Phylla})his   niger  Ashmead. 

This  in  some  respects  auomalous  Aphis  was  detected  feeding  on 
a  tender  shoot  of  the  willow  oak  (Quercus  phellos,  variety  laurifoliee). 
No  winged  specimens  were  found.  The  broad  head,  slightly  pubescent 
abdomen,  and  other  characters  exclude  it  from  the  genus  Lachnus. 

Wingless  female. — Length  .05  inch,  ovate  and  of  a  shining  black  color;  head  broad, 
nearly  as  loug  as  wide,  slightly  arcuate  in  front  aud  with  two  longitudinal  depres- 
sions on  the  vertex;:  beak  long,  reaching  beyond  hind  coxa?,  black  at  base,  but  be- 
coming reddish  towards  tip  and  slightly  pubescent,  antenna?  7-joiuted,  situated  very 
widely  apart  and  not  on  tubercles,  brownish  in  color,  with  the  terminal  joint  very 
minute  ;  metathorax  a  broad,  smooth,  shiuiug,  convex  plate;  abdomeu  wider  than 
long,  and  sides  flattened  to  honey  tubes,  slightly  pubescent :  honey  tubes  black,  almost 
obsolete,  as  wide  as  long;  style  not  visible,  anus  pubescent;  legs  dark  brown,  ap- 
proaching black,  pubescent,  posterior  pair  long.     (Ashmead.) 

PLANT-LICE    OF    THE    OAK.  209 

294.  Drepanosiphum  f  quercifolU  (Walsh). 

Larva. — Pale  greenish.  Incisures  of  the  antennae  dusky.  Upper  surface  of  the 
body,  except  the  scutel,  dusky ;  houey  tubes  long,  robust,  dusky  at  tip  ;  legs  long, 
with  the  terminal  three-fourths  of  the  femora,  the  extreme  tips  of  the  tibiae,  and  the 
tarsi  obfuscated. 

Imago — Blackish ;  prothorax  and  anterior  part  of  the  thorax  sometimes  varied  with 
greenish ;  scutellnm  pale  greenish ;  houey  tubes  two-thirds  as  long  as  the  femora. 
Legs  very  long  ;  basal  half  of  femora  pale  greenish.  Wings  hyaline  ;  veius  brown;  third 
discoidal  vein  hyaline  at  its  origin  ;  stigma  and  subcostal  veins  pale  yellowish 
brown ;  extreme  tip  of  the  front  wings  slightly  fumose  ;  length  of  the  wings  scarcely 
.2  inch.  "The  anten  lae  attain  the  extreme  tips  of  the  wings  when  the  wings  are  ex- 
panded, and  the  stigma  is  four  times  as  long  as  wide  and  very  acute  at  each  end. 
On  oak  leaves."     (Thomas.) 

Although  it  is  impossible  to  state  positively  from  this  description  the 
genus  to  which  this  species  belongs,  yet  I  think  it  is  almost  certain  that 
it  should  be  placed  in  the  genus  to  which  I  have  assigned  it.  It  is 
certainly  not  an  Aphis,  in  the  restricted  sense,  and  the  plant  it  infests 
would  indicate  that  it  is  not  a  Siphonophora.    (Thomas,  Third  Keport.) 

293.  Myzocallis  bella  (Walsh). 

"Aphis  bella.— Oak  leaves?  Bright  yellow,  eyes  black;  antennae  with  the  tips  of 
joints  3  to  6  black.  Prothorax  as  long  as  the  head,  with  a  lateral  black  vitta ;  thorax 
with  a  black  vitta  extending  from  its  anterior  angle  to  the  base  of  the  front  wing. 
Honey  tubes  scarcely  as  long  as  the  tarsi,  generally  immaculate,  sometimes  tinged 
with  fuscous.  Legs  long,  black  except  the  base  of  the  femora  and  the  coxae.  Wings 
hyaline ;  front  wings  with  the  entire  costa  as  well  as  its  nervures  black  to  the  tip  of 
the  stigmas,  whence  there  extends  a  marginal  dusky  vitta,  as  wide  as  the  costa  at 
base  and  middle  but  tapering  at  tip,  nearly  as  far  as  the  middle  branch  of  the  third 
discoidal  vein ;  this  vitta  covers  the  entire  length  of  the  fourth  or  stigmatal  vein, 
which  terminates  half  way  between  the  tip  of  the  stigma  and  the  apex  of  the  wing, 
is  slightly  and  gradually  curved,  and  incloses  a  marginal  cell  not  wider  thau  the 
costa;  hind  wings  with  a  costal  dusky  vitta  extending  to  the  tip  of  the  wing,  the 
subcostal  vein  sometimes  black ;  remaining  veins  of  both  wings  slender  and  pale 
dusky,  narrowly  bordered  with  subhyaline  where  they  traverse  the  terminal  dusky 
vitta  of  the  front  wing.     Length  to  tip  of  wings  .15  inch. 

"The  antennae  attain  the  middle  of  the  stigma  when  the  wings  are  expanded, 
and  the  stigma  is  rather  more  than  three  times  as  long  as  wide,  not  very  acute  at 
each  end."     (Walsh.) 

"  The  22d  of  May,  1878,  I  discovered,  at  Carbondale,  Ills.,  on  the 
leaves  of  the  burr  oak  (Quercus  macrocarpa),  plant  lice,  which  I  am 
inclined  to  believe  belong  to  the  species  just  described.  In  order  that 
the  reader  may  be  in  possession  of  all  the  facts  concerning  the  species, 
I  add  here  a  description  of  these  specimens  : 

"  Winged  individuals  (the  only  kind  seen). — Rather  slender,  of  medium  size;  the 
body  and  all  the  parts  except  the  wings  a  pretty  creamy  yellow  color ;  the  wings  thin 
but  clouded  with  fuscous,  which  is  very  distinct  in  the  living  insect,  while  the  wings 
stand  erect  above  the  abdomen  ;  these  fuscous  or  cloudy  spots  appear  to  fall  chiefly 
into  two  irregular  oblique  bands,  one  rather  in  advance  of,  and  the  other  behind  the 
stigma,  but  when  a  single  wing  is  examined  this  arrangement  will  scarcely  be 
observed.  Costal  and  subcostal  veins  of  the  front  wings  close  together,  and  parallel 
throughout ;  second  discoidal  vein  decidedly  sinuate  and  much  nearer  to  the  third 
5  ENT 14 


than  to  the  first  :  third  obsolete  at  the  immediate  base,  curving  somewhat  strongly 
outward  as  it  approaches  the  origin  of  the  drat  fork;  second  fork  rather  nearer  to  the 
apt\  of  the  wing  than  to  the  third  vein,  but  difference  slight;  fourth  vein  very 
sharply  curved  throughout,  so  that  its  middle  portion  approaches  much  nearer  the 
ftnt  fork  than  its  ends.  Antenna-  longer  than  the  body,  slender:  third  joint  longest  ; 
fourth  a  little  shorter  than  the  third;  fifth  a  little  shorter  than  the  fourth;  sixth 
about  half  the  length  of  the  fifth  or  less;  seventh,  in  the  only  complete  antenna* 
obtained,  about  as  long  as  the  fifth. 

"  Ou  most  of  the  specimens  I  was  unable  to  observe  aiiy  honey-tubes  ; 
but  in  one  specimen  found  on  the  same  leaves,  and  which  appears  to 
belong  to  this  species,  these  were  apparent  but  very  short,  their  length 
scarcely  exceeding  their  diameter.  This  specimen  was  of  the  same 
delicate  yellowish  color,  but  the  wings  were  perfectly  pellucid.  It  is 
impossible  to  decide  in  reference  to  the  honey-tubes  from  the  mounted 
specimens,  which  are  imperfect.  On  one  of  these  specimens  I  found  a 
species  of  mite  fastened  to  the  metathorax  or  base  of  the  abdomen,  so 
us  not  to  interfere  with  the  flight  of  the  Aphis.  It  is  probably  a  species 
of  Trombidium,  but  as  it  is  evidently  in  its  larval  state  it  is  difficult  to 
assign  it  to  its  proper  position.  It  is  probably  the  young  of  Dr. 
Packard's  T.  bulbipes,  but  it  differs  from  that  species  in  not  having  the 
tarsi  enlarged.  It  also  has  the  tarsi  furnished  with  two  strongly 
curved  claws.  It  is  possible  that  this  is  Dr.  Fitch's  Lachnus  quercifolicc, 
but  it  is  impossible  to  identify  the  two  from  bis  very  brief  description. 
It  approaches  very  nearly  to  Aphis  quercus  Kalt.,  which  Koch  has 
placed  in  CaUipterus,  and  I  would  have  identified  it  with  that  species 
but  for  the  clouded  wings.  It  will  fall  in  Myzocallis  as  I  have  given 
the  characters  of  that  genus,  and  is  probably  a  variety  of  the  species 
under  which  I  place  it."     (Thomas.) 

296.   CaUipterus  discolor  Monell. 

Prof.  Riley  found,  November  12,  1884,  at  Washington,  D.  C,  on  the 
lower  side  of  leaves  of  Q.prinus,  numerous  specimens  of  the  apterous 
oviparous  females,  larva1,  and  the  winged  males  of  the  above  species. 

The  male  is  of  a  more  or  less  dark  rose  color,  though  the  fourth,  fifth  and  last 
abdominal  segmeuts  are  yellowish,  with  a  roseate  tinge  at  sides.  Head  black.  Ocelli 
clear,  colorless.  Eyes  red.  Antennal  joints  3  and  4  whitish  with  blackish  tips,  the 
others  black.  Thorax  black.  There  are  two  roseate  stripes  on  prothorax  and  the 
sides  of  the  mesothorax  at  insertion  of  the  wings  are  dusky.  There  are  two  dorsal 
rows  of  black  spots  on  the  abdomen,  of  which  the  pair  in  front  of  the  nectaries  is  con- 
fluent. A  row  of  large,  black,  roundish,  lateral  spots  and  some  smaller  ones  of  differ- 
ent sizes  between  these  and  the  dorsal  rows.  There  is  also  a  narrow,  transverse  baud 
on  the  eighth  segment.  Nectaries  short,  black.  Claspers  blackish.  Legs  colorless, 
the  tarsi  pale  dusky.  Sternum  black.  Ou  the  venter  are  some  large,  transverse,  and 
some  smaller  black  spots.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

'JD7.   CaUipterus  puuetatus  Monell. 

Professor  Riley  found,  May  19, 1S83,  at  Washington,  D.  C,  numerous 
specimens  on  the  lower  side  of  leaves  of  Q.  prinus  of  an  Aphid  which 

PLANT-LICE    OF    THE    OAK.  211 

agrees  with  the  above  species.    There  were  many  winged  specimens 
which  already  had  deposited  numbers  of  larvae.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

298.  Callipterus  quercifolii  Thomas. 

Winged  specimen. — Antennae  Dearly  as  long  as  the  body,  seven  jointed;  first  joint 
quite  large  and  very  prominent,  nearly  twice  the  length  and  twice  the  diameter  of 
the  second  joint,  which  is  rather  small,  and  of  the  usual  suborbicular  form ;  the 
third  joint  longest,  but  it  exceeds  the  fourth  very  little,  fifth  very  little  shorter  than 
the  fourth  ;  sixth  not  more  than  one-third  the  length  of  the  fifth  ;  seventh  a  little 
shorter  than  the  sixth. 

The  wings  as  usual ;  third  discoidal  vein  of  the  front  pair  twice- forked ;  the  hind 
pair  with  two  discoidal  or  branch  veins ;  all  the  veins  and  branches  are  bordered 
with  dark  brown,  giving  them  the  appearance,  when  seen  through  a  pocket  magni- 
fier, of  broad  black  veins ;  the  bordering  does  not  expand  at  the  tops  of  the  veins, 
but  retains  its  uniform  width  throughout.  Stigma  opaque,  brown,  with  a  posterior 
bordering  of  brown,  fusiform  in  shape^being  very  acutely  pointed  at  the  apex,  with 
no  internal  angle  at  the  point  where  the  fourth  vein  arises. 

Costal  vein  very  distinct,  and  rather  prominent,  it  and  the  subcostal  vein  are 
remarkably  parallel,  the  distance  apart  scarcely  varying  in  the  smallest  degree  from 
the  base  to  the  stigma.  Distance  between  the  insertion  of  the  first  and  second,  and 
second  and  third  veins  about  equal;  the  second  fork  about  equally  distant  from  the 
apex  and  first  fork.  Fourth  vein  nearly  straight  at  its  base,  curving  regularly  but 
not  sharply  towards  its  apex,  runs  very  nearly  with  the  first  fork  of  the  third  vein. 

The  front  of  the  mesothorax  distinctly  broader  than  the  prothorax,  the  offset  form- 
ing a  distinct  shoulder,  the  abdomen  terminating  suddenly  and  bluntly  ;  no  tail  ap- 
parent. Honey-tubes  very  short  and  thick,  slightly  enlarged  at  the  base,  the  length 
greater  than  but  not  twice  the  diameter. 

When  seen  through  a  pocket  lens,  these  (alcoholic)  specimens  appear  dark  brown  ; 
the  antennae  annulated  alternately  with  dark  brown,  or  fuscous  and  white;  the  legs 
brownish  or  dusky  with  the  base  of  the  femora  and  tips  of  the  tibiae  pale ;  the  wings 
transparent  with  the  broad  dark  brown  or  fuscous  veins  previously  described.  The 
body  dark  brown  except  the  tip  of  the  abdomen,  which  is  pale  and  shows  traces  of 
transverse  dark  bands.     (Thomas.) 

Wingless  specimen. — Somewhat  regularly  ovate,  but  subtruncate  at  the  posterior 
extremity,  or,  at  least,  rounded  very  suddenly  and  bluntly  to  the  tip.  Antennas  not 
quite  as  long  as  the  body,  showing  the  light  and  dark  annulatious  very  distinctly. 
Eyes  of  this  as  well  as  the  winged  specimens  reddish-brown.  The  ground  color  of 
thevbody  of  the  alcoholic  specimens  is  a  pale,  dirty  yellow,  but  the  dorsal  surface  is 
chiefly  occupied  by  broad  transverse  brown  or  fuscous  bands  which  extend  to  the 
somewhat  broad,  depressed  portion  of  the  lateral  margins;  there  is  one  band  on  each 
segment;  a  pale  line  runs  along  the  middle  of  the  back  from  the  head  to  the  tail. 
Legs  as  in  the  winged  specimens.  Scattered  over  the  body  are  stiff,  spine  like  black 
hairs;  it  is  also  more  or  less  covered  with  small  tubercles.  Honey-tubes  as  in  the 
winged  specimens — pale  yellow. 

Length  of  winged  specimen  to  the  tip  of  the  abdomen  (which  is  somewhat  shrunken), 
.06  inch;  to  the  tip  of  the  wings,  .15  inch. 

Professor  Bundy,  of  Sauk  City,  Wis.,  from  whom  the  specimens  were 
received,  makes  the  following  statement  in  reference  to  them: 

Abdomen  of  the  female  light  green  below  ;  black  above,  with  four  greenish  spots; 
honey-tubes  and  tip  of  the  abdomen  white ;  head  aud  thorax  black,  shining-above. 
Eyes  black:  antennae  light,  banded  with  black  ;  wings  with  widened  veins  and  tinged 
with  purple  (reflection). 

On  red  oak  (Quercus  rubra)  leaves  in  June,  Sauk  City,  Wis.  On  both  sides  of  the 
leaves,  along  the  veins.     Leaves  becoming  viscid  from  their  secretions. 


This  is  evidently  distinct  from  the  CaUipterus  querent  of  Kaltenbach, 

which  is  of  a  pale  ocher  color  throughout  and  nearly  smooth,  and  has 
the  veins  of  the  wings  unmargined.  It  approaches  somewhat  closely 
to  C.  juglandii  Fisch.,  which  is  found  on  walnut.  In  that  species  the 
markings  of  the  abdomen  are  almost  exacth  as  in  this,  but  the  abdomen 
is  much  more  drawn  out  and  tapering;  it  is  more  than  probable,  how- 
ever, that  the  shrinkage  caused  by  the  alcohol  has  caused  this  to  pre- 
sent the  blunt  appearance.     (Thomas.) 

299.  The  "oak  blight,"  or  wooly  Arms  or  the  oak. 
Schhoneura  querei  Fitch. 

This  species  is  found  in  the  northern  part  of  Illinois  upon  oak  limbs. 
Fitch  says  it  is  very  similar  to  another  species  found  on  the  bass  wood. 

The  winged  individuals  are  hlack  throughout,  slightly  dusted  over  with  an  ash- 
gray  powder. 

The  tore  wings  are  clear  and  transparent ;  the  stigma  is  dusky,  the  rib-veins  black, 
and  the  third  discoidal  vein  with  the  basal  portion  abortive  nearly  or  quite  to  the 
fork.  The  length  to  the  tip  of  the  wings  is  (0.1G)  a  little  over  one-eighth  of  an  inch. 

300.   CaUipterus  (?)  quercicola  Thomas. 

Winged  form.—  Antenna?  about  half  as  long  as  the  body;  not  mounted  on  frontal 
tubercles;  remote  at  base:  third,  fourth,  and  fifth  joints  equal  in  length;  transition 
from  the  sixth  to  the  seventh  joint  exceedingly  gradual;  seventh  joint  about  half  as 
long  as  the  preceding.  Rostrum  short,  not  reaching  the  second  coxa? :  apical  join  t  very 
acute.  Nectaries  reduced  to  mere  openings.  Style  none.  Wings  with  the  veins  bor- 
dered with  brown.  Stigma  rather  short,  and  blunt  at  apex,  the  cubital  vein  arisiug 
from  its  base.  Stigmatal  vein  not  so  much  curved  as  usual  in  this  genus:  not  hyaline  : 
distance  between  the  base  of  the  cubitus  and  that  of  the  stigmatal  vein  equa'  to  the 
distance  between  the  furcals,  and  less  than  the  distance  between  the  base  of  the 
cubitus  and  that  of  the  second  discoidal.  Second  discoidal  not  sinuous.  Body  rather 
elongate.     Length,  1.77mm;  to  tip  of  wings,  2.79mm. 

It  is  with  considerable  doubt  that  I  place  this  species  in  the  genus 
CaUipterus.  It  is  very  probable  that  it  should  be  placed  under  Asiph  um  : 
but  the  only  description  of  this  genus  which  has  been  published  is  that 
given  by  Koch,  and,  like  the  other  generic  descriptions  which  were 
made  from  memory,  after  the  loss  of  his  eye-sight,  is  somewhat  unsat- 
isfactory. The  following  is  a  translation  of  the  salient  points  in  his 
description : 

A8iphum  Koch. — Beak  short.  Antenua^  rather  short:  the  tlird,  fourth,  and  fifth 
joints  subequal ;  the  apical  joint  very  small,  scarcely  perceptible. 

Of  this  interesting  species  I  have  only  seen  two  winged  specimens, 
mounted  on  a  slide,  which  were  communicated  by  a  correspondent  with 
the  information  that  they  occurred  at  St.  Louis,  on  oak.     (Thomas.) 

301.  Chaitophorus  quereicola  Thomas. 

Apterous  individuals. — Dorsum  greenish,  with  four  rows  of  short  tubercles,  all  of 
which,  except  a  few  in  the  side  rows,  are  black:  their  apical  circumference  with 
from  three  to  five   bristles:  the  two  middle  rows  of   tubercles  stop   at  the  head, 

THE    OAK    GALL-MITE.  213 

but  the  two  lateral  rows  are  continued  by  smaller  tubercles  until  near  tbe  base  of 
the  labruni.  Rostrum  reaching  the  second  coxae.  Nectaries  yellow,  about  as  long 
as  the  tarsi,  slightly  enlarged  at  base,  the  mouth  conspicuously  flaring.  Style  not 

Winged  individuals. — Antennae  very  slightly  pilose ;  fourth  joint  subequal  to  the 
fifth  and  two-thirds  as  long  as  the  third  joint ;  sixth  about  half  as  long  as  the  pre- 
ceding, and  very  little  longer  than  the  seventh  wings,  with  the  stigma  and  veins 
much  as  in  Ch.  populicola,  the  veins  lying  in  narrow  dusky  bands.  Length  of  apter- 
ous individuals  1.52-2.02  mm. ;  length  of  wing  2.54  mm. 

On  the  under  side  of  the  leaf  near  the  midrib.  Quercus  prinus  May  to  June, 
Peoria,  111. 

Of  this  interesting  species  I  have  seen  a  number  of  apterous  indi- 
viduals, but  only  a  single  winged  specimen,  which  was  mounted  on  a 
slide,  kindly  communicated  by  Miss  E.  A.  Smith,  of  Peoria,  111.  The 
dorsum  of  the  winged  individual  is  probably  not  tubercular,  but  this 
cau  not  be  decided  with  certainty  on  account  of  the  manner  in  which 
the  specimen  is  mounted. 

Though  the  antennae  of  this  species  are  not  sufficiently  pilose  to  jus- 
tify its  being  placed  in  Chaitopliorus,  its  general  appearance  seems  to 
point  to  this  as  its  rightful  position.     (Thomas). 

302.  Chaitophorus  spinosus  Oestlund. 

Mr.  Oestlund  has  found  this  aphid  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaves  of 
the  oak,  confining  itself  to  the  higher  parts  of  the  tree. 

Wingless  oviparous  female. — Head  subquadrate  in  outline,  straight  in  front,  pale  red 
or  orange  colored,  with  blackish  spines  in  front  and  above  like  those  on  the  abdo- 
men. Antennae  very  remote  at  base,  about  one  half  the  length  of  the  body  ;  joints 
1  and  2  as  usual,  3  longest,  4  a  little  shorter,  5  a  little  shorter  than  4,  6  hardly  one- 
half  of  5,  7  not  longer  than  6  or  shorter,  basal  joints  pale,  apical  black,  with  long 
white  hairs  as  usual  in  this  genus.  Eyes  large  and  round,  with  a  distinct  tubercle ; 
the  facets  are  reddish-brown,  the  space  between  them  whitish,  giving  the  eye  the 
appearance  of  a  ripe  raspberry  just  picked  with  the  bloom  still  on  ;  no  ocelli  in  this 
form.  Beak  not  more  than  reaching  second  coxae,  stout  and  hairy,  pale  except  at  tip ; 
second  joint  widest.  Abdomen  widest  in  the  middle,  tapering  into  a  very  long  ovi_ 
positor  behind,  strongly  convex  above.  Color  pale  yellow  ;  last  segments  sometimes 
reddish  as  the  head  ;  above  with  grass-green  markings,  generally  in  the  shape  of  a 
ring,  leaving  a  large  irregular  white-like  patch  in  the  middle  of  the  same  color  as 
theabdomen.  Honey-tubes  short  and  thick.  Style  short  and  thick.  Length2  to  3mn\ 
(Oestlund's  Synopsis  of  the  Aphididae  of  Minnesota). 

303.  Burr-oak  gall  mite. 

Phytoptus  querci  Garman. 

Class  Arachnida  ;  order  Acarina. 

Produces  galls  on  the  leaves  of  the  burr-oak,  Quercus  macrocarpa 

The  mite  is  long  and  slender,  and  in  a  specimen  seen  among  washings  from  a  ceci- 
dium,  there  appeared  to  be  an  abrupt  descent  in  the  outline  of  the  back  from  the 
abdomen  to  the  cephalothorax.    Length  .005  inch. 


The  gall  is  large,  greenish-yrllow.  entirely  open  In-low  and  slightly  convex  above. 
The  hollow  is  densely  tilled  with  brown  pubescence.  The  form  is  variable  but  the  out- 
line usually  regular.  The  surface  is  smooth,  or  slightly  roughened  by  the  reinlete. 
Some  of  these  galls  grow  downward  instead  of  upward  and  form  brown  velvety  buttons 
on  the  under  side  of  the  leaves.  specimens  measured  were  from  .1  inch  to  .4  inch  in 
diameter.  Thirty  galls  have  been  counted  on  one  leaf.  This  is  a  common  gall  in 
northern  Illinois  and  Indiana,  and  has  been  found  occasionally  in  central  part  of 
Illinois.     ^H.  Garman  in  Forbes  1st  Sep.  Ius.  Illinois.) 

The  following  uotes  have  been  supplied  by  Professor  Riley: 

Found  August  9,  1878,  on  the  upper  side  of  the  leaves  of  chestnut  oak  large  irregu- 
lar swellings  which  on  the  under  side  are  entirely  open  and  closely  covered  with 
fine  brownish  hairs.  Upon  examination  quite  a  number  of  white  mites  were  observed 
actively  running  about  in  these  hairy  depressions. 

Some  oak  leaves  were  received  from  H.  G.  Hubbard.  Crescent  City,  Fla.,  upon 
which  were  the  blister  like  gall  of  some  mite.  Some  of  these  galls  are  round,  while 
others  are  irregularly  oval,  swelling  on  upper  side  of  leaf — deeply  depressed  or  con- 
cave beneath  the  concavity  filled  with  long  pink-colored  hairs.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

304.   Thk  post  oak  locust. 
Dendroteitix  quercus.     Riley  MS. 

The  following  account  of  this  locust  is  taken  bodily  from  Lawrence 
Bruner's  report  on  locusts  in  Texas  during  the  spring  of  1886,  Bull, 
^o.  13,  Div.  of  Entomology,  Dept.  of  Agr.,  1887,  p.  17-19: 

In  addition  to  the  several  species  of  locust  that  have  been  mentioned  in  the  pre- 
ceding pages,  last  summer  for  the  first  time  another  species  of  locust  was  noticed  in 
vast  numbers  among  the  post-oak  timber  lying  between  the  towns  of  Washington 
and  Brenham,  in  Washington  County.  These  were  so  numerous  in  one  locality  that 
they  completely  defoliated  the  trees  of  the  forest,  even  to  the  very  topmost  twigs.  The 
region  occupied  by  this  insect,  although  not  over  a  mile  and  a  half  in  width  by  7  or 
8  miles  in  length,  is  sufficiently  large  for  the  propagation  of  swarms  capable  of  devas- 
tating a  much  larger  area  during  the  present  spring  and  summer,  and  by  auother 
year  to  spread  over  several  of  the  adjoining  counties. 

Although  there  is  at  present  no  apparent  injury  to  the  trees  thus  defoliated  last 
year,  and  now  in  progress  again  this  year,  there  can  be  no  question  as  to  the  final 
result  if  these  attacks  are  continued  for  several  years  longer.  The  trees  will  event- 
ually die.  While  up  to  the  present  time  this  locust  has  shown  a  decided  arboreal 
habit,  it  may,  and  undoubtedly  will  be,  obliged  to  seek  food  in  the  adjoining  fields 
when  compelled  to  do  so  through  lack  of  its  present  diet,  which  is  rapidly  disappear- 
ing before  the  hungry  myriads  of  young  locusts. 

Notwithstanding  the  great  numbers  of  the  foregoing  described  species  which 
together  have  combined  in  injuring  the  cottou  and  corn  crops  throughout  thifl  and 
adjoining  counties,  it  is  my  opinion  that  the  present  species  is  more  to  be  feared  in 
the  future  than  they,  on  account  of  its  arboreal  nature  aud  the  difficulty  of  getting 
at  it  in  order  to  destroy  it.  To  kill  these  locusts  either  while  feeding  among  the  foliage 
or  "  roosting'"  upon  the  topmost  boughs  of  the  tall  trees  would  be  next  to  impossible. 
Ou  the  other  hand,  the  other  species  are  easily  to  be  gottou  at  and  destroyed,  as  just 

The  habits  of  this  locust,  as  nearly  as  I  was  able  to  learn  through  inquiry  from 
others,  and  by  personal  observation,  are  briedy  as  follows: 

The  egg-pods  are  deposited  in  the  ground  about  the  bases  of  trees  or  indifferently 
scattered  about  the  surface  among  the  decaying  leaves,  etc..  like  those  of  all  other 


gronnd-laying  species.  The  young  commence  hatching  about  the  middle  of  March, 
and  continue  to  appear  until  into  April.  After  molting  the  first  time  and  becoming 
a  little  hardened  they  immediately  climb  up  the  trunks  of  the  trees  and  bushes  of  all 
kinds  and  commence  feeding  upon  the  new  and  tender  foliage.  They  molt  at  least 
five  or  six  times,  if  we  may  take  the  variation  in  size  and  difference  in  the  develop- 
ment of  the  rudiments  of  wings  as  a  criterion.  The  imago  or  mature  stage  is  reached 
by  the  last  of  May  or  during  the  first  part  of  June. 

The  species  is  very  active  and  shy  in  all  its  stages  of  growth  after  leaving  the  egg. 
The  larva  and  pupa  run  up  the  trunks  and  along  the  limbs  of  trees  with  considerable 
speed,  and  in  this  respect  differ  considerably  from  all  other  species  of  locusts  with 
which  lam  acquainted.  I  am  informed  that  the  mature  insects  are  also  equally  wild 
and  fly  like  birds.  They  feed  both  by  day  and  night ;  and  I  am  told  by  those  who 
have  passed  through  the  woods  after  night  when  all  else  was  quiet,  that  the  noise 
produced  by  the  grinding  of  their  jaws  was  not  unlike  the  greedy  feeding  of  swine. 

Aside  from  its  arboreal  nature  there  is  but  a  single  instance  mentioned  of  its  prefer- 
ence for  growing  crops.  This  was  a  small  field  of  either  cotton  or  corn,  or  perhaps 
both.  If  the  nature  of  the  crop  was  told  me  at  the  time  I  have  forgotten.  At  any 
rate  the  crop  of  one  or  the  othei  of  these  two  staples  grew  in  a  small  clearing  in  the 
very  midst  of  the  most  thickly  visited  area.  The  mature  insects  alone  were  the 
offenders  in  this  instance.  During  the  day-time  they  would  leave  the  trees  in  swarms 
and  alight  upon  the  growing  crop  and  feed  until  evening,  when  they  would  return  to 
the  trees.  If  during  the  day  they  were  disturbed,  they  immediately  took  wing  and 
left  for  the  tops  of  the  surrounding  trees,  to  return  shortly  afterwards. 

The  exact  classification  of  this  locust  has  not  yet  been  fully  ascertained,  since  no 
mature  specimens  were  to  be  obtained,  or,  to  my  knowledge,  are  contained  in  any  of 
our  American  collections.  The  larvae  and  pupae  collected,  however,  would  indicate  a 
relationship  to  both  the  genera  Melanoplus  and  Acridium.  It  appears  to  be  congeneric 
with  an  undescribed  short- winged  form,  thus  far  only  taken  in  Missouri,  which  lives 
among  and  feeds  upon  the  oaks  only  of  that  region.  The  present  species  is  also 
evidently  undescribed,  unless  the  mature  insect  should  differ  widely  from  the  prepar- 
atory stages  herewith  presented.  It  is  popularly  known  in  that  region  as  the  "  Red- 
legged  hopper"  of  the  post  oaks. 

The  larvae  and  pupae  are  of  rather  bright  color,  giving  them  a  gaudy  appearance. 
The  ground  color  of  the  body  is  dark  wood  brown  deepening  into  black  along  the 
sides  of  the  pronotum  and  the  apex  of  the  posterior  femora.  The  head  for  the  most 
part  is  of  a  bright  lemon  yellow,  while  the  pronotum  is  of  the  same,  varied  by  streaks 
and  blotches  of  the  brown.  The  antennae  and  posterior  femora  are  red  internally, 
•dimly  banded  with  yellow  and  brown  on  the  external  face,  through  which  the  red 
color  of  the  inner  side  can  be  plainly  seen.  The  feet  and  tarsi  are  also  dark.  The 
pupae  average  almost  an  inch  in  length  and  are  rather  robust  in  form,  with  short* 
broad  heads  and  powerful  jaws. 


305.  The  acorn  worm. 

Balaninus  rectus  Say. 

Order  Coleoptera;  family  Curculionid.e. 

The  grub  is  like  the  chestnut  borer,  boring  into  the  acorns  and  trans- 
forming into  a  similar  beetle,  which  is  "  easily  distinguished  fro'm  B. 
nasicus  by  the  finer,  more  rectilinear  rostrum,  and  it  always  differs 
from  B.  nasicus  in  having  no  bands  or  vitta;  the  elytra  being  uniformly 


spotted,  as  in  tparsu*  Schoen.     This  is  the  species  I  breed  from  acorns, 

and  I  believe  it  also  infests  hazel  nuts."     (Itiley.) 

Mr.  F.  Blanchard  states  that  Dr.  G.  M.  Le- 
vette  has  bred  this  weevil  from  acorns  gathered 
in  Bummer,  and  brought  from  Arizona.  (Bull. 
Brooklyn  Ent.  Boo.,  vii,  107.) 

I;<( tic— First  joint  of  antenna  longer  than  second; 
metasternnm  of  male  with  a  small,  rounded,  condensed 

patch   of  yellow  scales  each  side  of   the  median  line. 
Femoral  tooth  small,  the  enteringangle  rounded. 

906.   Halaninus  nasicus  Sav. 

Fu;.  69.— Acorn    weevil.   Balani 
n«*  rectus. — After  liiley. 

Professor  Riley  received  from  H.  K.  Morri- 
son, Fort  Grant,  Ariz.,  July  26,  1882,  a  lot  of 
acorns  of  Q.  grisea  infested  by  larva?  of  the  above  insect,  each  contain- 
ing apparently  only  one  larva.  The  larva?  left  the  acorns  as  soon  as  re- 
ceived and  entered  the  ground.  They  are  yellow,  head  reddish  brown, 
mandibles  dark  brown.  The  beetles  issued  from  April  28  to  May  21, 
1883.     (Unpublished  notes.) 

307.  The  acokx  moth. 

Holcocera  glandultUa  Riley. 

Order  Lepidopteka  ;  family  Tineid^e. 

The  larva  occupies  the  deserted  holes  of  the  acorn  weevil.  The 
imago  is  a  narrow-winged  moth  which  drops  an  egg  in  the  hole,  from 
which  hatches  a  slender  grayish  white  or  yellowish  worm  with  16  legs 
and  blue-black  dorsal  marks,  with  a  light  brown  conical  shield  and 
dusky  anal  plate. 

Moth.—  With  silvery-gray  fore  wiugs,  marked  with  dull  reddish  ;  two  distinct  dark 
discal  spots  ;  a  pale  transverse  stripe  across  the  hasal  third  of  wing,  slightly  hent 
inwards  at  the  middle;  this  stripe  is  well  relieved  behind  by  a  dark  shade,  which 

Fig.  70. — Acorn  m  >th  (f.);  o,  b,  acorns  containing  the 
worm  ;  c.  front  end  of  the  worm ;  d  and  e,  side  and  top 
view  of  a  segment. — After  Riley. 

generally  extends  from  the  bend  to  the  costa  above  the  discal  spots,  forming  a  more 
K  distinct  triangular  shade  in  the  anterior  middle  portion  of  the  wing.     Hind 
wings  brownish  gray.     Expanse  of  wings,  0.50-0.80  inch.     (Riley.) 


The  following  species  of  insects  either  habitually  or  occasionally  oc- 
cur on  the  oak. 



308.  Basilarchia  astyanax  (FabrJ. 

309.  Basilarchia  arehippus  (Cramer). 

310.  Papilio  turnus  Linn.    Larva  found  on  the  oak  in  Maine,  August  18. 

See,  also,  Scudder,  Can.  Ent.,  i,  74. 

311.  Papilio  glaucus  Linn.     (Scudder). 

312.  Thecla  calanus  (Hlibner).     See  hickory  insects. 

313.  Thecla  liparops.     (Scudder). 

314.  Thecla  strigosa  Harris.     (Coquillet  in  litt.),  (Scudder). 

315.  Thanaos  brizo  Boisd.  and  Lee. 


316.  Smerinthus  exececatus  (Abb.  and  Sm.).    Feeds  on  the  oak  (Riley's 

unpublished  notes).     See  elm  and  willow  insects. 

317.  Daremma  undulosa  Walker.     Occasionally  feeds  on  the  white  and 

red  oak  (Holland,  Can.  Ent.,  xviii,  102). 


318.  Sesia  querci  (H.  Edwards).    From  galls  of  live  oak,  Arizona  (H. 

Edwards,  Papilio,  ii,  98). 

319.  Sesia  hospes  Walsh.     Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phil.,  vi,  186S,  270.    Red  by 

Walsh  from  a  rough,  black,  woody  polythalamous  twig-gall  oc- 
curring sparingly  on  black  and  red  oaks. 


320.  Hepialus  argenteomaculatus  Harris  (Smith,  Can.  Ent.  xx,  12,  233). 


321.  Callimorpha  clymene  Esper.     (Riley,  3d  Rt.  Ins.  Mo.,  134.     "  Larva 

found  full  grown  on  oak,  though  whether  it  fed  on  oak  I  did  not 

322.  Spilosoma  virginica  (Fabr.),  (Riley's  notes).     See  butternut  insects. 

323.  Hyphantria  textor  Harris.     Abundant  on  the  red  oak.     See  elm 


324.  Ralesidota  tessellaris  (Hiibner.)     (Riley's  notes.) 

325.  Halesidota  caryw  Harris.     (Beutenmiiller,  Ent.  Amer.,  vi,  16, 1890.) 

326.  Orgyia  leucostigma.    On  oak  runners  and  other  oaks  (Abbot  and 


327.  Orgyia  inomata  Beutenmiiller.     See  cypress  insects. 

328.  Lithacodia  fasciola  (Clem.).    Found  on  the  oak  by  Mr.  Elliott. 

See  maple  insects. 

329.  Thyridopteryx  ephemerwformis  (Haworth).     On  oaks,  willows,  etc., 

Florida  (Ashmead,  Can.  Ent.,  xviii,  97).     See  cedar  insects. 

218       111  HI    REPORT    OF    THE    ENTOMOLOGICAL    COMMISSION. 

330.  Datana  angusii  Ot.  and  R.     Occasionally  feeds  on  the  oak  (Elliott). 

Bee  hickory  insects. 

331.  Datana  ministra  (Drury).     Feeds  on  the  oak  (Riley,  notes;  also, 

liciitenniiiller,  Can.  Ent.,  xx,  17).     See  hickory  insects. 

332.  Schizura  unicornis  (Abbot  and  Smith),  (Riley).     See  elm  insects. 

333.  (Edematia  conrinna  (Abbot  and  Smith),  (Riley).    See  hickory  in- 


334.  Hcterocampa  (Cecrita)  guttiritta  Walk.     On  white  oak,  Providence, 

October  9.     (Plate  vi,  tig.  1,  la,  lb.) 

335.  Platjfsamia  oeoropia  (Linn.).    Fwds  on  the  white  oak  (W.Brodie). 

See  maple  insects. 

336.  Fades  imperial  is  Dubuer.     Feeds  on  white,  red,  scarlet,  burr,  and 

pin  oak  (Beutenmuller).     See  pine  insects. 

337.  Hyperchiria  io  (Fabr.).     (L.  W.  Goodell,  Can.  Ent.  ix,  180.) 


338.  Apatela  americana  Harris  (Coquillett,  Papilio,  i,  6).     See  maple  in- 

sects.   Also,  Thaxter,  Papilio,  iii,  17. 

339.  Apatela  luteicoma  (Thaxter,  Papilio,  iii,  16). 

340.  Apatela  hamamelis  (Thaxter,  Papilio,  iii,  17;  nodescr.). 

341.  Apatela  lobelia:  Gnen.     (Coquillett,  in  letter.) 

342.  Scolecocampa  liburna  Geyer.     (Coquillett,  in  letter.) 

343.  Catocala  grynea  Cramer.     (Coquillett,  in  letter.) 

344.  Ingura  sp.  indet.     Most  nearly  resembling  I.  delineata  (Riley  in 

letter).    Found  in  April  on  the  live  oak  at  St.  Augustine,  Fla. 


345.  Zanclognatha  minivalis  Grt.     Found  July  23,  1882,  in  Virginia, 

several  larvae  of  a  noctuid  feeding  on  dead  leaves  of  oak  and 
maple.  They  commenced  changing  to  pupae  July  26,  and  the 
moths  issued  from  August  4-16,  1882.  (Riley's  unpublished 

346.  Palthis  asopialis  Guen.     Found  in  Virginia,  July  23,  1882,  three 

larvae  of  this  Deltoid,  feeding  on  dead  leaves  of  oak.  One  larva 
spun  up  July  26  and  the  moth  issued  August  7,  1882.  (Riley's 
unpublished  notes.) 

347.  Dakruma  })allida  Comstock. 

348.  Homoptera  lunata  (Drury).     (Lintner,  Rep.  iv,  58.) 


349.  Hibemia  tiliaria  Harris.     (Coquillett  in  letter.) 


350.  Tortrix  rosaceana  Harr.     Feeds  on  the  leaves  of  apple,  pear,  and 

oak  ;  also  on  black  locust.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

351.  Caccecia  grisea  (Robinson).     White  oak  (Miss  Murtfeldt). 

LEAF-MINERS    OF    THE    OAK.  219 

352.  Pandemis  limitata  (Rob.).     Oak,  sassafras  (Miss  Murtfeldt). 

353.  Tortrix  albicomana  (Clein.).     Oak  (Miss  Murtfeldt). 

354.  Eccopsis  inornatana  (Clem.).     Leaves  of  white  oak  (Fernald). 

355.  Lophoderus  mariana  (Fern.).     Oak  !  (Fernald). 

356.  Tmetocera  ocellana  (Scniff.).     Laurel  oak  (Miss  Murtfeldt). 

357.  Melliopus  latiferreana  (Walsingham).     Bred  from   acorns;    either 

a  genuine  acorn-borer  or  inquilinous.     (Riley,  Trans.  St.  Louis 
Acad,  iv,  322.) 


358.  Psilocorsis  quercicella  Clemen's  Tineidae.    Binds  together  the  leaves. 

359.  Blastobasis  coccivorella  Chambers. 

360.  Lithocolletis  cratcegella.    Oak  -leaf  roller ;  issued  in  April.     (Riley's 

note-book  vii,  358.) 
The  following  species  are  said  by  Clemens  and  by  Chambers  to  live 
on  the  leaves  of  various  species  of  oak. 

Leaf-miners  of  the  upper  surface. 

361.  Lithocolletis  cincinnatiella  Chamb.     Yellowish  blotch  mine. 

362.  Lithocolletis  tubiferella  Clem.    )  Mines  so  as  to  form  somewhat  like 

363.  Lithocolletis  bifdsciella  Chamb.  J      the  track  made  by  a  drop  of  water. 

364.  Lithocolletis  bicolorella  Chamb.     Yellowish  blotch  mine  like  that 

of  L.  ulmella  in  elm. 

365.  Lithocolletis  unifasciella  Chamb.    )  *    ?              «      ,,        *.,    /  „ 
oon    7- -.7       77  j.-    7  .1        77     ™       i        f  mines,  smaller  than  that  of 

366.  Lithocolletis  bethuneella  Chamb.      >  .     .         .  „           ,           ,, 
oar?    T-J.I.      77  4.-          i          77     ™.      r.   v  cincinnatiella.  and   usually 

367.  Lithocolletis   castaneceella  Chamb-  >  ,       , .   \     ' 

J      in  red  or  black  oaks. 

368.  Tischeria  zelleriella  Clem. 

369.  Tischeria  pruinoseella  Chamb. 

370.  Tischeria  castanewella  Chamb. 

371.  Tischeria  badiiella  Chamb.    Bred  from  the  oak.    (Riley's  unpub- 

lished notes.) 

372.  Tischeria  qaercivorella  Chamb. 

373.  Tischeria  quercitella  Clem. 

374.  Tischeria  citrinipennella  Clem. 

375.  Tischeria  complanoides  Frey  &  Boll.     (Doubtful  species.) 

376.  Tischeria  concolor  Zeller.     (Food  plant  uucertain.) 

377.  Tischeria  tinctoriella  Chamb. 

378.  Nepticula  platea  Clem.  )  Imago    unknown.      Larvae  of  both   in 

379.  Nepticula  anguinella.      y      crooked,  linear  mines. 

380.  Nepticula  quercipulchella  Chamb.    \ 

381.  Nepticula  quercicastanella  Chamb.  >  Larvae  in  crooked,  linear  mines. 

382.  Nepticula  saginella  Clem.  ) 

383.  Coriscium  sp.     Imago  unknowu. 


384.  Ooleophora  querciella  Clem.    Imago  unknown.    Larva  lives  in  a 

case,  which  it  attaches  to  the  leaves. 

385.  Ooleophora  diecoetriata  Walsingham,  California. 
38G.  Catastega  timidella  Clem.     Imago  unknown. 

387.  Gelechia  rubensella  Chambers.     Feeds  externally  on  the  leaves. 

^Chambers  in  letter.) 

Leaf-miners  of  the  under  surface. 

388.  Lithocolletis  quercitorum  Frey  &  Boll.  ] 

389.  Lithocolletis  fitchella  Clem. 

390.  Lithocolletis  basistrigella  Clem. 

391.  Lithocolletis  ariferella  Clem. 

392.  Lithocolletis  quercipulchella  Chamb. 

393.  Lithocolletis  quercialbella  Chamb.  Tentiform  mines. 

394.  Lithocolletis  fuscocostella  Chamb. 

395.  Lithocolletis  albanotella  Chamb. 
390.  Lithocolletis  obstrictella  Clem. 

397.  Lithocolletis  hageni  Frey  &  Boll. 

398.  Lithocolletis  argentifimbriella  Clem.    3 

399.  Lithocolletis  intermedia  Frey  &  Boll.     Doubtful  species. 

400.  Lithocolletis  mirifica  Frey  &  Boll.     Doubtful  species. 

401.  Ornix  quercifoUella  Chamb.     Under  edge  of  leaf  turned  down. 

402.  Coriscium  albanotella  Chamb.     Large  tentiform  mine. 

The  following  species  either  roll,  fold,  or  sew  the  leaves  together : 

403.  Ypsolophus  querciella  Chamb. 

404.  Gelechia  querciella  Chamb. 

405.  Gelechia  quercinigrceella  Chamb. 

406.  Gelechia  quercivorella  ^hamb. 

407.  Gelechia  quercifoUella  Chamb. 

408.  Cryptolechia  quercicella  Clem. 

409.  Machimia  tentoriferella  Clem.     Larva  in  a  web. 
The  following  species  feed  in  galls : 

410.  Gelechia  gaUwgenitella  Clem. 

411.  Ypsolophus  quercipomonella  Chamb. 

412.  Hamadryas  bassettella  Clem. 



413.  Artipus  floridanus  Horn.     Found  commonly  at  Haulover  Canal, 

Florida,  feeding  on  leaves  of  oak  and  juniper.     (Schwarz,  Proc. 
Eut,  Soc,  Wash.,  i,  169.) 

414.  Balaninus  quercus  Horu.     For  an  account,  by  J.  Hamilton,  of  the 

habits,  with  description  of  the  species,  see  Canadian  Entomolo- 
gist, Jan.,  1890,  1-8. 

415.  Balaninus  nasicus  Say.     (Ibid.) 

416.  Balaninus  uniformis  Lee.     (Ibid.) 


417.  Hypothenemus  dissimilis  Zimm.    Boring,  with  the  succeeding  spe- 

cies, which  may  be  the  other  sex,  in  oak  twigs.  (J.  B.  Smith, 
Ent.,  Ainer.,  March,  1890,  54.) 

418.  Hypothenemus  erectus  Lee. 

419.  Dicerca  asperata  Lap.  and  Gory.     (Chittenden,  Ent.  Amer.,  v,  218.) 

420.  Prionus  \1)  sp.    Received  January  20,  1881,  from  H.  H.  Rusby, 

a  coleopterous  larva  found  boring  in  a  stick  of  oak  at  Silver 
City,  N.  Mex.  The  larva  is  evidently  that  of  a  species  of  Prionus. 
(Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

421.  Prionus  californicus  (?).     Received  January  14,  1881,  from  Mrs.  A- 

E.  Bush,  San  Jose,  Cal.,  the  larva  of  some  Longicorn  found  in 
"  white  oak,"  which  in  all  probability  is  that  of  the  above  in- 
sect. Two  others  were  received  from  the  same  person  and  locality 
in  April.    Not  bred.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

422.  Pityophthorus  minutissimus  Zimm.     February  7, 1882.     This  insect 

was  found  at  this  date  in  large  numbers,  both  in  the  imago  and 
larva  state,  under  the  bark  of  a  dry  piece  of  oak  wood.  Their 
mines,  as  a  rule,  run  parallel  with  the  wood ;  rarely  transversely. 
(Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

423.  Lachnostema  quercina  Knoch.    Beetle  devours  the  leaves  of  vari- 

ous trees  at  night.  This  beetle  entirely  denuded  the  pin  and  post 
oaks  on  W.  C.  Flagg's  place  at  Alton,  this  year.  (Riley's  unpub- 
lished notes.) 

424.  Fidia  sp.     June  25,  found  many  Fidia  beetles  on  oak  and  hickory 

eating  large  holes  in  their  leaves,     (liiley's  unpublished  notes.) 

425.  Cryptocephalus  notata,  Fabr.    Feeding  on  oak,  sassafras  and  elm. 

(Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 

426.  Coscinoptera  dominicana  Fabr.    June  11,  1873,  Riley  records  the 

beetles  as  found  in  copulation  on  young  oak.  The  larva  feeds, 
however,  on  dry  leaves,  and  he  has  published  a  full  account  of 
the  species.     (6th  Rep.  Ins.,  Mo.,  pp.  127-132.) 

427.  Centronopus  calcaratus  Fabr.     "  Inhabits  black  oak  stumps.    It 

remains  in  pupa  two  weeks."     (Horn.) 

428.  Centronopus  anthracinus  Knoch.     May  be  taken  in  company  with 

the  preceding  species.     (Horn.) 

429.  Acanthoderes  ±-gibbus  Say.    Bores  in  dead  twigs  of  oak.    (Si  hwarz.) 

430.  Trag idion  fulvipenne  Say.     Bores  in  oak.     (Riley.)     The  mode  of 

egg-laying  is  described  by  Popenoe  in  Insect  Life,  ii,  192. 

431.  Arhopalus  fulminans  Fabr.      Red  oak.     (Fitch   &   Hadge,   also 

Riley.*)     See  chestnut  insects. 

432.  Ataxia  crypta  Say.     Found  by  myself  under  the  bark  of  the  oak 

at  Chattanooga,  Tenn.     (Identified  by  Dr.  Horn.) 

*  Numerous  larvae  of  this  insect  were  found  January  10,  1882,  Washington,!).  C, 
boring  in  dry  red-oak  wood.  All  the  younger  larvae  were  working  under  the  bark, 
the  fully  grown  specimens,  however,  gnawed  a  channel  into  the  solid  wood  for  the 
purpose  of  pupation.  By  the  7th  of  February  pupae  were  found  ;  the  beetles  com- 
menced issuing  the  13th  of  March.     (Unpublished  notes.) 


433.  Ayrilus  bilintatus  Say.     At  Providence,  May  30,  I  found  the  pupae 

under  the  bark  of  an  oak  trunk;  the  beetles  were  common  on 
the  leaves.  Professor  Riley  found  three  pupa:1  in  the  bark  of  an 
oak  stump.  One  of  them  transformed  to  the  beetle  May  18,  and 
the  second  one  May  "»1. 

434.  Onriderm  cmgutahu  Say.     Bores  in   the  oak.     (Hubbard.)     See 

hickory  iusects. 
Xcoptochus  adsper.sus  Boh.     This  weevil   feeds  on   oak.     (Riley. 
Amer.  Nat.,  November,  1882,  916.) 
43G.  Pachmvus  distant  Horn.     Feeds  on  oak  and  pine.     (Riley,  Amer. 
Nat..  November,  188%  910.) 

437.  Systena  Manila  Melsh.     Liutuer's  Fourth  Report,  155. 


438.  Phaneroptera  curvicauda.     Very  common  on  the  oak.     (Riley's  un- 

published notes.) 

439.  Diapkeromera  femorata  Say.    See  hickory  insects.     (Riley,  Ann. 

Rept.  Eutom.  Dept.  Agric,  1879,  pp.  241-245.) 

440.  (Ecanth us  sp.     Larva  on  oak  at  St.  Louis,  July  1;  pupated  July 

29.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.) 


441.  Lachnu.s  quercifol'uv  Fitch. 

44L\  Callipterus  hyalinus  Monell.     On  Quercus  imbricaria. 

Note. — Of  undetermined  species  of  insects  living  at  the  expense  of 
the  oaks,  I  have  notes  on  40  species  of  lepidopterous  larvae,  whose  trans- 
formations have  not  yet  been  worked  out,  and  on  3  species  of  saw-fly 
larvae,  in  addition  to  those  mentioned  in  the  previous  pages. 

Professor  Riley  also  has  reference  to  or  notes  on  40  species,  viz :  10 
species  of  Bombycidie,  10  of  Noctuidae,  6  of  Geoiuetrida.j,  2  Pyralida*.  1 
Tortricidie,  7  Tineidae,  aud  4  species  of  undetermined  families;  also  4 
species  of  saw-fly  larva?,  10  species  of  Hemiptera,  with  notes  of  140 
undetermined  species  of  Cynipidae  (some  of  which  may  already  have 
been  enumerated),  carryiug  the  number  of  species  of  oak  insects 
known  up  to  the  end  of  1889  to  between  500  and  600  species. 



Si/nchroa  punctata  Newman.  "They  live  in  rotten  oak  stumps,  thriv- 
ing best  in  the  white.  The  pupa  requires  about  one  week  to 
perfect  itself."  (Horn.)  The  beetle  is  brown,  sparsely  covered 
with  gray  hairs;  regularly  punctured  over  the  body,  the  punctures 
of  medium  size,  distinct,  not  coufluent,  length,  .5  inch  ;  breadth, 
.1  inch.     (Newman.) 

Ozognathus  oomuhu  Lee     Lives  in  oak  galls.    (Riley,  notes.) 


Dendroides  canadensis  Latr.  Under  bark  of  stumps  and  felled  trees. 
(Riley,  also  Chittenden.) 

Cucujus  clavipes  Fabr.     Under  bark  of  stumps  and  felled  trees. 

Strongylium  terminatum  Say.  Larvae  of  this  insect  were  found  Jan- 
uary 12,  1882,  at  Washington,  D.  C,  feeding  in  rotten  oak 
wood.  The  full  grown  larva  measures  about  1  inch  in  length. 
They  are  polished,  yellowish  white,  and  cylindrical,  the  two  last 
segments  brownish  yellow.  Tip  of  last  segment  truncate,  with 
two  black,  upward  curved  horns.  There  is  also  on  the  dorsum 
of  this  segment  a  blackish  transverse  ridge  divided  at  the  middle, 
and  each  half  beset  with  live  or  six  short,  sharp  teeth.  The 
beetle  issued  the  12th  of  June.  (Riley's  unpublished  notes;  see 
also,  Schwarz,  Amer.  Nat,  October,  1882,  823.) 

Mordella  ^-punctata  Fabr.  Larva  found  in  old  oak  stumps.  Color: 
Head  yellowish  white  with  three  distinct  yellowish  lines  above. 
Legs  short.  Tail  pointed,  horny  and  blackish  brown.  (Riley's 
unpublished  notes.) 

Hymenorus  communis  Lee.  Found  in  Maryland,  February  22,  1884, 
numbers  of  larvae  of  above  beetle  boring  in  a  rotten  oak  stump, 
the  largest  of  which  measured  about  llmm  in  length.  They  are 
highly  polished  and  pale  yellow,  the  head  and  posterior  margin 
of  the  thoracic  and  first  three  abdominal  segments  somewhat 
darker.  A  large  squarish  spot  on  the  eighth  and  the  greater  ante 
rior  part  of  the  last  segment  quite  dark  yellow  ;  labrum  brown  ; 
tip  of  body  rounded.  The  first  beetle  issued  May  1.  (Riley's 
unpublished  notes.) 

Pelidnota  punctata  Linn.  Lamellicorn  larva  in  rotten  oak  stump. 
Riley  has  published  a  full  account  (3rd  Rep.  Ins.,  Mo.,  p.  319). 

Dinoderus  punctatus  (Say).  Boring  in  an  oak  stump ;  abundant;  ap- 
pears to  be  parasitized.     (F.  L.  Chittenden  in  letter). 

Parandra  brunnea  Fabr.     Under  bark.     (Chittenden.) 

Ceruchus  piceus  (Weber).     In  decaying  oak  wood.     (Chittenden.) 

Nyctobates  pensylvanicus  (De  Geer).     Under  bark.     (Chittenden.) 

Hypulus  simulator  (Newman).     In  decaying  wood.     (Chittenden.) 

Osmoderma  scabra  Beau  v.  In  decaying  oak  wood.  (Beutenmiiller, 
Psyche  v,  281,  1880.) 

Osmoderma  eremicola  Knoch.     (Coquillett  in  letter.) 

AtJwus  cucullatits  Say.     (Coquillett  in  letter.) 

Androchirus  fascipes  Mels.     (Coquillett  in  letter.) 

Elater  nigricollis  Herbst.     (Coquillett  in  letter.) 

Lyctus  striatus  Melsh. 

Trogoxylon paralleopipedum  (Melsh.)  The  two  latter  species  probably 
bore  in  dry  oak  wood,  injuring  furniture,  etc.  (Riley,  Scientific 
American,  Dec.  21,  1889.) 

Chapter  II, 

No  shade  tree  is  held  in  higher  estimation  than  the  elm.  It  is  the 
pride  of  New  England  and  New  York  towns  and  villages,  as  well  as 
those  of  the  northern,  central,  and  middle  Atlantic  States.  Kaltenbach 
enumerates  107  species  of  insects  which  in  Germany  live  at  the  expeuse 
of  the  elm,  while  in  this  country  we  have  about  80  species,  the  elm  not 
occurring  in  the  Rocky  Mountains  or  on  the  Pacific  coast. 

The  species  which  are  the  most  abundant  and  persistent  in  their  at- 
tacks are  the  common  elm-tree  borer,  the  canker-worm,  and  a  plant- 
louse  which  disfigures  the  leaves  by  crumpling  and  discoloring  them. 


1.  The  common  elm-tkee  borek. 

Saperda  tridentata  Olivier. 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Cerambycid-E. 

Perforating  and  loosening  the  bark  and  furrowing  the  surface  of  the  wood  with 
their  irregular  tracks,  flat  white  longicorn  borers,  changing  to  beetles  in  June  aud 
July ;  the  beetles  flat,  dark  brown,  with  a  longitudinal  three-toothed  red  stripe  on 
the  outer  edge  of  each  wing-cover. 

This  is  the  most  destructive  borer  of  the  elm  in  the  Northern  and 
Eastern  States,  often  killing  the  trees  by  the  wholesale.  Great  num- 
bers of  the  larvae  of  different  sizes  have  been  found  boring  in  the  inner 
bark  and  also  furrowing  with  their  irregular  tracks  the  surface  of  the 
wood,  the  latter  being,  as  it  were,  tattoed  with  sinuous  grooves,  and 
the  tree  completely  girdled  by  them  in  some  places.  The  elms  on 
Boston  Common  have  in  former  years  been  killed  by  this  borer,  and 
valuable  trees,  we  have  been  informed,  have  been  killed  by  them  in 
Morristown,  N.  J.  It  has  been  found  in  all  stages  in  the  elm  at  Detroit, 
Mich.,  by  Mr.  H.  G.  Hubbard. 

Fitch  remarks  that  it  consumes  the  inner  bark  of  the  slippery  elm 
{  Ulmus  fulva),  especially  in  dead  and  decaying  trees.  According  to 
him,  "the  beetle  deposits  its  eggs  upon  the  bark  in  June,  and  the  young 
larva1  therefrom  nearly  complete  their  growth  before  winter,  and  soon 
after  warm  weather  arrives  the  following  spring  they  pass  into  their 
pupa  state."  We  have  found  the  larva1  in  abundance  in  the  early 
spring  in  Providence  in  old  dead  elms. 



More  recently  the  ravages  of  this  borer  have  been  observed  by  Pro- 
fessor Forbes,  whose  notes  we  copy  from  his  third  report  on  the  injuri- 
ous insects  of  Illinois. 

For  several  years  past  my  attention  has  been  attracted  by  the  gradual  decay  and 
death  of  the  rows  of  white  elms  (  Ulmus  americana)  in  the  towns  of  Normal,  Bloom- 
ington,  and  Champaign.  The  difficulty  with  the  trees  commonly  commences  to  de- 
clare itself  from  the  middle  of  summer  to  autumn,  when  the  leaves,  tirst  upon  the 
terminal  twigs  and  then  upon  the  larger  branches,  are  seen  to  stop  their  growth, 
change  their  color,  and  ultimately  to  fall.  This  loss  is.  naturally  followed  speedily 
by  the  death  of  the  branches  themselves,  as  is  clearly  evident  the  following  spriDg, 
when  these  remain  black  and  lifeless  while  the  rest  of  the  tree  is  putting  on  its  fol- 
iage. Usually  the  higher  branches  of  the  tree  are  those  first  affected,  but  the  whole 
top  soon  seems  to  blight,  and  in  a  year  or  two  the  tree  perishes  utterly.  This  diffi- 
culty, commencing  here  and  there,  extends  slowly  from  tree  to  tree  along  the  rows, 
finally  inevitably  destroying  every  tree  of  this  species  in  the  immediate  vicinity. 

In  autumn  of  1883, 1  directed  an  assistant,  Mr.  Webster,  to  dig  up  a  tree  which  had 
nearly  died  in  this  manner  during  the  summer,  and  to  carefully  examine  the  larger 
roots,  the  trunk,  and  all  the  branches,  with  a  view  to  ascertaining,  if  practicable, 
the  cause  of  the  difficulty.  The  roots  were  found  unaffected,  but  on  peeling  the  bark 
from  the  trunk,  about  half-grown  larvae  of  Saperda  tridentata  appeared  in  consider- 
able numbers  in  the  still  living  parts  of  the  wood,  and  those  of  Afagdalis  armicollis 
were  abundant  where  the  bark  and  wood  were  already  dead.  The  manner  in  which 
the  bark  had  been  mined  and  burrowed  by  the  Saperdas  gave  sufficient  evidence  of 
the  cause  of  the  death  of  the  tree,  the  borers  having  again  and  again  completely 
girdled  the  trunk. 

Both  the  trunk  and  branches  of  this  tree  were  cut  up  in  lengths  and  boxed  for  the 
purpose  of  determining  the  details  of  the  life  history  of  the  species.  The  specimens 
were  boxed  August  8,  the  cracks  of  the  boxes  being  closed  by  pasting  over  them  strips 
of  paper,  and  each  having  left  a  glass- covered  opening  in  the  top,  to  which  it  was 
assumed  that  the  insects  emerging  would  be  attracted.  Later,  this  cover  was  re- 
moved, and  a  glass  jar  was  inverted  over  the  opening. 

Nothing  emerged  until  the  following  spring,  except  a  single  parasite  taken  Septem- 
ber 14.  On  the  9th  of  April,  living  larvae  of  Saperda  were  found  still  within  the 
wood,  but  no  images  had  appeared  in  the  boxes,  neither  were  any  pupae  discovered. 
On  the  17th  of  that  mouth,  both  larvae  and  pupae  were  detected,  and  on  the  2d  of 
May  the  first  imagos  appeared,  three  in  number.  On  the  3d  another  imago  emerged, 
on  the  5th  five  more,  and  on  the  7th  eighteen,  on  the  8th  eleven,  and  on  the  12th 
twenty-three,  this  being  the  largest  number  taken  from  the  boxes  at  once.  Beetles 
continued,  however,  to  emerge  at  frequent  intervals  until  the  22d  of  June,  at  which 
time  the  last  appeared,  one  hundred  and  eighteen  in  all  having  been  taken  alive. 
On  the  15th  of  September  the  boxes  were  opened  finally,  thoroughly  searched,  and 
fifty-three  more  dead  Saperdas  were  found.  The  boxes  in  which  these  specimens 
transformed  had  been  kept  under  cover,  but  at  the  natural  temperature  of  the  air. 

Although  the  elm  borer  has  evidently  been  for  several  years  both  numerous  and  in- 
creasing in  the  neighborhood  where  this  tree  was  destroyed,  the  amount  of  parasitism 
developed  by  the  experiments  was  quite  insignificant,  only  eight  parasitic  insects, 
belonging  to  three  species,  appearing  in  the  boxes  as  against  the  one  hundred  and 
seventy-one  examples  of  the  adult  borer ;  and  indeed,  as  the  same  pieces  of  wood  con- 
tained a  great  host  of  the  larvae  of  Afagdalis  armicollis,  from  which  multitudes  of 
imagos  of  this  species  emerged  during  this  spring,  it  is  impossible  to  say  that  some  or 
most  of  this  small  number  of  parasites  may  not  have  escaped  from  the  latter  species. 

From  the  present  appearance  of  the  elms  throughout  the  towns  of  Central  Illinois 
where  I  have  had  an  opportunity  to  examine  their  condition,  and  from  the  rapid 
progress  which  this  pest  has  made  among  them  during  the  last  two  or  three  years,  it 
extremely  likely  that  it  will  totally  exterminate  the  trees  unless  it  be  promptly 
5  ENT 15 


arrested  by  general  action.  The  ouly  remedy  available  is  unquestionably  the  de- 
struction of  effected  trees  in  autumn  and  winter  before  the  beetles  have  a  chance  to 
emerge  from  the  trunks.  In  towns  this  measure  should  usually  be  taken  by  the  au- 
thorities, since  individual  action  could  not  be  depended  on  to  more  than  paUiate  the 
difficulty.  It  every  elm  which  is  in  the  unhealthy  condition  above  described,  and 
which,  upon  examination,  is  found  to  harbor  these  borers  beneath  the  bark,  were  cut 
down  in  autumn  and  burned  before  spring,  the  multiplication  of  the  borer  might  be 
effectually  checked  ;  but  if  the  destruction  of  the  trees  be  postponed  until  as  late  as 
May.  a  part  of  all  of  the  beetles  maturing  each  year  would  escape  to  carry  the  mis- 
chief elsewhere.     (Forbes).* 

The  larva. — White,  subcyliudrical,  a  little  flattened,  with  the  lateral  fold  of  the 
body  rather  prominent;  end  of  the  body  flattened,  obtuse,  and  nearly  as  wide  at  the 

end  as  at  the  first  abdominal  ring.  The  head  is  one- 
half  as  wide  as  the  prothoracic  ring,  being  rather 
large.  The  prothoracic  segment,  or  that  next  to  the 
head,  is  transversely  oblong,  being  about  twice  as 
broad  as  long;  there  is  a  pale  dorsal  corneous  trans- 
versely oblong  shield,  being  about  two-thirds  as  long 
as  wide,  and  nearly  as  long  as  the  four  succeeding 
segments;  this  plate  is  smooth,  except  on  the  pos- 
terior half,  which  is  rough,  with  the  front  edge  irregu- 
lar, and  not  extending  far  down  the  sides.  Fine 
hairs  arise  from  the  front  edge  and  side  of  the  plate, 
and  similar  hairs  are  scattered  over  the  body  and 
especially  around  the  end.  On  the  upper  side  of  each 
segment  is  a  transversely  oblong  ovate  roughened 
area,  with  the  front  edge  slightly  convex,  and  behind  slightly  arcuate.  On  the 
under  side  of  each  segment  are  similar  rough  horny  plates,  but  arcuate  in  front,  with 
the  hinder  edge  straight. 

It  differs  from  the  larva  of  Saperda  vestita  Say  in  the  shorter  body,  which  is  broader, 
more  hairy,  with  the  tip  of  the  abdomen  flatter  and  more  hairy.  The  prothoracic 
segment  is  broader  and  flatter,  and  the  rough  portion  of  the  dorsal  plates  is  larger 
and  less  transversely  ovate.  The  structure  of  the  head  shows  that  its  generic  dis- 
tinctness from  Saperda,  originally  insisted  on  by  Mnlsant,  may  be  well  founded,  as 
the  head  is  smaller  and  flatter,  the  clypeus  being  twice  as  large,  and  the  labrum  broad 
and  short,  while  in  Saperda  vestita  it  is  longer  than  broad.  The  mandibles  are  much 
longer  and  slenderer,  aud  the  antenna;  are  much  smaller  than  in  Saperda  vestita. 

Beetle.— A  rather  flat-bodied,  dark-brown  beetle,  with  a  rusty-red  curved  line  be- 
hind the  eyes,  two  stripes  on  the  thorax,  and  with  a  long  red  stripe  on  the  outer 
edge  of  each  wing-cover,  with  three  long  points  projecting  inwards;  0.50  inch  m 

2.  The  red-edged  saperda. 

Fig.  71.    Larva  (from  life)  and  adult 

of   the  elm-tree    borer.— Fro  m 


Saperda  lateralis  Fabricius. 
Order  Colboptera;  family  Cerambycid.e. 

Mining  the  inner  bark  of  dead  trees  and  logs  of  the  common  elm,  a  grub  very  sim- 
ilar to  the  foregoing,  and  about  the  1st  of  June  producing  a  similar  beetle,  but  differ- 
ing in  wanting  the  transverse  teeth  or  points  arising  from  the  marginal  stripe  on  the 

wing-covers.     (Fitch.) 

3.  Saperda  vestita. 

Fouuil  oil  the  elm.  This  borer  is  destroyed  by  the  larva  of  Bracon 
(■harm  Riley,  a  specimen  of  which  was  taken  from  a  larva  found  on  the 
above-named  tree.     (Riley's  unpublished  notes.)     See  linden  insects. 



4.  The  six-eanded  dryobius. 

Dryobius  sex-fasciatus  Say. 

Order  Coleoptera;  family  Cerambycid^e. 

A  similar  but  larger  grub  thau  that  of  Saperda  tridentata,  but  found  with  it,  pro- 
ducing a  black  beetle  of  nearly  similar  form,  with  the  edge  of  the  thorax  yellow,  and 
also  its  scutel,  with  four  yellow  equidistant  oblique  bands  on  its  wing-covers,  the 
last  one  situated  at  the  tip.  Length  0.70  inch.  (Fitch.)  It  also  occurs  on  the 
beech,  according  to  C.  G.  Siewers. 

5.  The  dark  elm  bark-borer. 

Hylesinus  opaculw  Leconte. 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  family  Scolytid^e. 

Making  small  perforations  like  pinholes,  appearing  in  the  bark,  especially  of  dis- 
eased elms,  from  which,  in  August  and  September,  issues  a  minute  cylindrical  bark- 
beetle  of  a  dark-brown  color;  its  wing-covers  with  deeply  impressed  punctured  fur- 
rows and  short  hairs ;  its  thorax  also  punctured.     Length  0.10  or  less.     (Harris.) 

We  have  not  observed  this  bark-borer,  but  Mr.  Wm.  L.  Devereaux, 
of  Clyde,  N.  Y.,  writes  as  follows  regarding  the  true  name  of  the  beetle : 

I  think  Harris  mistaken  about  the  occurrence  of  P.  Hmivaris  on  elm.  It  must  have 
been  H.opaculus  ;  at  least  I  never  have  found  Uminaris  under  or  on  the  bark.* 

This  is  a  stout  pitchy-black  timber-beetle,  living  under  the  dry  bark 
of  the  elm  and  ash  trees.     (Eiley.) 

The  dark  elui  bark-boier. — After  Eilej-. 

The  beetle. — Stout,  opaque,  when  mature  of  a  uniform  piceous-black  color.  Head 
punctulate,  not  narrow  in  front,  without  transverse  impressions  in  front  of  the  eyes. 
Epistoma  (Fig.  72b)  truncate  or  very  slightly  and  broadly  emarginate.  Labrum 
visible.  Antennal  club  very  large,  oblong-oval,  the  first  two  joints  shining  and 
pubescent  only  at  apex.  Thorax  wider  than  long,  very  densely  punctate ;  pubes- 
cence moderately  thick  and  short.  Elytral  striae  (Fig  72d)  evidently  impressed  and 
regularly,  coarsely  punctate ;  "interstices  very  distinct,  each  with  a  regular  cow  of 
small  tubercles,  which  become  more  acute  toward  the  apex  and  the  sides.  Pubescence 
very  coarse  and  short.  Tibise  (Fig.  72e)  hardly  dentate.  (Riley's  Rep.  Ent.  Dep. 
Ag.  1879,  p.  45.     The  other  figures  illustrate  H.  trifolii.) 

*  See  also  Mr.  Schwarz's  note  in  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.,  i,  149. 


<>.    TlIK    SHOUT-LINKD   DULAHllS. 

DulaHut  breriliiitu*  Say. 

Order  Colbopteba;    family  C'kuambycidjs. 

Fig.  73.— Dularius  breviU7ieu$.—From  Packard. 

Boring  in  partly  dead  or  dry  elms,  the  larva  of  a  pretty  longicom,  with  deep  pur- 
plish-blue wing-covers  bearing  three  short  white  lines  in  the  middle. 

This  beetle  was  first  bred  from  the  dry  wood  of  the  elm  by  Eiley,  the 
larvae  occurring  in  Ohio;  the  beetle  appearing  in  May  and  June.  It 
was  also  known,  by  the  late  Mr.  G.  D.  Smith,  to  inhabit  this  tree, 
probably  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston;  it  was  noticed  in  our  second  Massa- 
chusetts Report,  page  18.  Mr.  George  Hunt  has  observed  this  beetle 
on  the  bark  of  an  elm  at  Plymouth,  N.  H.,  in  the  middle  of  July,  insert- 
ing its  eggs  in  the  crevices  of  the  bark. 

The  beetle. — It  is  a  singular-looking  beetle,  with  a  round,  flattened  prothorax,  and 
wing-covers  contracted  in  the  middle,  and  not  covering  the  tip  of  the  abdomen,  while 
the  thighs  are  unusually  swollen.  The  antenna'  are  about  two-thirds  the  length  of 
the  body,  flattened  towards  the  end,  and  somewhat  serrate.  The  body  above  is 
velvety  black,  and  brown-black  beneath.  The  head  is  black  and  coarsely  punctured, 
and  the  prothorax  is  covered  with  short,  dense,  black  hairs,  like  velvet.  The  wing- 
covers  are  Prussian  blue  in  color,  bent,  corrugated,  with  an  interrupted  ridge  just 
outside  of  the  middle  of  each  cover.  They  are  covered  with  tine  black  hairs,  bent 
over.  There  is  a  pair  of  parallel,  short  honey-yellow  lines  in  the  middle  of  each 
wing-cover,  with  a  third  one  a  little  in  front,  making  iu  all  six  streaks.  The  legs 
aud  feet  are  black.     It  is  a  little  over  eight-tenths  of  an  inch  in  length. 

7.  Neoclytus  erythrocephahts  Fabricius. 

Order  Coleoptera;  family  Cerambycid.e. 

This  insect  was  found  in  company  with  Magdalis  armicollis  under  the 
bark  of  a  dead  elm  at  Detroit,  Mich.,  by  H.  G.  Hubbard  ;  aud  also  has 
been  raised  from  hickory- wood  by  Dr.  Horn. 


8.  Neoclytus  caprcece  Say. 

This  insect  was  found  in  all  stages  in  the  fall  of  1875  in  felled 
trunks  of  elm  and  hickory  by  George  Waite,  of  Emporia,  Kans.  ( Riley's 
MS.  notes.) 

9.  Magdalis  armicollis  Say. 
Order  Coleoptera  ;  family  Curculiontdje. 

According  to  LeBaron  (Fourth  Rep.  Ins.  Illinois,  139)  this  weevil, 
which  is  allied  to  the  Magdalinus  of  the  oak  (Fig.  29),  inhabits  the  elm, 
living  under  the  bark.  Mr.  H.  G.  Hubbard  has  also  found  it  boring  in 
the  elm,  and  has  bred  from  the  larvae  four  species  of  parasites.  (Psyche 
ii,  40.) 

The  burrows  were  about  an  inch  and  a  half  long,  running  generally 
with  the  grain,  and  in  the  cambium  layer  throughout  their  entire 
length.  From  the  cell  at  the  end  an  exit  pierced  the  bark  as  far  as  the 
thin  outer  layer.  The  beetles  usually  attacked  the  upper  branches,  but 
several  small  elms  were  found  with  the  bark  of  the  trunk  undermined 
nearly  to  the  ground.  Occasional  specimens  were  found  associated 
with  Saperda  tridentata  and  Synchroa  punctata  in  the  thick  bark  of  full- 
grown  trunks.  Of  the  three  parasites  the  more  common  one  was  a 
Chalcid,  probably  belonging  to  the  genus  Storthygacerus  of  Ratzburg, 
which  preys  upon  the  larvae  of  Magdalinus,  completing  its  transforma- 
tions in  advance  of  the  beetle. 

The  beetle. — Body  reddish,  punctured;  head  punctured,  an  obsolete  impression  be- 
tween the  eyes ;  a  dilated,  impressed,  abbreviated  line  over  the  insertion  of  the 
antennae,  sometimes  obsolete  or  wanting ;  thorax  with  much  dilated  confluent 
punctures ;  a  polished  longitudinal  line  near  the  middle  ;  anterior  angles  with  small, 
erect  spines,  of  which  the  anterior  one  is  largest ;  posterior  angles  slightly  excurved, 
anterior  and  lateral  margins  dull  rufous ;  elytra  light  rufous,  profoundly  striated ; 
striae  with  approximate  punctures ;  thighs,  with  a  robust  spine  beneath,  near  the 
tips.  Length  from  the  eyes  to  tip  of  the  wing-covers  one-fifth  of  an  inch.  Var. 
a.    Thorax  and  beneath,  excepting  the  feet,  black.     (Say.) 

10.  Buprestis  (Anthaxia)  viridicornis  Say. 
Order  Coleoptera;  family  Bupresteele. 

This  buprestid  is  reported  by  Mr.  H.  G.  Hub 
bard  as  infesting  the  elm.     (Psyche,  ii,  40.) 

The  beetle. — Head  and  thorax  coppery  red ;  antennae 
green;  eyes  rather  large;  thorax  transversely  indented  _ 
each  side  behind  the  middle ;  reddish  coppery,  surface 
reticulated ;  posterior  edge  rectilinear ;  scutel  triangu- 
lar; wing-covers  obscure  or  slightly  brassy,  slightly  ru- 
gose, destitute  of  striae,  rounded  at  tip,  entire  or  obso- 
letely  serrated ;  beneath  dark,  brassy,  brilliant ;  tail 
rounded,  entire.  Length  rather  more  than  one-fifth  of  Fte.74.~- Anthaxia  viridicornis 
an  inch.     (Say.)  Smith  and  Marx  del. 

11.  Synchroa  punctata  Newman. 
Order  Coleoptera;   family  Melaxdryid^e. 

This  insect  has  been  found  "exceedingly  abundant"  by  Mr.  H.  G. 
Hubbard  in  the  bark  of  the  elm.     (Psyche,  ii,  40.) 


The  beetle.— The  form  is  elongate,  like  an  Elaterid  of  the  genu.s  Melanotic, 
ponotared  and  pabesoeot;  kbe  h<-a<l  is  prominent  and  horizontal;  the  maxillary 
palpi  are  moderate  in  length  and  hut  slightly  dilated  ;  the  antenna-  are  long,  slender, 
and  feebly  serrate,  and  the  third  joint  is  not  longer  than  the  fourth;  the  anterior 
ooxte  are  oval  and  separated  by  the  presternum,  which  is  also  slightly  prolonged ; 
the  middle  ooxa  are  equally  separated  ;  the  hind  coxae  are  less  distant ;  the  tarsi  are 
filiform  and  the  claws  simple;  the  tibial  spurs  are  long.  (Leconte.)  It  is  brown,  and 
five  tenths  of  an  inch  in  length. 

12.    THK    T1JKK-CK1CKKI. 

(Eeanlkm  niveau  Serville. 

Order  ORTHOPTBBA  ;  family  Gryllid.i  . 

Boring  into  the  corky  bark  of  the  elm  in  the  Southern  States,  inserting  it- 
irregularly,  not  in  regular  series  as  when  it  oviposits  in  the  stems  of  the  blackberry, 
raspberry,  grape,  etc. ;  a  slender  pale-grei  n  cricket,  with  white  wings  and  a  large 
ovipositor;  the  males  shrilling  loudly. 

The  eggs  of  the  tree-cricket  begin  to  develop  as  soon  as  they  are  laid 

in  the  early  autumn,  and  the  embryo  partially  (level <>]>s.  go  that  the 

rudimentary   limbs   may 

be  seen,  as   well  as  the 

mouthparts;  the  insect 

completes    its    develop 

meut  in  the  early  part  of 

the  following  summer,  appearin 

Fig.  76.  Female  tree-cricket*  natural 
size. — After  Hart  is. 

early  in  August. 

Fig.  75.  Male  t  r  e  e  - 
cricket.- Afternoo- 


13.  The  spring  canker  worm. 

Paleacrita  vernata  (Peck). 
Order  Lepidoptera;  family  Phajuenid^e. 

Very  injurious  to  the  elm  in  the  Eastern  States,  stripping  the  trees  ;  a  dark-striped 
measuring  worm  varying  in  color  to  pale  green,  transformiug  from  the  middle  to  the 
last  of  June  in  the  earth  to  a  pupa,  some  appearing  in  the  autumn,  hut  most  abun- 
dantly in  March;  the  female  grub-like,  the  male  winged. 

Originally  confined,  as  an  injurious  insect,  to  Xew  England,  it  is  now 
destructive  in  the  Western  States  (Illinois  and  Missouri)  and  must 
originally  have  occurred  all  over  the  United  States  east  of  the  Missis- 
sippi, as  I  have  received  it  from  Texas. 

*  Am 

Fig.  77.  Spring  Canker  worm;  b,  Fie.  7&   a.  female  Spring  canker-worm  moth;  b. 

eggs;  e,  aide;  d,  back  of  a  aeg-  male;  e,  antenna)  joints  of  female  ;dr  one  of  female 

merit.  —  After  Riley.  abdominal  segments;  e,  ovipositor.— After  Riley. 

About  the  1st  of  May,  at  the  time  when  the  leaves  of  the  apple  are 
unfolding,  the  young  canker  worms  break  through  the  eggs,  which  have 


been  laid  earlier  in  the  season,  in  March  and  April,  in  patches  on  the 
hark  of  the  trunk  aud  limbs.  They  may  be  soon  found  clustering  on 
the  terminal  buds  aud  partly  unfolded  leaves,  and  are  then  about  a  line 
in  length,  and  not  much  thicker  than  a  bit  of  thick  thread.  Fortuuarely, 
owing  to  the  want  of  wings,  the  female  is  exceedingly  sedentary,  aud 
year  after  year  the  apple  and  elm  trees  of  particular  orchards  and  towns 
are  defoliated  and  turned  brown,  while  adjoining  orchards  and  towns 
scarcely  suffer.  By  the  20th  of  June,  in  Essex  County,  Mass.,  the 
orchards  or  shade  elms  infested  by  them  look  as  if  a  fire  had  run 
through  them.  At  that  date  the  worms  are  fully  fed,  and  they  then 
descend  to  the  ground,  letting  themselves  down  by  a  silken  thread.  At 
this  time  I  have  destroyed  thousands  by  jarring  the  tree  and  collecting 
those  which  fall  down.  I  have  watched  old  and  young  robins  busily 
engaged  in  eating  them,  and  from  the  number  of  toads  in  my  garden, 
gathered  under  the  trees,  I  feel  confident  that  they  eat  multitudes  of 

The  worms  at  once  enter  the  ground,  change  to  chrysalids  several 
inches  below  the  surface,  near  the  trunk  of  the  tree,  and  there  remain 
until  the  early  days  of  March  and  April,  when  the  wingless  females  as- 
cend the  trees,  and  the  winged  males  may  be  seen  fluttering  about. 

I  took  pains  one  spring,  in  the  middle  of  April,  to  count  the  number 
of  these  moths  on  my  apple  trees,  fourteen  in  number,  averaging  from 
six  to  seven  inches  in  thickness,  besides  three  elms.  They  were  more 
abundant  on  the  apple  trees  than  on  the  elms.  But  on  those  seventeen 
trees  there  were  counted,  adhering  mostly  to  the  tarred  paper,  one  thou- 
sand males  and  two  hundred  females.  The  spring  of  1875  was  cold  and 
backward  and  few  moths  were  seen  before  this  date.  From  these  data 
we  can  ascertain  approximately  the  relative  numerical  proportions  be- 
tween the  sexes,  which  seems  to  approximate  five  males  to  one  female. 

The  species  I  have  referred  to  is  the  spring  moth,  the  Paleacrita  ver- 
nata of  Peck,  but  not  of  Harris.  A.  pometaria  is  much  less  abundant 
in  the  adult  condition,  aud  only  appears  in  the  autumn.  The  wings  are 
thicker  than  those  of  vernata,  aud  the  caterpillar  has  an  additional  pair 
of  prop-legs,  though  so  short  as  to  be  useless.  I  find  that  most  of  the 
damage  is  done  by  the  caterpillars  of  vernata.  On  June  15,  1875,  I 
collected  five  hundred  and  fifty-seven  caterpillars  from  the  apple  trees 
in  my  garden.  Of  these,  five  hundred  aud  twenty  were  vernata,  and 
twenty-seven  were  the  young  of  the  autumn  species.  Peck,  in  his  ac- 
count published  in  1795,  states  that  vernata  does  the  principal  damage.* 

Remedies. — The  use  of  printer's  ink  laid  on  tarred  paper  is  the  cheap- 
est, though  the  ink  should  be  applied  every  day  or  two.  The  use  of  tin 
troughs  of  oil  surrounding  the  tree  is  almost  sure  to  stop  the  ascent  of 
the  females,  while  wooden  troughs  of  oil  built  around  the  bottom  of  the 

*It  is  probably  this  species  which  I  have  found  feeding  on  the  leaves  May  30  and 
June  1,  at  Providence.  It  is  a  reddish-green  obscurely  striped  larva,  much  like  the 
canker-worm  in  form  and  size,  but  a  little  stouter. 


trunk  are  almost  equally  efficacious.  Care  and  attention,  and,  above  all, 
00  operation  among  those  suffering  from  these  worms,  will  enable  us  to 
check  their  ravages. 

14.  The  rlm  span-worm. 

Eugonia  tubsignaria  (Htibnei  }. 

Order  LbPIDOPTKBA J    Family 

Hatching  from  the  eggs  as  soon  as  the  leaves  unfold  and  living  unobserved  for  a 
week  or  two  on  young  shoots  in  the  tree  tops,  measuring  or  span  worms,  resembling 
the  twigs  of  the  elm  in  color,  with  a  large  red  head,  and  the  terminal  ring  of  the  body 
bright  red  ;  pupating  towards  the  end  of  June,  and  during  July  and  August  trans- 
forming into  a  snow-white  moth. 

This  insect  is  widely  spread.  I  have 
observed  it  in  the  forests  of  northern 
.Maine  in  August,  and  it  is  common  in 
the  Middle  States.  It  is  very  destruc- 
tive to  the  elms  in  New  York  City, 
Brooklyn,  and  Philadelphia,  though  not 
known  to  be  destructive  in  the  country. 
The  moth  may  at  once  be  recognized  by 
the  snow-white  body  and  wings,  the  an- 
terior pair  being  angular  and  the  hinder 
pair  slightly  notched.  It  is,  according 
to  Fitch,  still  more  destructive  to  the 
linden  than  to  the  elm. 

From  a  pamphlet  by  H.  A.  Graei  and 
Edw.  Wiebe,  entitled  uThe  measure- 
worm,  a  description  of  the  insect,  in  all 
its  metamorphoses,  etc/'  (Brooklyn,  1862),  we  quote  the  following  facts : 

The  eggs  are  deposited  by  the  female  moth  toward  the  beginning  of  July,  not  only 
on  trunks  and  branches  of  early-leaving  trees,  but  also  on  numerous  other  objects,  to 
the  number  of  from  20  to  250,  in  irregular  clusters.  During  this  period  they  are  about 
the  size  of  a  small  pin's  head,  conical  in  form,  and  somewhat  compressed  at  their 
points;  first  of  a  yellowish,  then  of  a  light  olive  green,  and  later  of  a  dark  brown. 
They  are  covered  with  a  thick,  sticky  glutinous  matter  and  adhere  strongly  to  the 
object  on  which  they  are  deposited.  They  are  usually  found  on  the  under  side  of 
branches,  and  almost  always  below  the  connecting  points  of  the  same,  apparently  for 
their  better  protection  and  with  the  design  of  opening  several  avenues  for  the  young 
brood  to  find  subsistence.  The  number  of  eggs  generally  decreases  from  the  base  of 
the  branches  towards  their  extremities.    » 

In  this  state  the  eggs  remain  unaffected  by  rain  or  frost,  seemingly  unchanged, 
until  the  time  when  our  shade  trees  unfold  their  first  leaflets,  which  (subject  to  the 
weather)  is  usually  between  the  15th  of  April  and  the  loth  of  May. 

Little  caterpillars  then  creep  from  these  eggs,  eagerly  enjoying  the  rays  of  the 
sun  on  warm  days,  and  carefully  hiding  themselves  under  the  young  foliage  for  pro- 
tection on  cold  and  stormy  days.  Here  we  rind  them  crowding  together  in  countless 
numbers;  until  after  a  very  brief  period  they  engage  in  their  work  of  destruction. 
The  young  caterpillars  always  creep  towards  the  extremities  of  the  branches,  led  by 

Fin.   70. — Elm    span-worm    niotli.    natural 
size. — After    Emerton,  from   Packard. 


. — Elm  spau-worm.  natural  size.— 
After  Emerton,  from  Packard. 

THE    NOVEMBER    MOTH.  233 

their  instinct  to  find  there,  first  of  all,  the  means  for  their  subsistence,  and  make  a 
retrograde  movement  only  if  they  meet  with  any  obstacle.  They  then  devour  the 
young  foliage  as  quickly  as  it  develops,  so  much  so  that  often  a  fortnight  8'iffices  tc 
render  a  tree  entirely  leafless. 

For  their  perfect  development  the  caterpillars  need  from  five  to  six  weeks,  during 
which  period  they  sometimes  eat  daily  more  than  ten  times  their  own  weight.  It  is 
then  that  they  are  most  troublesome  to  us,  partly,  and  chiefly,  by  their  destruction 
among  our  shade  trees;  partly  by  the  considerable  amount  of  an  unpleasant  matter 
g^which  they  drop;  and  last,  but  not  least,  by  the  terror  which,  in  their  state  of  sus- 
pension, or  dropping  from  the  trees,  they  are  apt  to  create  among  our  ladies. 

After  the  caterpillar  is  fully  developed,  and  has,  in  the  mean  time,  accomplished 
its  work  of  destruction,  it  enters  its  chrysalis  state.  When  ready  to  be  metamor- 
phosed it  selects  a  safe  place  of  refuge,  either  in  the  leaf  remnants  or  on  the  trunks 
and  branches  of  the  trees,  on  fences,  railings,  lamp-posts,  or  almost  anything  it  hap- 
pens to  reach. 

Larva. — The  caterpillar  closely  resembles  the  twigs  of  the  elm  trees,  on  the  leaves 
of  which  it  lives,  the  body  being  brown,  while  the  large  head  and  termiual  segment 
of  the  body  are  bright  red. 

Remedies. — Messrs.  Graef  and  Wiebe  removed  from  a  single  small  maple  tree  in 
Brooklyn  60,000  fertilized  eggs,  and  it  is  obvious  that  their  suggestion  to  carefully 
scrape  shade  and  ornamental  elms  in  the  winter  months,  if  thoroughly  carried  out, 
would  materially  diminish  the  number  of  this  great  pest.  Besides  this,  tarring,  i.e., 
rings  of  tarred  paper,  smeared  over  with  printer's  ink,  should  be  placed  around  the 
trunks  and  larger  branches  as  early  as  the  middle  of  April.  When  the  leaves  are 
much  infested  they  should  be  sprayed  in  the  manner  indicated  in  the  introduction 
to  this  report. 

15.  The  November  moth. 

Epirrita  dilwtata  (Hubner). 

Order  Lepldoptera  ;  Family  Phal^enid^e. 

Feeding  on  the  leaves  in  spring ;  a  dirty-green  measure-worm,  beneath  paler  bluish 
white,  its  breathing  pores  forming  a  row  of  orange-red  dots  along  each  side,  where 
is  sometimes  also  a  yellow  line ;  entering  the  ground  in  summer,  the  moth  appearing 
in  November.     (Fitch.) 

In  our  monograph  of  the  Phalcenidce  we  had  overlooked  the  fact  that 
Fitch  had  observed  this  moth  in  New  York,  flying  slowly  in  forests  in 
November.  It  appears  to  be  more  abundant  in  sub-arctic  regions  than 
in  New  England,  as  we  have  received  numerous  specimens  of  it  from 
Newfoundland,  and  it  has  also  been  obtained  in  Labrador.  It  is  prob- 
able that  it  will  rarely  occur  in  injurious  numbers  on  elm  trees  in  New 
England.  In  Europe,  according  to  Newman,  "it  feeds  on  whitethorn, 
black- thorn,  horn-beam,  sloe,  oak,  and  almost  every  forest  tree,  and  is 
full-fed  in  June."  Our  species  in  British  America,  probably  like  E.  cam- 
bricaria,  will  be  found  feeding  on  the  mountain  ash,  a  common  tree  in 
Labrador  and  Newfoundland. 

Moth. — A  much  larger  species  than  E.  cambricaria,  which  is  more  common,  and 
which  also  occurs  in  Northern  Europe.  It  may  always  be  distinguished  from  the 
other  species  of  the  genus  by  the  simple  not  pectinated  male  antennae.  The  body  and 
wings  are  pale  ash-gray;  fore  wings  with  eight  well-defined  sinuous  or  scalloped 
blackish  lines,  most  distinct  on  the  costa  and  veins  ;  the  basal  line  is  heavy,  and  bent 
rectangularly  between  the  subcostal  and  median  veins  ;  the  next  line,  rather  remote 


from  the  basal,  Barrel  inward  on  the  subcostal  rein,  end  outward  on  the  median 
spaoe;  fche  fcwo  Lines  beyond  ere  approximate,  but  less  sinuous;  the  fourth  line  from 
tin*  beee  of  the  wings  is  broad,  diffase,  fcwioeas  broad  on  the  ooete  ee  the  three  others; 
beyond  this  Line  is  a  oleai  median  space,  in  the  middle  of  which  is  the  distinct  discal 
dot;  beyond  arc  four  more  or  less  distinct  lines,  of  which  the  outer  (or  Bnbmarginel) 
is  most  distinct  and  regularly  scalloped  J  a  marginal  row  of  twin  black  dots ;  fringe 
whitish.  Hind  wings  with  traces  of  four  scalloped  lines,  the  marginal  one  the  heav- 
iest.     Kxpanse  of  WingS,  1.60  inches. 

16.  The  [mpobtbd  klm-lkaf  beetle. 

(iiihruca  xanthomehvna  Schrank. 

*4  T0  si-  *  L 

m  /, 


Fig.  81. — Galcruca  xanthomelcena:  a,  eggs;  b,  larva?;  c,  adults:  e,  eggs  (enlarged);  /.  sculpture  of 
eggs;  g,  larva  (enlarged);  A,  side  view  of  greatly  enlarged  segment  of  larva:  i.  dorsal  view  of 
same;  ;',  pupa  (enlarged) ;   I,  portion  of  elytron  of  beetle  (greatly  enlarged).— After  Riley. 

The  following  account  of  this  pest  is  taken  from  Professor  Riley's 
pamphlet  forming  Bulletin  6  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 
It  contains  a  full  account  of  the  imported  elm-leaf  beetle,  and  of  the 
best  means  of  attacking  it,  which  will  be  welcome,  as  for  several  years 
past  the  elms  of  many  towns  and  cities  in  the  Middle  Atlantic  States 
have  been  ravaged  by  this  pest. 

According  to  Glover  this  beetle  was  imported  from  Europe  as  early 
as  1837.  It  somewhat  resembles  the  striped  cucumber  beetle  (Diabrotica 
vittata)  in  size  and  markings.     The  grub  or  larva  is  long,  almost  cylindri- 


cal,  yellowish  black,  with  black  spots,  and  a  wide  yellow  line  along  the 
back  and  sides. 

The  worm  is  destructive  to  the  foliage  from  May  until  August,  skele- 
tonizing the  leaves.  When  fully  grown  it  descends  to  the  ground,  and 
changes  to  a  chrysalis,  under  leaves,  etc.,  near  the  base  of  the  tree. 
While  the  beetle,  of  which  there  are  three  to  four  broods,  also  injures 
the  leaves,  it  is  by  no  means  so  destructive  as  its  young : 

Remedies. — Glover  suggested  the  use  of  oil  and  tar  gutters,  and  other  barriers,  sur- 
rounding the  base  or  the  body  of  the  tree,  devices  similar  to  those  used  agaiust  the 
canker  worm  and  codling  moth.  He  recommended  that  there  be  placed  around  each 
tree  small,  tight,  square  boxes  or  frames  a  foot  or  eighteen  inches  in  height,  sunk  in 
the  ground,  the  earth  within  the  inclosure  to  be  covered  with  cement,  and  the  top  . 
edge  of  each  frame  to  be  covered  with  broad,  projecting  pieces  of  tin,  like  the  eaves 
of  a  house  or  the  letter  T,  or  painted  with  some  adhesive  or  repellent  substance,  as 
tar,  etc.  The  worms,  descending  the  tree,  being  unable  to  climb  over  the  inclosure, 
would  change  into  helpless  chrysalids  within  the  box,  where  they  could  daily  be  de- 
stroyed by  thousands.  Those  hiding  within  the  crevices  of  the  bark  of  the  trunk 
could  easily  be  syringed  from  their  hiding  places. 

"  I  found  that  the  quickest  and  most  satisfactory  way  of  destroying  the  insect,  which 
has  nearly  the  same  habits  as  the  Colorado  potato  beetle,  except  that  it  does  not 
propagate  in  the  ground,  is  to  syringe  the  trees  with  Paris  green  and  water,  though 
London  purple  may  prove  just  as  effectual  and  cheaper. 

"  The  syringing  can  not  be  done  from  the  ground  except  on  very  young  trees,  though 
a  good  fountain  pump  will  throw  a  spray  nearly  30  feet  high.  Larger  trees  will  have 
to  be  ascended  by  means  of  a  ladder,  and  the  liquid  sprinkled  or  atomized  through 
one  of  the  portable  atomizers,  like  Peck's,  which  is  fastened  to  the  body,  and  contains 
three  gallons  of  the  liquid. 

''The  mode  of  pupation  of  the  insect  under  the  tree,  on  the  surface  of  the  ground, 
beneath  whatever  shelter  it  can  find,  or  in  the  crevices  between  the  earth  and  the 
trunk,  enables  us  to  kill  vast  numbers  of  the  pupae  and  transforming  larvae  by  pour- 
ing hot  water  over  them.  We  found  that  even  Paris  green  water  poured  over  them 
also  killed.  If  the  trees  stand  on  the  sidewalks  of  the  streets  the  larvae  will  go  for 
pupation  in  the  cracks  between  the  bricks  or  at  the  base  of  the  tree,  where  they  can 
also  be  killed  in  the  same  way.  This  mode  of  destruction  is,  take  it  all  in  all,  the 
next  most  satisfactory  one  we  know  of,  though  it  must  be  frequently  repeated.. 

"We  have  largely  experimented  with  a  view  of  intercepting  and  destroying  the 
larvae  in  their  descent  from  the  tree.  Troughs,  such  as  are  used  for  canker-worms, 
tarred  paper,  felt  bands  saturated  with  oil,  are  all  good,  and  the  means  of  destroying 
large  numbers.  Care  must  be  taken,  however,  that  the  oil  does  not  come  in  contact 
with  the  trees,  as  it  will  soon  kill  them,  and  when  felt  bandages  are  used  there  should 
be  a  strip  of  tin  or  zinc  beneath  them.  The  trouble  with  all  these  intercepting 
devices,  however,  is  that  many  larvae  let  themselves  drop  down  direct  from  the  tree, 
and  thus  escape  destruction." 

The  London  purple  (one-half  pound),  flour  (three  quarts),  and  water  (a  barrel,  forty 
gallons),  were  mixed  as  follows  :  A  large  galvanized  iron  funnel,  of  thirteen  quarts 
capacity,  and  having  a  cross  septum  of  fine  wire  gauze,  such  as  is  used  for  sieves, 
also  having  vertical  sides  and  a  rim  to  keep  it  from  rocking  on  the  barrel,  was  used. 
About  three  quarts  of  cheap  flour  were  placed  in  the  funnel  and  washed  through  the 
wire  gauze  by  water  poured  in.  The  flour,  in  passing  through,  is  finely  divided,  and 
will  diffuse  in  the  water  without  appearing  in  lumps.  The  flour  is  a  suitable  medium 
to  make  the  poison  adhesive.  The  London  purple  is  then  placed  upou  the  gauze  and 
washed  in  by  the  remainder  of  the  water,  until  the  barrel  is  filled.  Three-eighths  of  a 
pound  of  Londou  purple  to  one  barrel  of  water  may  be  taken  as  a  suitable  percentage. 
Three-eighths  of  an  ounce  may  be  used  as  an  equivalent  in  one  bucketful  of  water. 


Paris  green  injures  the  tree  more  than  the  Loudon  purple.  Three- fourths  of  a  pound 
of  Paiis  green  to  ■  barrel  (thirty-six  or  forty  gallons)  of  water,  with  three  quarts  ef 

(tour  or  three-quarters  of  an  ounce  of  Paris  green  to  a  bucket  of  water,  may  be  regarded 

as  a  poison  mixture  of  medium  or  average  strength  for  treating  elms  affected  by  these 

When  man;,  trees  are  to  be  sprayed  a  cart  orwagon  may  be  used  to  haul  the  poison 
in  a  large  barrel  provided  with  a  stirrer,  force  pump,  skid,  etc.  The  force  pump  was 
described  and  figured  in  the  annual  report  of  the  entomologist  for  1882.  It  isdonble- 
acting  and  very  powerful,  giving  strong  pressure  to  disperse  tin-  Liquid  far  and  finely. 

and  about  a  pailful  of  poisoned  water  w;is  sprayed  upon  each  tree.  Wheu  only  two 
or  three  wore  to  be  treated  an  aquapult  or  other  bucket  pump  was  used  to  force  tin- 
poison  from  a  bucket  carried  by  hand.  Connected  with  either  pump  is  a  long  flexible 
pipe,  with  its  distal  part  still',  and  serving  as  a  long  handle  whereby  to  hold  its 
terminal  nozzle  beneath  the  branches  or  very  high  up  at  a  comfortable  distance  from 
the  person  managing  it.  To  the  hose  is  attached  a  bamboo  pole,  the  partitions  of 
which  may  lie  burned  out  with  a  hot  iron  rod.  With  this  apparatus  a  tree  can  be 
quickly  sprayed,  and  a  large  grove  or  row  of  trees  along  a  street  treated  in  a  short 
time.  It  is  equally  adapted  for  forestry  use  in  general,  and  for  orchards,  when  the 
i  re.  s  are  not  in  fruit. 

The  eg<j. — In  each  group  (Fig.  81  e,  magnified),  and  so  firmly  fastened  to  the  leaf  that 
they  can  only  be  detached  with  great  care  without  breaking  the  thin  and  brittle 
shell.  The  number  of  eggs  in  each  group  varies  from  four  or  five  to  twenty  or  more. 
Very  rarely  only  three  eggs  are  seen  in  one  group,  but  we  never  found  less  than  that 
number.  The  egg  itself  is  oblong  oval,  obtusely,  but  not  abruptly,  pointed  at  tip,  of 
straw  yellowr  color,  its  surface  being  opaque  and  beautifully  and  evenly  reticulated, 
each  mesh  forming  a  regular  hexagon,  as  shown,  highly  magnified,  in  Fig.  81  /.  The 
form  of  the  eggs  is  not  quite  constant,  some  of  them,  especially  those  in  the  middle 
of  a  large  group,  being  much  narrower  than  others.  The  duration  of  the  egg  state  is 
about  one  week. 

Larva. — The  general  shape  of  the  larva  is  very  elongate,  almost  cylindrical,  and 
distinctly  tapering  posteriorly  in  the  early  stages,  but  less  convex  and  of  nearly  equal 
width  when  mature.  The  general  color  of  the  young  larva  is  yellowish-black,  with 
the  black  markings  comparatively  larger  and  more  conspicuous,  and  with  the  hairs 
arising  from  these  markings  much  longer  and  stiffer  than  iu  the  full-grown  larva. 
With  each  consecutive  molt  the  yellow  color  becomes  more  marked,  the  black  mark- 
ings of  less  extent  and  of  less  intense  color,  and  the  hairs  much  shorter,  sparser,  and 
lighter  in  color.  A  nearly  full-grown  larva  is  represented  iu  Fig.  80  </,  and  in  this  the 
yellow  color  occupies  a  wide  dorsal  stripe  and  a  lateral  stripe  each  side.  The  head 
(excepting  the  mouth-parts  and  anterior  margin  of  the  front),  the  legs  (excepting  a 
ring  around  the  trochanters),  and  the  posterior  portion  of  the  anal  segment  are  always 
black.  The  first  thoracic  segment  has  two  large  black  spots  on  the  disk,  of  varying 
extent,  and  often  confluent.  The  following  segments  (excepting  the  anal  segment) 
are  dorsally  divided  by  a  shallow  trauverse  impression  into  two  halves,  and  the  black 
markings  on  these  halves  are  arranged  as  follows:  two  transverse  dorsal  markings, 
usually  confluent,  as  shown  in  our  figure  ;  two  round  and  sublateral  spots ;  the  tips  of 
the  lateral  tubercles  are  also  black.  The  abdominal  joints  of  the  ventral  surface  have 
each  a  transverse  medial  mark,  and  two  round  sublateral  spots  of  black  color.  Stig- 
mata visible  as  small  umbilicate  spots  between  outer  sublateral  seriesof  dorsal  mark- 
ings and  lateral  tubercles.  The  yellow  parts  of  the  upper  side  are  opaque,  but  those 
of  the  under  side  shining.  The  black  markings  are  polished,  piliferous,  and  raised 
above  the  remaining  portions  of  the  body. 

Pupa. — Of  brighter  color  than  the  larva,  oval  in  shape,  and  strongly  convex  dor- 
sally.  It  is  sparsely  covered  with  moderately  long  but  very  conspicuous  black  bris- 
tles, irregularly  arranged  on  head  and  thorax,  but  in  a  transverse  row  on  each  fol- 
lowing segment.     The  pupa  state  lasts  from  about  six  to  ten  days. 


The  beetle. — (Fig.  81  c,  natural  size  ;  Jcy  magnified).  Resembles  somewhat  in  appear- 
ance the  well-known  striped  cucumber-beetle  (Diabrotica  vittata),  but  is  at  ouce  dis- 
tinguished by  the  elytra  not  being  striate  punctate,  but  simply  rugose,  the  sculpture 
under  a  high  magnifying  power  being  represented  in  Fig.  81 1.  The  color  of  the  upper 
side  is  pale  yellow  or  yellowish-brown,  with  the  following  parts  black  :  on  the  head  a 
frontal  (often  wanting)  and  a  vertical  spot ;  three  spots  on  the  thorax  ;  on  the  elytra  a 
narrow  stripe  along  the  suture,  a  short,  often  indistinct  scutellar  stria  each  side,  and  a 
wider  humeral  stripe  not  reaching  the  tip.  Under  side  black,  pro-  and  meso-sternum 
and  legs  yellow ;  femora  with  a  black  apical  spot.  Upper  and  under  side  covered  with 
very  fine,  short,  silky  hairs.  In  newly-hatched  individuals  the  black  markings  have 
a  greenish  tint;  the  humeral  stripe  varies  in  extent.     (Riley). 

18.  The  elm  galeruca. 

Galeruca  calmariensis  (Linnaeus). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Chrysomelid^e. 

Thick,  cylindrical,  blackish,  six- footed  grubs,  often 
wholly  defoliating  the  trees,  and  changing  into  an  ob- 
long oval  beetle  a  quarter  of  an  inch  long,  of  a  grayish 
yellow  color,  with  three  small  black  spots  on  the  pro- 
thorax,  a  broad  black  stripe  on  the  outer  edge  of  its  wing-  T 
covers,  and  a  small  oblong  spot  near  their  base.    (Fitch.) 

This  insect  has  been  observed  by  Eiley  to  be 
extremely  abundant  on  the  elm  at  Washington, 
D.  0.  I  have  observed  it  commonly  at  Bruns- 
wick, Me.  Fig.  82. — Galeruca  calmariensis. 

Smith  del. 

19.  Haltica  (Graptodera)  chalybea  (Illiger). 
Order  Coleopteka;  Family  Chrysomelhxe. 

Occasionally  eating  holes  in  the  leaves  ;  a  steel-blue  flea  beetle,  varying  much  in 
color ;  the  body  oblong,  oval,  and  the  hinder  part  of  the  thorax  marked  with  a  trans- 
verse furrow ;  a  little  over  .15  inch  (4mm)  in  length. 

20.  The  ladder  chrysomela. 

Chrysomela  scalaris  (Le  Conte). 

Order  Coleoptera  ;  Family  Chrysomelid^e. 

Feeding  on  the  leaves  throughout  the  season,  a  shining,  hemispherical,  bottle-green 
beetle,  with  silvery- white  wing-covers,  on  which  are  several  bottle-green  spots,  and 
a  broad  jagged  stripe  on  their  suture  ;  its  wings  rose-red  and  its  antennae  and  legs 
rusty  yellow.  Length,  0.30  to  0.40.  More  common  on  willows,  and  especially  the 
alder.  The  larva  is  thick  and  fleshy,  with  a  row  of  black  spiracles  along  the  side  of 
the  body  and  a  dark  prothoracic  shield. 

21.  The  American  cimbex  saw-fly. 

Cimbex  americana  (Leach). 

Order  Hymenopteka  ;  Family  Tenthredinid^e. 

A  cylindrical,  glaucous,  yellowish-white  worm,  coiled  and  marked  like  a  snail's 
shell,  having  a  broad  black  line  along  the  back  ;  when  disturbed  ejecting  a  watery 
fluid  from  pores  situated  above  the  spiracles  ;  transforming  into  the  largest  species  of 
saw-fly  we  have,  with  stoutly-knobbed  antennae;  appearing  early  in  summer;  also 
feeds  on  the  birch,  linden,  and  willow.     (See  willow  insects.) 



FflMCfM  (iittiojKi  l  l.iim.ius). 

Order  LXPIDOPTBRA  ;  Family  PaPXLIOHID .1  . 

Bometimea  oooarring  oo  the  flm,  bat  more  oommoa  on  the  willow  ;  ■  Btontly-spined 

caterpillar,  with  a  black  hotly  spotted  minutely  with  whin-,  wii  h  ■  row  of  eight  dark 
brick-red  spots  od  the  back ;  changing  to  ■  dark  brown  chrysalis,  with  large  tawny 
spots  around  the  tubercles  <>n  the  back.  The  butterfly  purplish  hrown  ahove,  with  a 
broad  buff-yellow  border  in  which  is  a  row  of  pah-  blue  spots.  Plying  from  March 
till  .June,  and  again  from  the  middle  of  August  until  late  autumn. 

Its  food  plants  are:  elm,  white  birch,  poplar,  silver  poplar,  willow. 
It  is  two-brooded,  and  many  of  the  late  emerging  specimens  hibernate 
and  may  often  be  seen  ou  warm  days  in  January  or  February  flitting 
about.  The  larvae  are  often  attacked  by  Tachinids  and  many  pupae  are 
destroyed  by  Pteromalus  vanessce,  which  watches  her  chance  during 
pupatiou.  They  are  also  destroyed  by  Podisus  spinosus.  (Riley's  MS. 

23.  The  great  elm-leaf  beetle. 

Monoeesta  corijU  (Say). 

Order  Coleopteka  ;  Family  Chrysomelid^e. 

Occasionally  destructive  to  the  red  or  slippery  elm  in  the  Middle  States  ;  a  pale  yel- 
lowish heetle  more  than  half  an  inch  long,  with  the  wing-covers  twice  spotted  with 
blue  :  laying  its  yellow  eggs  in  a  cluster  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaf  in  June,  the 
grub  appearing  a  week  later,  being  brown  or  yellowish-brown,  and  eating  the  leaves 
into  rags  ;  towards  the  eudof  July  or  early  in  August  entering  the  ground,  forming  an 
oval  cavity  a  few  inches  below  the  surface ;  assuming  the  pupa  state  a  week  before 
they  appear  as  beetles  in  June.     (Riley.) 

In  his  report  as  U.  S.  Entomologist  for  1878,  Professor  Riley  calls  at- 
tention to  a  much  larger  beetle  than  the  imported  elm-leaf  beetle,  but 
having  very  similar  habits,  and  which  has  proved  extremely  destructive 
to  the  red  or  slippery  elm  in  Missouri  during  the  past  few  years  : 

The  sudden  appearance  of  this  iusect  in  such  excessive  numbers  as  to  absolutely 
strip  all  the  elms  of  this  species  through  the  woods  for  many  miles  must  be  looked 
upon  as  phenomenal;  for  while  J.  F.  Melsheimer  reported  the  beetle  many  years  ago  as 
sufficiently  numerous  in  some  parts  of  Virginia  to  completely  defoliate  in  a  short  time 
the  hazel  (Corylua  amrrieanus),*  the  species  is  generally  considered  a  rarity  in  ento- 
mological cabinets.  Nor  can  I  find  that  anything  has  been  recorded  of  its  adoles- 
cent stages.  The  beetle  was  first  described  by  Say  (he.  cit.)  as  (ialeruca  coryli,  and 
is  the  only  North  American  species  of  the  genus  Monoeesta  to  which  it  is  now  referred, 
the  genus  beiug  more  fully  represented  in  Central  and  South  America.  The  color  is 
pale  clay-yellow,  with  two  dark,  bluish  spots  on  each  wing-cover.  These  spots  are 
variable  in  size,  and  sometimes  entirely  wanting. 

My  attention  was  first  called  to  the  injuries  of  this  larva  some  three  years  ago  by 
Mr.  George  W.  Letterman,  of  Allentown,  Mo,  and  I  have  since  been  able  to  trace 
the  lull  natural  history  of  the  species  as  it  is  given  below. 

The  parent  beetles  (Fig.  83,  jj)  make  their  first  appearance  during  the  month 
of  June,  when  they  may  usually  be  found  pairing  on  the  tree   first  mentioned.     The 

•AuctoreS&y,  Journ.  Ac.  Nat.  Sc,  Phil., Ill,  16J4. 



eggs  (Fig.  83,  a)  are  laid  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaf  in  a  compact,  more  or 
less  globose,  gamboge-yellow  cluster,  each  egg  surrounded  and  the  whole  mass 
firmly  held  together  by  a  glutinous  substance.  There  are.  on  an  average,  about 
1^5  eggs  in  each  mass,   the  eggs  being  laid  in  layers.     In  general  appearance  the 

Fig.  83.— The  great  elm  leaf  beetle,  a,  b,  eggs;  d,  larva:  g,  h,  head  ami  mouth  parts  of  the  same;  i, 
pupa ;  j,  beetle.— After  Riley. 

mass  bears  a  resemblance  to  a  yellow  raspberry.     Each  egg  (Fig.  83,  &),  when  ex- 
amined separately,  is  seen  to  be  subspherical  in  form  and  highly  polished. 

The  young  larvae   (Fig.   83,  c)  hatch  in  about  a  week  after  the  eggs  are  laid, 
and  at  first  congregate  around  the  empty  egg-shells,  which  they  nibble  and  feed 


upon.  Foraboifl  two  days  they  remain  close  to  their  birthplace,  eating  only  the 
parenchyma  ofthe  leaf,  and  showing  so  little  inclination  to  travel  that,  should  the 
leaf  by  aeoident  be  detached,  they  perish  rather  than  search  for  another.  They  have 
at  this  Stage  of  growth  the  curious  habit,  when  disturbed,  of  raising  the  abdomen  to 
a  nearly  perpendicular  position,  holding  on  to  the  leaf  very  firmly  with  their  jaws. 
I'hey  are  at  this  time  of  a  glossy  yellow  color,  and  generally  shed  the  first  skin  two 
days  after  birth,  the  empty  skin  adhering  tightly  to  the  leaf. 

In  the  second  stage,  the  color  of  the  worms  becomes  more  brownish,  and  they  are 
iimre  active,  but  still  remain  clustered  together  upon  a  single  leaf  or  branch,  scatter- 
ing but  slightly  in  proportion  as  they  skeletonize  one  leaf  after  another.  They  yet, 
for  the  most  part,  teed  upon  the  under  side  of  the  leaf,  not  touching  the  upper  skin, 
and  giving  to  the  leaves  a  brownish,  speckled,  and  seared  app  earance,  as  if  covered 
by  patches  of  some  brown  fungus.  The  excrement  is  voided  in  long,  bead-like 
strings,  which  cover  the  ground  or  hang. down  from  the  branches  and  leaves  of  the 
infested  trees.  In  another  week,  or  when  the  larva.*  are  about  half  grown,  a  second 
molt  takes  place,  they  preparing  for  it  in  the  usual  manner  by  firmly  attaching  the 
anal  joints  to  the  leaf.  (Fig.  83,  e.)  In  the  beginning  of  the  third  stage  they 
feed  indiscriminately  on  either  side  ofthe  leaf,  hot  still  refuse  to  touch  the  epidermis 
ofthe  opposite  side.  The  gnawiugs  on  the  upper  side  at  this  stage  of  growth  are 
peculiar,  being  iu  the  form  of  crescent  Hues  with  narrow  strips  of  epidermis  between 
them ;  whereas  ou  the  under  side  there  is  no  such  regularity,  and  all  is  eaten  but  the 
stronger  cross  veins.  I  have  been  unable  to  trace  any  further  molts.  This  third 
stage  lasts  from  two  to  three  weeks,  the  larva  scattering  more  thoroughly  and  the 
general  color  becoming  quite  brown  or  yellowish-brown.  As  the  worms  reach  full 
growth  (Fig.  83,  ddd)  the  fleshy  part  of  the  leaves  is  entirely  eaten  so  that  little 
remains  but  the  principal  ribs,  and  the  leaves  thus  present  a  very  ragged  appearance. 

Toward  the  end  of  July  and  early  in  August  the  worms  cease  feeding  and  descend 
into  the  ground,  burrowing  therein  and  forming  a  simple  oval  cavity  a  few  inches 
below  the  surface.  They  lie  dormaut  therein  through  the  fall,  winter,  and  early 
spring  months,  assuming  the  pupa  state  (Fig.  83,  i)  but  about  a  week  before  the 
beetles  issue. 

Remedies. — Experiments  made  upon  the  larva  of  the  imported  elm-leaf  beetle  shows 
that  Paris-green  water  is  very  effective  iu  destroying  it,  in  both  the  larva  and  beetle 
states  :  and,  while  I  have  had  no  opportunity  of  making  such  experiments  with  the 
species  in  question,  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  would  here  prove  equally  destructive. 
The  larva  are,  throughout  their  existence,  quite  sluggish  and  drop  to  the  ground  on 
slight  disturbance.  A  good  shaking  of  an  infested  tree,  therefore,  will  bring  most  of 
them  to  the  ground,  and  experience  shows  that  they  have  little  or  no  capacity  for 
mounting  the  tree  again.  This  remedy  will  be  applicable  to  cultivated  trees,  espe- 
cially before  they  get  too  large. 

24.  The  interrogation — mark  butterfly. 

Grapia  interrogationis  (Fabricius). 

Injuring  the  foliage  of  the  elm  as  well  as  linden  tree  and  hop-vine,  a  caterpillar,  with 
reddish  black,  bilobed  head,  and  black  body  covered  thickly  with  streaks  and  dots 
of  yellowish  white,  transforming  into  our  largest  species  of  Grapta,  and  marked  on 
the  under  side  of  the  dull  hind  wings  with  a  golden  semicolon. 

I  am  informed  by  H.  L.  Clark,  esq.,  that  iu  1887  the  elms  iu  Provi- 
dence were  much  eaten  and  disfigured  by  these  caterpillars,  and  that 
the  chrysalids  were  everywhere  to  be  seeu  attached  to  fences,  walls,  etc. 

Larva. — An  inch  and  a  quarter  long.  The  head  is  reddish  black,  flat  iu  front  and 
somewhat  bilobed,  each  lobe  tipped  with  a  tubercle  emitting  five  single  black  pointed 
spines.     It  is  covered  with  many  small  white  and  several  blackish  tubercles.     The 


body  is  cylindrical,  black,  thickly  covered  with  streaks  and  dots  of  yellowish  white; 
the  second  segment  is  without  spines,  but  with  a  row  of  yellowish  tubercles  in  their 
place;  the  third  segment  has  four  branching  spines,  all  black,  with  a  spot  of  dark 
yellow  at  their  base;  and  ou  the  fourth  segment  are  four  spines,  as  there  are  on  all 
tho  others,  excepting  the  terminal,  which  has  two  pairs,  one  posterior  to  the  other. 
The  spines  are  yellow,  with  blackish  branches,  excepting  the  terminal  pair,  which  is 
black ;  and  there  is  a  row  of  reddish  ones  on  each  side.  The  under  surface  is  yellow- 
ish gray,  darker  ou  the  anterior  segments,  with  a  central  line  of  blackish,  and  many 
small,  black  dots.    (Saunders.) 

The  chrysalis  is  ash  brown,  with  the  head  deeply  notched  ;  and  there  are  eight  sil- 
very spots  on  the  back.    The  chrysalis  state  lasts  from  twelve  to  fourteen  days. 

25.  The  progne  grapta. 

Grapta progne  (Cramer). 

Late  in  June,  eating  the  leaves,  a  more  common  spiny  caterpillar  than  the  preced- 
ing, being  white  mottled  with  gray,  the  butterfly  smaller  thau  the  foregoing  and 
marked  with  a  reversed  silver  C  or  comma 
in  the  middle  of  the  binder  wings;  but 
one  brood  of  butterflies  appearing  iti 

Regarding  the  number  of  broods,  Mr. 
D.  S.  Harris  writes  us  from  Cuba,  111. : 

On  page  66  of  Bulletin  on  Forest  In- 
sects, you  state  that  Grapta  progne  (Cra- 
mer) is  single  brooded.  I  have  quite  a 
number  of  the  caterpillars  about  ready 
to  change  into  chrysalids.  I  also  have 
butterflies  of  this  species  which  emerged  FlG'  «*-<*™P«»  progne,-From  Packard. 

fr<»m  the  chrysalis  during  the  mouth  of  September,  showing  that  they  are  double 
brooded  in  this  State.     They  are  quite  destructive  this  year. 

The  larva  is  gray,  mottled  with  whitish ;  head  white,  with  two  black  prickles.  The 
two  upper  long-branched  prickles  upon  the  second  ring  black;  no  spines  on  the  pro- 
thoracic  segments ;  those  on  the  succeeding  rings  white,  tipped  with  black ;  their 
branches  white,  toward  the  forward  end  of  the  body  becoming  more  and  more  tipped 
with  black.     (Fitch.) 

26.  The  comma  butterfly. 

Grapta  comma  (Harris). 

Another  caterpillar  closely  resembling  that  of  G.  progne,  but  different  in  being  of  a 
brownish-red  color  in  front  and  white  or  pale  yellow  behind. 

The  half-grown  larva  is  black,  with  a  yellowish  stripe  along  the  side  from  the  third 
segment  to  the  tail,  and  with  yellow  stripes  across  the  back,  and  spots  of  the  same 
color  at  the  base  of  the  dorsal  spiues,  which  are  yellow,  tipped  with  black.  The 
mature  caterpillar  is  white,  mottled  or  striped  with  gray  or  ashen,  and  with  red  spir- 
acles (W.  H.  Edwards).  It  differs  from  the  larva  of  G.  progne  in  its  brownish-red  face, 
and  in  being  more  yellowish  on  the  abdominal  segments. 

The  chrysalis  is  brownish-gray  or  white,  variegated  with  pale  brown  and  ornamented 
with  gold  ou  the  tubercles. 

Thehutterfly  differs  from  the  Progne  in  the  hind  wings  having  a  black  spot  on.their 
ceuter,  as  well  as  two  others  toward  their  base,  and  on  their  under  side  a  central  sil- 
very curved  mark  like  the  letter  C.  Expanse  of  wings  about  two  inches.  It  appears 
in  May,  and  a  second  brood  in  July,  August,  and  September.  This  caterpillar  is  more 
common  on  the  currant  and  hop. 
5  ENT 10 

27.  LimeniUt  arfkemii  (Draij). 

(iosse, in  his  ••  Canadian  Naturalist "  (220),  gives  a  figure  of  the  larva, 
pupa,  and  under  side  of  the  butterfly  of  this  species.*  The  butterfly  ap- 
pears about  the  1st  of  July.  Iu  the  first  week  in  July  we  have  seeu 
this  butterfly  in  great  numbers  in  the  White  Mountains. 

28.  The  four-horned  bphjhz. 

Ceratomia  amynlor  (Hiibner.) 
(Larva,  PI.  xi,  fig.  1.) 

The. caterpillar,  as  observed  by  Harris  (under  the  name  of  Ceratomia 
quartricornis),  in  one  case  hatched  July  31.  A  record  of  its  occurrence 
on  the  white  birch  is  mentioned  iu  "  Psyche,"  368,  1882.  Professor 
Kiley  states  that  Boll  found  the  caterpillar  on  the  osage  orange.  Mr. 
Pilate  has  also  observed  the  caterpillar  ou  the  linden  in  Ohio.  A  young 
larva  found  August  20,  and  35ram  in  length,  was  green  with  7  paler 
green  lateral  oblique  stripes,  the  four  thoracic  horns  being  very  promi- 

This  worm  not  unusually  occurs  from  Maine  southward  on  the  elm, 
becoming  fully  fed  early  in  September,  when  it  descends  into  the  ground 
and  pupates,  the  moth  appearing  the  following  May  and  June.  I  have 
taken  it  in  Maine  as  early  as  May  24.  The  moth  is  a  large  broad- winged 
sphinx,  with  gray  or  ashen  body  and  wings,  the  anterior  pair  with  a 
large  white  dot  near  the  front  edge. 

Egg. — Nearly  of  a  compressed  spheroidal  shape,  green,  and  with  very  fine  reticula- 
tions.    (Harris'  Corr.,  p.  82.) 

Larva  before  first  molt. — Yellowish  green,  with  a  darker  dorsal  line,  a  long  red 
caudal  horn,  and  a  very  large,  green  head,  with  the  dorsal  denticulatious  and  tu- 
bercles obsolete.  A  newly  hatched  larva  is  about  one-fifth  of  an  inch  long,  pale  green, 
with  a  straight  caudal  horu  about  half  the  length  of  the  body,  dotted  and  tipped 
with  brown.  There  is  a  pair  of  minute  thoracic  horns  on  the  top  of  the  third  segment 
and  another  pair  on  the  top  of  the  fourth,  and  there  is  a  row  of  minute  fleshy  teeth 
along  the  middle  of  the  back,  which  are  scarcely  visible.  Before  the  first  molt  the 
larva  has  nearly  doubled  its  size  and  has  a  white  vascular  line,  a  faint  line  on  each 
side  of  the  middle  of  the  back  and  seveu  oblique  stripes  on  each  side  of  the  body,  all 
of  the  same  color.  The  head  is  smooth  and  the  thoracic  horns  are  barely  visible. 
They  molt  their  skins  in  about  five  days  after  they  hatch,  after  which  the  head  and 
caudal  horn  are  granulated,  the  thoracic  horns  prominent,  the  fleshy  teeth  along  the 
middle  of  the  back  with  the  stripe  ou  each  side  of  it;  the  oblique  stripes  on  the  sides 
and  the  thoracic  lines  are  plainly  visible. 

The  second  molt  is  made  in  from  five  to  eight  days  after  the  first,  when  the  row  of 
teeth  along  the  middle  of  the  back  is  prominent,  the  lateral  oblique  stripes  are  gran- 
ulated, and  the  caudal  horn  is  pale  yellow  with  granulations  in  frout  and  behind. 

The  third  mult  is  made  in  from  six  to  eight  days  after  the  second,  when  the  larva 
is  light  green  with  the  teeth  along  the  back  and  the  granulations  no  the  side  of  a 
whitish  color.     The  caudal  horn  is  now  curved,  of  a  yellowish-green  color,  and  cov- 

•  See  also  Scudder's  "  Butterflies  of  the  Eastern  United  States,"  18c9. 

THE    ELM    SPHINX.  243 

ered  with  brown  granulations  on  the  forward  side.     The  thoracic  horns  are  tipped 
with  yellowish. 

The  fourth  and  last  molt  is  made  in  from  six  to  eight  days,  and  in  six  days  more 
they  reach  maturity,  leave  their  food  plant,  descend  to  the  ground  which  they 
enter  for  the  purpose  of  spending  the  winter  and  reaching  their  final  transformation. 

The  mature  larva  is  from  two  and  three-fourths  to  three  and  one-fourth  inches  long, 
pale  green  or  reddish  brown,  head  and  body  strongly  granulated,  a  dorsal  row  of 
fleshy  teeth,  one  on  each  wrinkle,  tipped  with  whitish  or  pink,  extends  from  the  fourth 
segment  to  the  caudal  horn.  There  is  a  pair  of  short,  straight,  tuberculated  horns 
on  the  top  of  the  third  segment  and  a  similar  pair  on  the  fourth.  A  line  of  granula- 
tions connects  the  thoracic  horns.  Seven  oblique  stripes  of  whitish  granulations 
occur  ou  each  s5de,  each  of  which  crosses  one  segment  and  a  part  of  the  one  before 
and  the  one  following.     The  last  stripe  extends  to  the  caudal  horn.     (Fernald.) 

Pupa. — Thick,  not  elongated  before ;  tail  ending  with  a  conical  projection,  tipped 
with  two  little  divarcating  spines;  tongue-case  buried  and  soldered  to  the  breast. 
(Harris'  Corr.) 

Moth. — The  fore  wings  are  broader  than  in  most  sphinges,  with  a  large  distinct 
round  discal  spot.  The  wings  are  light  brown,  variegated  with  dark  brown  and 
white,  while  along  the  hind  body  extend  five  longitudinal  dark-brown  lines.  It  ex- 
pands 5  inches. 

29.  Smerinthus  exccecatus  Abbot  and  Smith. 

(Larva,  Pi.  xi,  fig  3,  3  a.) 

The  caterpillar  of  this  moth,  which  usually  feeds  on  the  apple  and 
plum,  has  been  found  on  the  elm  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Edwards.  Mr.  Beuten- 
miiller  records  it  as  feeding  on  American  elm,  the  slippery  or  red  elm, 
the  whahoo  or  winged  elm,  and   Ulmus  suberosa.    (Ent.  Ainer.,  i,  196.) 

Larva. — Head  apple-green,  granulated,  flattened,  triangular,  the  apex  rising 
somewhat  above  the  first  segment,  with  bright  yellow,  straight,  lateral  lines,  in 
which  are  rounded  granulations,  increasing  in  size  as  they  approach  the  apex.  Body 
with  thoracic  segments  tapering,  light-green,  studded  with  pointed  white  granula- 
tions. Lateral  bands  yellow,  each  occupying  three-eighths,  the  whole,  and  six- 
eighths  of  three  segments,  respectively — on  the  central  segment  straight,  on  the  fol- 
lowing one  curved  posteriorly,  not  angulated  at  the  incisure — having  within  them  a 
granulation  on  each  annulation  (eight  to  the  segment)  larger  than  those  elsewhere 
on  the  body.  Subdorsal  thoracic  line  yellow,  granulated  as  in  the  bands,  com- 
mencing on  the  anterior  of  the  first  segment,  diverging  from  the  dorsum  as  it  pro- 
ceeds and  uniting  at  the  sixth  annulation  of  the  fourth  segment  with  the  first  lateral 
band.  Caudal  horn  nearly  straight,  .25  inch  long,  acutely  granulated,  rose-colored, 
yellow  laterally,  and  often  yellow-tipped.  Legs  at  tips  reddish-brown.  Stigmata 
brown  bordered. 

Pupa. — One-twentieth  of  an  inch  long;  .40  inch  broad.  Dark  brown.  Head-case, 
darker  brown,  rounded,  corrugated,  with  an  impressed  transverse  line  bordering  it 
posteriorly,  and  a  medial  line  impressed  inferiorly  and  carinated  superiorly.  Tongue- 
case  buried,  short,  not  separating  the  leg  and  wing  cases.  Antennal  cases  in  male 
terminating  very  near  to  tips  of  the  middle  leg-cases — in  female,  opposite  tips  of  the 
anterior  leg-cases.  First  stigma  quite  open.  The  three  anterior  segments  shagreened 
with  a  moderately  elevated  medial  line.  Third  segment  without  plates,  but  with 
a  medial  carination.  The  other  segments,  each  with  a  subdorsal  linear  impression 
and  also  lateral  ones,  and  with  confl